United states history



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UNITED STATES HISTORY:
From 1775 to 2000
A Manual for Students in HSTAA 101


Professor Quintard Taylor

Department of History

University of Washington

Fall 2004


Not to know what happened before one was born is to always remain a child.

--Cicero


We are raising a generation of young people who are historically illiterate to a large degree. Everything we have--our institutions, our material advantages, our laws, our freedom, not to say our poetry...music and...architecture--all comes to us from people who went before us. And to not know anything about them, to be indifferent to them, which is even worse than being ignorant...is...really...mass ingratitude.
--David McCullough

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION 7

COURSE SYLLABUS 8

Reading Assignments 10

Required Short Papers 11

Optional Research Paper 12

Optional Book Review Assignment 13

CHAPTER ONE\: ESTABLISHING THESE UNITED STATES 14

Terms for Week 1 14

THE MAYFLOWER COMPACT, 1620 15

GROWTH OF A COLONY\: MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY 16

GOVERNMENT\: THE PRIVILEGES OF KINGS 17

JOHN LOCKE\: \ 17

REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT\: TWO VIEWS 19

VOTING REGULATIONS IN COLONIAL AMERICA 20

RUM AND DEMOCRACY 21

CONNECTICUT'S \ 22

DINNER IN COLONIAL AMERICA 23

PATRICK HENRY\: \ 24

BOSTONIANS CALL FOR INDEPENDENCE 25

THE \ 26


THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION\: A LOYALIST VIEW 28

ABIGAIL TO JOHN ADAMS\: REMEMBER THE LADIES 29

CAPTAIN PIPE ADDRESSES THE BRITISH 30

LORD DUNMORE'S PROCLAMATION 32

COLONEL TYE\: BLACK LOYALIST LEADER 33

JAMES OTIS AND THOMAS JEFFERSON ON SLAVERY 35

YELLOW FEVER IN PHILADELPHIA 36

DEATH OF A FOUNDING FATHER 37

CHAPTER TWO\: DEMOCRACY EXPANDED, DEMOCRACY TESTED 38

Terms for Week 2 38

THE MONROE DOCTRINE 39

THE EXTENSION OF VOTING RIGHTS 40

PRESIDENTIAL VOTING, 18241844 40

THE LOG CABIN CANDIDATE 41

MANIFEST DESTINY\: TWO VIEWS 42

THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT 43

INDIAN REMOVAL\: AN INDIAN VIEW 44

THE TRAIL OF TEARS\: ONE STATE'S APOLOGY 45

WESTWARD MIGRATION\: SETTLEMENT ON THE FRONTIER 46

THE ATTRACTIONS OF FRONTIER ILLINOIS 46

PUBLIC LANDS\: TERMS OF SALE, 17851820 47

WESTERN MIGRATION TO 1840 48

A FRONTIER FARM 48

THE FOURTH OF JULY ON THE OVERLAND TRAIL 49

IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES, 18201860 50

EAST FROM CHINA\: THE ORIGINS OF CHINESE AMERICA 51

PORTLAND'S CHINATOWN 52

REV. CHARLES FINNEY ON THE OBLIGATION OF THE CHURCH 53

HENRY DAVID THOREAU, \ 54

HORACE MANN ON PUBLIC SCHOOLS 55

ANTICATHOLICISM IN AMERICA 56

THE LOWELL GIRLS 57

FACTORY REGULATIONS IN LOWELL 58

AMERICAN URBANIZATION TO 1860 59

THE GRIMKE SISTERS ON THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN 60

THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION 61

CHAPTER THREE\: AMERICAN SLAVERY 62

Terms for Week 3 63

SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH, 1860 64

TWO VIEWS OF SLAVERY 64

A NORTHERNER'S ATTITUDE TOWARD SLAVERY 65

SLAVERY AND SOCIAL CONTROL 67

SLAVERY'S IMPACT ON RACE AND GENDER ROLES 68

A TEXAS SLAVE'S LETTER TO HER HUSBAND, 1862 69

SLAVE AND FREE BLACKS IN INDIAN TERRITORY 70

RUNAWAY SLAVES IN MEXICO 71

THE MORMONS AND BLACK SLAVERY 74

THE DEBATE OVER CALIFORNIA 75

THE COMPROMISE OF 1850\: TWO VIEWS 76

ABOLITIONISTSGARRISON AND DOUGLASS 77

A FUGITIVE SLAVE RESPONDS TO HIS OWNER 78

OREGON TERRITORY BANS AFRICAN AMERICANS 79

BRIDGET \ 81

BLEEDING KANSASONE SOUTHERNER'S VIEW 82

THE DRED SCOTT DECISION 84

JOHN BROWN'S LAST SPEECH, November 2, 1859 85

LINCOLN'S POLITICS 86

THE REPUBLICAN PARTY PLATFORM, 1860 86

THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1860 88

CHAPTER FOUR\: THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION 89

Terms for Week 4 89

AMERICA'S BLOODIEST WAR 90

SECESSIONONE PLANTER'S VIEW 91

THE SECESSION CRISIS, 18601861 92

A SOUTHERN WOMAN DEFENDS SECESSION 93

RESOURCES OF THE UNION AND THE CONFEDERACY, 1861 94

THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION 95

THE NEW YORK DRAFT RIOT, AN EYEWITNESS ACCOUNT 96

RELUCTANT LIBERATORS\: NORTHERN TROOPS IN THE SOUTH 97

HARD TIMES IN THE CONFEDERACY 99

A SOLDIER WITH SHERMAN'S ARMY 100

A CONFEDERATE SUPPORTER DESCRIBES THE FALL OF RICHMOND 101

THE FALL OF RICHMOND\: A BLACK SOLDIER'S PERSPECTIVE 103

FELIX HAYWOOD REMEMBERS THE DAY OF JUBLIO 104

JUNETEENTH\: BIRTH OF AN AFRICAN AMERICAN HOLIDAY 105

THE POST WAR SOUTHA DEFEATED PLANTER LOOKS BACK 106

SEND 107

IMPUDENT 108

PRESIDENT JOHNSON MEETS BLACK LEADERS 109

RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS, 18661870 110

RECONSTRUCTION AMENDMENTS\: OREGON'S RESPONSE 111

BLACK VOTING RIGHTS\: OTHER VIEWS FROM THE FAR WEST 114

HELENA CITIZENS CELEBRATE THEIR NEW RIGHTS 115

THE BLACK CODES 116

THADDEUS STEVENS DEMANDS BLACK SUFFRAGE 117

READMISSION OF EXCONFEDERATE STATES 118

SOUTH CAROLINA UNDER BLACK GOVERNMENT 119

A DEBATE OVER PUBLIC SCHOOLS 121

BEN TILLMAN JUSTIFIES RECONSTRUCTION VIOLENCE 123

CHAPTER FIVE\: INDUSTRIALIZING AMERICA 125

Terms for Week 5 125

RAILROADS AND WESTERN LANDS\: San Luis Obispo 126

ROCKEFELLER JUSTIFIES RAILROAD REBATES 126

ROCKEFELLER BREAKS A COMPETITOR 128

WILLIAM GRAHAM SUMNER ON TRADE UNIONS 128

THE ROAD TO BUSINESS SUCCESS 130

CARNEGIE AND MORGAN\: A CONVERSATION ABOUT STEEL 131

CHANGING WORLD INDUSTRIAL BALANCE, 18601980 132

THE SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT, 1890 133

NUMBER OF TRUSTS FORMED, 18911903 134

MAJOR INDUSTRIAL TRUSTS, 1904 134

J. P. MORGAN DENIES A MONEY TRUST 135

THE TRUSTS\: A CRITICAL VIEW 136

WORK AND POVERTY 137

HENRY WARD BEECHER\: THE WORKER'S STANDARD OF LIVING 139

DOMESTIC SERVICEONE WOMAN'S ACCOUNT 139

WOMEN'S WORK AND WORKING WOMEN, 1900 140

CHILD LABOR IN 19TH CENTURY AMERICA 141

AMERICAN URBANIZATION, 18601900 143

A LETTER FROM ELLIS ISLAND 144

FOREIGNBORN POPULATION OF THE U. S., 18701900 145

FOREIGNBORN IN THE TWENTY LARGEST CITIES, 1900 145

TWO VIEWS OF URBAN AMERICA 146

TENEMENT LIFE IN NEW YORK CITY, 1890 147

FREDERICK DOUGLAS DESCRIBES THE \ 148

OATH OF THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION 150

A DISCONTENTED WIFE 151

CHAPTER SIX\: INDUSTRIALIZATION'S CRITICS 152

Terms for Week 6 152

A FARMER'S GRIEVANCE 153

THE POPULIST PARTY PLATFORM 154

MARY ELLEN LEASE RALLIES KANSAS 155

WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN'S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH 156

WHAT FARM PROBLEM? 157

THOMAS WATSON AND BLACK VOTERS 158

HENRY CLEWS OPPOSES THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOR 159

TERENCE V. POWDERLY AND THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR 159

SAMUEL GOMPERS DESCRIBES TRADE UNIONS 160

THE \ 161

BOSSES AND POLITICAL MACHINES 162

BOSS RULE IN PHILADELPHIA 163

BOSS PLUNKITT DEFENDS HONEST GRAFT 164

MAJOR PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVEMENTS, 1900-1920 165

LOUIS BRANDEIS INDICTS INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES 166

MAJOR U.S. CORPORATIONS, 1917, 2002 167

WARTIME HYSTERIA 168

THE FIRST RED SCARE 169

CHAPTER SEVEN\: THE GREAT DEPRESSION AND THE NEW DEAL 171

Terms for Week 7 171

ADVERTISING AND CONSUMER SOCIETY 172

THE STOCK MARKET CRASH 174

RUMBLES OF REVOLUTION 176

THE UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS 177

COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE GREAT DEPRESSION 178

THE NEW DEAL\: THE FIRST HUNDRED DAYS 179

MAJOR NEW DEAL AGENCIES 181

HUEY LONG\: AMERICAN DICTATOR 183

CALIFORNIA DREAMING IN THE DEPRESSION 186

PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT'S SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS 187

THE NEW DEAL\: OPPOSING VIEWS 188

EIGHT DEAD AT REPUBLIC STEEL 189

ORGANIZING A FILIPINO UNION 190

HITLER'S VIEWS\: TERROR, AND THE MASTER RACE 192

HITLER AND THE JEWS 193

GERMANY UNDER THE NAZIS 194

JAPANESE FASCISM\: ONE INSIDER'S VIEW 196

THE 198

ROOSEVELT ON THE THREAT OF WAR 198



MARTIAN INVASION, 1938 199

CHAPTER EIGHT\: WORLD WAR TWO AND THE COLD WAR 202

Terms for Week 8 202

THE INTERNMENT OF THE JAPANESE 204

MONICA SONE DESCRIBES THE EVACUATION 205

CAMP HARMONY, WASHINGTON 206

THE ZOOT SUIT RIOT 208

NISEI SOLDIERS IN EUROPE 209

ONE SOLDIER'S STORY\: WALTER HIGGANS IN EUROPE 210

BLACKS, WHITES, ASIANS IN WORLD WAR II HAWAII 212

WORLD WAR II\: SEATTLE'S ECONOMY TRANSFORMED 214

BOEING AND THE LIBERATION OF INEZ SAUER 215

WEST COAST SHIPYARDS 217

LYN CHILDS CONFRONTS A RACIST ACT 218

STALIN CALLS FOR A SECOND FRONT 219

SOVIETAMERICAN TENSION IN WORLD WAR II 220

THE WORLD THE SECOND WORLD WAR CREATED 221

HIROSHIMA\: DAY ONE OF THE NUCLEAR AGE 222

HANFORD AND THE BOMB 223

SOVIETAMERICAN RELATIONS\: A DISSENTING VIEW 224

THE RED SCARE\: THE TRUMAN ADMINISTRATION LOYALTY OATH 225

McCARTHYISM 226

A SENATOR SPEAKS UP (1950) 227

RED SCARE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON 228

LEVITTOWN\: UP FROM THE POTATO FIELDS 230

TEENAGE OPINIONS IN THE 1950s 232

JOHN F. KENNEDY AND THE COLD WAR 232

INCIDENT IN THE GULF OF TONKIN 233

VIETNAM-A SOLDIER'S VIEW 235

VIETNAMA PROTESTER'S VIEW 236

TOTALITARIANISM\: IDEALISM, DISILLUSIONMENT, COMPROMISE 237

LETTER FROM YUGOSLAVIA 239

BILLY JOEL'S \ 240

TERROR AND THE COLD WAR 241

CHINA, 1989\: TIANANMEN SQUARE IN PERSPECTIVE 244

THE END OF THE COLD WAR 246

CHAPTER NINE\: THE RISE AND FALL OF LIBERALISM 247

APPENDIX 319

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 17902000 319

GROWTH OF THE FEDERAL UNION, 1788-2000 319





INTRODUCTION
I have assembled in this booklet instructional aids which will help enhance your understanding of the lectures and readings for this course, United States History, 1775-2000, or which explain and clarify the organization and require­ments of the course. These aids include vignettes which are usually statements by important historical figures or commentary by observers of critical events and episodes in the history of African American people in the United States, statistical tables and informa­tion sheets.
Also included are lists of weekly terms introduced and emphasized during the lectures or discussed in the assigned readings. These terms reflect some critical event or development for a particular period of United States History or refer to a concept which will help you better understand the historical process. Since I will randomly choose some of the terms for your midterm and final exams you should learn the definition and historical significance of each of them. Those terms not specifically discussed in class will be explained in your textbooks or the manual so it is particularly important that you do all of the assigned reading. All of the instructional materials are arranged in the approximate order in which they will be dis­cussed during the quarter.
One final note: you should view the materials in this manual not simply as additional information you will have to learn for the exams but as data that will help you better comprehend and assimilate the varied issues addressed in the lectures and textbook reading assignments. If you have any questions about any of the information presented in this manual please contact me during my office hours which are listed on your course syllabus.
My office is Smith 316-A and my office phone number is (206) 543-5698. My email address is qtaylor@u.washington.edu. My office hours for Winter 2003 are 10:30-11:30 MTuWTh.
The teaching assistants for this class are Mr. Brian Barnes bribarne@u.washington.edu, Mr. Fred Brown fbrown@u.washington.edu, and Mr. Joseph Wycoff jwycoff@u.washington.edu. They will provide you with their office hours and office phone numbers.

COURSE SYLLABUS

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON

Department of History

Fall, 2004
Instructor: Prof. Quintard Taylor

Office: Smith 316-A

Phone: (206) 543-5698

Office Hours: MTuWTh, 10:30-11:30

Email: qtaylor@u.washington.edu
UNITED STATES HISTORY

HSTAA 101

COURSE REQUIREMENTS
The history of United States has been a paradox of triumph and tragedy as Americans over three centuries have continuously confronted each other over the meaning of democracy, opportunity, justice and equality. Due to its ten week duration, this course cannot possibly present a detailed examination of the American historical experience. It will, however, identify and examine critical periods such as the revolutionary era, the 1830s, the Civil War and Reconstr­uction, the era of industrialization, World War II and the 1960s, when those themes have been challenged and tested. The challenges continue through this day. However we can take full advantage of our current vantage point to examine how this nation's past has prepared all of us in varied ways for our contemporary world. Is the battle for democracy, justice and equality over? Using a variety of historians and history sources, we shall try to answer that question during this quarter.

______________________________________________________


Required Textbook:
John M. Murrin, Paul E. Johnson, James M. McPherson, Gary Gerstle, Emily S. Rosenberg and Norman Rosenberg, Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People (Belmont, Ca.: Wadsworth/Thomson, 2004)
Quintard Taylor, UNITED STATES HISTORY from 1775 to 2000: A Manual for Students in HSTAA 101 This manual is online at http://faculty.washington.edu/qtaylor/
Teaching Assistants:

Brian Barnes bribarne@u.washington.edu

Fred Brown fbrown@u.washington.edu

Joseph Wycoff jwycoff@u.washington.edu

Supplemental Readings:

I have placed on reserve in Odegaard Undergraduate Library additional readings which will help explain the history of the United States. As the need arises I may add other articles to the reserve room holdings. All readings other than those from purchased texts are on reserve.


Examinations/Grading:

Your course grade is based on three exercises: a midterm exam (30%), a final examination (40%) and three short papers of 4-5 pages (10% each) describing and assessing a crucial period in United States history. These papers will be due by Friday at noon of the 3rd, 6th, and 9th weeks of the term. You also have the option of writing a 10 page research paper in lieu of the three short papers. However you must notify your Teaching Assistant of your intentions by the end of the second week of the term. Research on Pacific Northwest history topics is especially encouraged. The optional paper must be supported by research in primary sources. The completed research paper should be handed in by Wednesday of final exam week. The schedule for the short papers appears in the weekly assignment section below. The midterm is scheduled for the end of the fifth week.

Some students will be unable to take the midterm exam with the rest of the class. In that case I ask them to take a makeup exam scheduled for 5:00 6:00 p.m. on the last Friday of instruction during the quarter. The room will be announced later. Since the makeup exam will be penalized 10 points on a 100 point exercise, all students should make every effort to take the exam at its scheduled time.

Those students who perform poorly on the midterm exam (69 or below) have the option of writing a book review to offset that grade. Should you choose to write the review, it can be handed in no later than the Friday of the eighth week of the term. Please read the page titled Optional Book Review Assignment in the manual before initiating your review.

My grading procedures are simple. Since each exam is worth up to 100 points I will average your numerical score. I will also assign a numerical score for your research paper, "C"=75, "C+"=78, etc. Your numerical scores will then be averaged to determine your course grade. Thus if your overall average is 76 your course grade will be the numerical equivalent of a "C" in the UW grading system.

I do not issue "incompletes" to students who by the end of the quarter have not taken an exam, handed in an assigned paper or otherwise met the course requirements. If you have not completed all of the course requirements by the end of exam week, and you have not, by that point, explained why, your grade will be lowered accordingly.


Reading Assignments
Week 1: Establishing these United States

Murrin, Chapters 5-6

Taylor, Chapter 1
Week 2: Democracy Expanded, Democracy Tested

Murrin, Chapter 11

Taylor, Chapter 2
Week 3: American Slavery

Murrin, Chapters 13-14

Taylor, Chapter 3

First Short Paper Due
Week 4: The Civil War and Reconstruction

Murrin, Chapters 15-17

Taylor, Chapter 4
Week 5: Industrializing America

Murrin, 19-20

Taylor, Chapter 5

MIDTERM EXAM
Week 6: Industrialization's Critics

Murrin, Chapter 21

Taylor, Chapter 6

Second Short Paper Due
Week 7: The Great Depression and the New Deal

Murrin, Chapter 25

Taylor, Chapter 7
Week 8: World War II and the Cold War World

Murrin, Chapters 26-27

Taylor, Chapter 8
Week 9: The Rise and Fall of Liberalism, 1960-1990

Murrin, Chapters 28, 31

Taylor, Chapter 9

Third Short Paper Due
Week 10: The United States into the 21st Century

No reading assignment, prepare for the final exam.


Final Examination is scheduled for 8:30-10:20 a.m. Wednesday, December 15

Required Short Papers

United States History, 1775-2000


As indicated above each student in HISTAA 101 will write three short papers describing and assessing episodes or events in United States history that reflected one of the themes of the course, democracy, opportunity, justice and equality. For example a brief paper on 19th Century Irish immigration or 20th Century Filipino immigration to the United States could analyze the theme of opportunity. Here your paper should not simply "celebrate" the concept but should critically analyze both its meaning for the newcomers and whether the historical experiences of the immigrants in the U.S. actually illustrated the opportunity sought. Similarly one could take the examples of the 19th Century debates over women's suffrage or business monopoly or the 20th Century conflict over affirmative action or federal subsidies to agriculture (or business) to explore themes of justice or equality. A paper on Reconstruction or the New Deal could explore the meaning of democracy in America.
The arguments you advance in your short papers must be supported by evidence from the textbook, manual and other scholarly sources in United States history. When you use this evidence be sure to cite it in footnotes or endnotes. Your papers will be due by Friday at noon of the 3rd, 6th, and 9th weeks of the term.


Optional Research Paper

United States History, 1775 2000


Your research paper should explore in depth some important issue or topic in American History between 1775 and 2000. Avoid describing some individual or episode. Instead, pose a question and, given the resources at your disposal, answer that question. Thus you should not simply write a paper on Abraham Lincoln's Presidency as much as you should focus on a particular historical problem related to the individual and the era. For example, could Lincoln have prevented Southern secession? How did Lincoln's racial beliefs affect his emancipation policy?
Your paper should be no more than ten typewritten pages including bibliography and it should conform to Turabian's, A Manual for Writers (latest edition). You should include at least ten sources in your bibliography and each source should have a corresponding footnote or endnote in the text.
Please give me a one page outline which includes your major research question and a selected bibliography showing the books and articles you have already consulted by the seventh Friday of the Quarter. The completed paper should be handed in by the last regularly scheduled class meeting of the Quarter. I will not accept research papers presented to me after that date.

Suggested Topic Areas

Loyalists and the American Revolution Antebellum Industrialization: Pittsburgh and Lowell Compared

The Jeffersonian Ideal Henry Grady and the New South
The Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965 Populism and Progressivism Compared

Women in the American Revolution Andrew Carnegie and the Gospel of Wealth

The Abortion Debate The Rise and Decline of Organized Labor in America

The Cuban Missile Crisis Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the 19th Century Feminist Movement

19th and 20th Century Immigration Compared The CIA and U.S. Foreign Policy since 1950

John D. Rockefeller and Bill Gates Compared The Reagan Revolution and Modern Conservatism

The West and the Civil War The End of the Cold War


Hollywood and History The Women’s Suffrage Campaign in Washington
Boeing Aircraft Company and the Cold War Women and the American Revolution


Optional Book Review Assignment

United States History, 1775 2000


As I indicated on the first day of class, you have the option of writing a book review to offset a low midterm exam grade. As with most standard book "reviews," you will describe the book's major thesis or argument. But I also request that you follow these guidelines in your assignment. Remember, collectively they are as important to your overall review grade as the report on the contents of the work.

1. Assess whether you were convinced by the author's argument.
2. Discuss the most important new information you learned about American history from the book.
3. Describe how the book reinforced or challenged ideas about American history that you have learned from the assigned readings, my lectures, and the discussions.
4. State whether you would recommend the book to others, and include specific reasons for your decision.

Your review should be approximately five typewritten pages, 1,500 words for those of you who use computers. I recommend that you devote the first three pages to a review of the book itself and the remaining two pages to respond to the four guidelines. Please number your pages. I will not accept untyped book reviews submitted as an email attachment or faxed document.


The first page of each review should have information on the book which appears as follows:
Quintard Taylor, The Forging of a Black Community: Seattle's Central District from 1870 through the Civil Rights Era (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994)
You may choose almost any book on United States history except the ones that are primarily textbooks. Also not eligible are regularly assigned textbooks for any other history courses you are currently taking.
You should present your choice either via email or on a sheet of paper to one of the Teaching Assistants by the eighth Friday of the term: Friday, November 18. The completed book review should be handed in by Friday, December 9. Unless prior permission has been granted, no book review will be accepted after the due date.


CHAPTER ONE: ESTABLISHING THESE UNITED STATES
Terms for Week 1
creed of political equality
patriarchy
Bacon's Rebellion
deference
John Locke
"tyranny of the majority"
"blue laws"
Bill of Rights
Boston Massacre
Loyalists
Shay’s Rebellion
Colonel Tye
Abigail Adams
Captain Pipe
Stamp Act Crisis
The Philadelphia Convention
Common Sense
Lord Dunmore's Proclamation
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