UNITED STATES HISTORY PART A: Document Based Question
Directions: : Question 1 is based on the accompanying documents. The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. You are advised to spend 15 minutes planning and 40 minutes writing your answer. Write your responses on the lined pages that follow the questions. In your response you should do the following.
▶ State a relevant thesis that directly addresses all parts of the question.
▶ Support the thesis or a relevant argument with evidence from all, or all but one, of the documents.
▶ Supports the thesis or a relevant argument by accounting for historical complexity, relating diverse historical evidence in a cohesive way.
▶ Focus your analysis of each document on at least one of the following: author’s point of view, author’s purpose, audience, and/or historical context.
▶ Support your argument with analysis of historical examples outside the documents.
▶ Connect historical phenomena relevant to your argument to broader events or processes.
▶ Synthesize the elements above into a persuasive essay.
Were the American colonists justified in waging war and breaking away from Britain?
Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1754 to 1776 to answer the question.
Use all documents from the DBQ
Cite documents from DBQ , stay away from “In Document A” etc.
Answer the whole question
Bring in outside information
Connect to broader historical picture
Have a thesis that covers the whole question asked that is also clear and concise
you are synthesizing and analyzing the documents
H.I.P.P.O.: DBQ and Document Analysis
HISTORICAL CONTEXT-Connect the document to specific historical events using outside examples. Connect the document across time to earlier and/or later eras or across space to events happening in different places.
2. INTENDED AUDIENCE-Identify a person or group the author expects to inform or influence
3. POINT OF VIEW-Who is the author? How did the author’s gender/race/economic status impact their written perspective?
4. PURPOSE-Why did the author create the source?
5. ORGANIZATION/ USE IN AN ARGUMENT (PUT TOGETHER FIRST FOUR AND THINK ABOUT HOW IT WOULD SUPPORT YOUR ARGUMENT-Hint- Thesis)
This excerpt is from "Considerations ...," a pamphlet written by Thomas Whately, Whately was an advisor to George Grenville, British Chancellor of the Exchequer (1763-1765) and the author of the Stamp Act. In this pamphlet, Whately explained why the British were justified in levying taxes on their American colonists.
We are not yet recovered from a War undertaken solely for their [the Americans'] Protection ... a War undertaken for their defense only ... they should contribute to the Preservation of the Advantages they have received....
These excerpts are from Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania by John Dickinson. Dickinson was a Pennsylvania political leader who served in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765. Later in his career, he served in the Continental Congress, and later still, in the Constitutional Convention. In the following statement, Dickinson condemned some of the new taxes being imposed by Parliament.
There is another late act of parliament, which appears to me to be unconstitutional, and ... destructive to the liberty of these colonies.... The parliament unquestionably possesses a legal authority to regulate the trade of Great Britain, and all her colonies. I have looked over every statute [law] relating to these colonies, from their first settlement to this time; and I find every one of them founded on this principle, till the Stamp Act administration.... All before, are calculated to regulate trade.... The raising of revenue ... was never intended.... Never did the British parliament, [until the passage of the Stamp Act] think of imposing duties in America for the purpose of raising revenue. [The Townshend Acts claim the authority] to impose duties on these colonies, not for the regulation of trade ... but for the single purpose of levying money upon us.
On March 5, 1770, a crowd of Boston boys and men surrounded a number of British soldiers and began taunting and cursing them while they pelted them with snowballs. Order quickly broke down, and the frightened soldiers fired into the crowd. When the shooting ended, several people were dead and more were wounded. This engraving by Paul Revere, a leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty, was sent throughout the Colonies in the following weeks to arouse anti-British feelings.
In The Journal of Nicholas Cresswell, 1774-1777, Cresswell, a young Englishman, kept an account of his travels through the American Colonies. The following excerpts are dated October 19, 1774 and tell of his visit to Alexandria, Virginia.
Everything here is in the utmost confusion. Committees are appointed to inspect into the characters and conduct of every tradesman, to prevent them selling tea or buying British manufactures. Some of them have been tarred and feathered, others had their property burnt and destroyed by the populace.... The King is openly cursed, and his authority set at defiance.... everything is ripe for rebellion. The New Englanders by their canting, whining, insinuating tricks have persuaded the rest of the colonies that t the government is going to make absolute slaves of them.
This excerpt is from "Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms." issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775. The war had broken out in April, when British forces had marched to Lexington and Concord, two villages just outside of Boston. This document, written largely by John Dickinson and Thomas Jefferson, was designed to explain and justify the fighting that had continued since April.
[The British declare] that parliament can "of right make laws to bind us in all cases whatsoever." What is to defend us against so enormous, so unlimited a power? ... We are reduced to the alternative of choosing an unconditional submission to the tyranny of irritated [British officials), or resistance by force. - The latter is our choice.
These excerpts are from Thomas Paine's Common Sense, published in January 1776. This popular pamphlet helped to convince many Americans that the conflict with England was beyond peaceful settlement and that independence was America's only course.
Men of passive tempers look somewhat lightly over the offenses of Great Britain, and, still hoping for the best, are apt to call out, COME, COME, WE SHALL BE FRIENDS AGAIN FOR ALL THIS. But ... then tell me whether you can hereafter love, honour, and faithfully serve the power that hath carried fire and sword into your land? ... No man was a warmer wisher for a [peaceful settlement] than myself, before the fatal nineteenth of April, 1775 [the battles at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, occurred on this day], but the moment the event of that day was made known, I rejected the hardened, sullen-tempered [King of England] forever.
These excerpts are from "The Declaration of Independence," adopted by the Continental Congress of July 4, 1776.
The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations [unlawful seizures], all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.