Center- piece of the southern economy is destroyed
New South forms (push toward industrialization)
Jim Crow laws
Impeachment of Johnson
The Transcontinental Railroad
Connects industrial East with the agricultural West
Allows for continued migration to the West
Irish (east) and Chinese (west) labor
Business Consolidation in the Gilded Age
Term coined by Mark Twain
Laissez- faire capitalism allows for the growth of trusts and monopolies, child labor, low wages, long hours, and poor conditions
Rich lived lavish lives while the poor toiled in factories
Rise of Labor Unions
Workers recognize the need to work together to enact changes that the government was reluctant to institute
Precedent of collective bargaining is established
Knights of Labor led by Terrance Powderly, the American Federation of Labor led by Samuel Gompers, and the International Ladies Garment Workers' Union worked to improve conditions in American factories
Great Railway Strike, the Haymarket Riot, and the Homestead Strike lead to diminished support for the Labor Movement
Establishment of the Federal Reserve
Passed during the Wilson administration
Federal government could now (1) issue Federal Reserve notes; (2) control the amount of money in circulation and interest rates, and (3) shift money from one bank to another
The New Deal
FDRs attempt to save the US economy
Established government programs that put people back to work
Civilian Conservation Corps, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, Agricultural Adjustment Administration, National Recovery Administration, Public Works Administration, FDIC, and the Social Security Act
Allows for mass production and cheaper sale prices
More Americans are able to move out of cities
The Great Society
Johnsons attempt to continue the traditions started during the New Deal
VISTA program, Office of Economic Opportunity, Elementary and Second Education Act, Medicare, and Department of Housing and Urban Development
Reaganomics and Supply-Side/Trickle Down Economics
Reagan’s belief that cutting taxes will stimulate the economy
Believed that his tax cuts coupled with cuts in social spending would end inflation without increasing the national debt
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans most influenced U.S. foreign policy throughout the 18th' 19th' and 20th century.
Oceans on the east & west coasts helped the U.S. maintain its foreign policy of neutrality during much of the 1800s.
Natural harbors contributed to the development of commerce.
Appalachian Mountains served as the western boundary for British colonial settlements prior to the Revolutionary War.
Proclamation Line of 1763- Border established by Great Britain in order to avoid conflicts between American colonists and Native Americans.
Early colonial settlements were similar in that each developed near the coast line. EX) Jamestown (1607) Plymouth (1620) New Amsterdam (1625)
New England Colonies- Influenced by good harbors, abundant forests, rocky soil, and a short growing season. Geographic factors influenced the economy of New England by promoting the growth of trade and manufacturing. Developed villages with town-hall meetings. Had small farms, commercial fishing, and the first American college.
Southern Colonies- The climate and topography of the southeastern U.S. had a major impact on the history of the U.S. before 1860 because the region provided agricultural products that were processed in the North and in Europe. Developed plantations (large farms that used slave labor) because of fertile land and a long growing season.
Great Plains The relatively flat, grassy region of the U.S. between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains is known as the Great Plains. The states with the largest percentage of land used for agriculture are located in areas with relatively flat terrain. Known for producing grain crops (aka food).
Triangular Trade- led directly to the increased importation of enslaved Africans to the Western Hemisphere (colonies)
British Mercantilism- Economic policy used by the British in which the American Colonies served as a source of raw materials and a market to sell goods. British buy raw materials from the colonies and sell them finished products. Limited manufacturing in America. Limited colonies' trade with other nations. This policy would eventually become one of the reasons for the American Revolution.
Salutary Neglect- Period of time when the British ignored the colonies because they only wanted to benefit from the economic prosperity of the colonies. Led to the development of independent colonial trade practices.
French and Indian War- Caused by disputed land claims in the Ohio River valley between the French and the British (the French and Indians were on the same side). War led to the end of the period of Salutary Neglect, because of the British need to tax the American colonists in order to pay for the war. This increase in taxes became one of the major causes of the Revolutionary War (war for American independence from Great Britain).
Virginia House of Burgesses/Mayflower Compact/Town Hall Meetings- Early colonial efforts in self government. They all contributed to the development of representative democracy.
Albany Plan of Union (17541- Early attempt to unify American colonies but under British rule. Many colonies objected to it because colonial assemblies did not want to give up their individual power.
Independence Movement/Revolutionary War (American Revolution)
Declaration of Independence-•
States the colonial grievances against British rule (a list of reasons for separating from Great Britain).
Written by Thomas Jefferson who was most influenced by the writers of the Enlightenment.
Is described as a statement of democratic principles rather than a framework for government.
Takes ideas from John Locke's theory of natural rights-power to govern belongs to the people ("consent of the governed").
Contributed to the political development of the U.S. by presenting a clear statement of the social contract theory of government- the fundamental purpose of government is to secure the natural rights of the people. If a government denies its people certain basic rights, that government can be overthrown.
Similar to the Bill of Rights because both documents support limitations on governmental power and stress the importance of individual liberty.
NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION- Many colonists believed they could not be taxed by the British because they had no representatives in the British government, which means that the British did not have consent of the governed.
Thomas Paine- Published Common Sense which was influential in persuading American colonists to support colonial independence from Britain. Convinced many Americans who had been undecided on declaring independence from Britain.
Response to Mercantilist Policies- Committees of Correspondence/Non-importation Agreements/Boston Tea Party First Continental Congress
Major Events Leading to Revolutionary War
Sugar and Stamp Acts- tax foreign molasses and printed material. QuarteringAct-requires colonists to house and feed British soldiers. Townshend Acts-taxes imported goods and tea. Boston Massacre-five people killed by British soldiers.
Revolutionary War begins shortly after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
American Colonies win the war and independence with the help of familiar land and foreign aid (France).
At the end of the Revolutionary War the Mississippi became the western boundary of the U.S.
Articles of Confederation
First form of government used by the U.S. after independence from Britain. First plan of union for the original 13 states.
At this point many Americans distrusted a strong central government because of their experiences under the rule of Great Britain. They wanted to limit the central government's opportunities to infringe upon the people's liberties so they established a decentralized (power is broken up and divided among many groups, not unified) political system in which the state governments had all the power.
Problems and Weaknesses- Largely unsuccessful at solving many major problems because most power remained with the state governments. Congress depended on the states for men and money to support an army. National (aka Federal) government could not enforce its laws. Congress constantly overrode the President's vetoes.
States had the power to collect taxes, coin money, and control trade.
Success of the Articles- It provided a system for governing the Western territories and a process for admitting new states to the union.
Constitutional Convention (1787)-Major American delegates (politicians) meet in Philadelphia to revise (correct) the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Shavs' Rebellion (17861- Significant because it convinced many Americans of the need for a stronger national
government. Exposed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Led to a call for the Constitutional
Led to the creation of the U.S. Constitution.
Settled a dispute over how the states would be represented in the national legislature aka Congress (group of people who write and vote on laws). Delegates from states with small populations supported the idea of equal representation for the states in the national legislature (ex New Jersey). Delegates from states with large populations supported the idea of representation based on the size of population (ex Virginia).
Solution- Created a bicameral legislature (two houses that write and vote on laws). One house would be based on population (House of Representatives) and the other house would have equal representation for all states (Senate).
Three-Fifths Compromise- Solution to the problem of how to determine the number of representatives in the House of Representatives (branch of Congress) from states with large slave populations. Determined that 3/5 of the slave population would be counted for representation in the House.
Other Maior Compromises- Slave Trade, Taxation, Election of President.
U.S. Constitution vs. Articles of ConfederationDifferences
Constitution strengthened the power of the Federal (aka national) Government.
Constitution granted Congress sole control over interstate and foreign commerce (trading between different states and trading with other countries).
Constitution created three separate, independent branches of government.
Constitution gave the Federal (national) Government the power to collect taxes.
Both provided a national legislature (lawmaking body).
Both provided some form of cooperation between states.
Federalists- Group that supported ratification (make into a law) of the U.S. Constitution. Wanted a strong national government to provide order. Published the Federalist Papers which encouraged ratification of the Constitution.
Anti-Federalists- Group that was against ratification of the Constitution. They believed it would threaten the rights of individual citizens. Did not want the national government to have too much power. Only agreed to ratify the Constitution after the addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution.
Bill of Rights- First ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
Main purpose is to protect civil liberties and protect the people from government abuse.
Similar to the Declaration of Independence because both stress the importance of individual liberty.
Unreasonable Search and Seizure- Protects U.S. citizens from being jailed or searched for no reason. This
Amendment was put in because the British government used writs of assistance against American merchants during the colonial/Revolutionary War era.
14th amendment extends the protections of the Bill of Rights to include actions of state governments (states must also obey the Bill of Rights).
Major Rights- Right to assemble peacefully, freedom of speech, protection against unreasonable search and seizure, etc.