United nations educational, scientific and cultural organization convention concerning the protection of the world



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22. Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (Afghanistan) (C 208 rev)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List: 2003

Year of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger: 2003

Criteria: C (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (vi)
Previous International Assistance:

2003: US$100,000, Assistance to the authorities for the preparation of the nomination dossier included within the Emergency Assistance Package


Previous Bureau/Committee Deliberations:

27 COM 8C.44

27 COM 8C. 45
Conservation Issues:

The Italian firm RODIO has successfully implemented the first phase of the emergency consolidation for the cliffs and niches. The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo, Japan, has begun conservation work on the mural paintings in the Buddhist caves as well as the preparation of a General Master Plan. The Japanese company PASCO has initiated the 3D documentation and mapping of the property.


Furthermore, ICOMOS, financed by the Government of Germany, is currently restoring a Sunni mosque and another building located in the vicinity of the large Buddha. The building is being used to accommodate security staff and to store equipment. UNESCO is presently organising the provision of adequate water and electricity supply for this building.
In addition, UNESCO is assisting the Government of Afghanistan to create a site museum to be located in a traditional mud-brick house, which is currently being restored through contributions from the Government of Switzerland.
With the aim to ensure the coordination of all safeguarding activities in Bamiyan, a second UNESCO/ICOMOS Expert Working Group was held from 18-21 December 2003 in Munich, Germany, in order to evaluate the progress achieved in consolidation, conservation and archaeological excavation activities. The experts attending the working group commended the consolidation method and work carried out by RODIO. They also formulated concrete recommendations for the follow-up and a work-plan for 2004 for the final consolidation of the small Buddha niche and the conservation of the remains of the two Buddha statues, as well as for the preservation of the mural paintings and the coordination of the archaeological activities undertaken by the “Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan” (DAFA) and the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (NRICP), Japan.

Draft Decision: 28 COM 15A.22
The World Heritage Committee,


  1. Commends the State Party for its dedication to the safeguarding of this property;




  1. Requests the State Party with assistance from the World Heritage Centre, UNESCO Kabul and the Division of Cultural Heritage, to submit a report on the State of Conservation of this property by 1 February 2005 for examination by the Committee at its 29th session in 2005;




  1. Thanks the Governments of Japan, Germany and Switzerland for their generous contributions towards the conservation of this property;




  1. Reasserts the need for the International Community and various organizations involved in the protection of this property to continue their co-operation and assistance to the Afghan authorities;




  1. Reiterates its concern over the significant and persisting danger posed by anti-personnel mines in various areas of the Bamiyan Valley and supports the request from the Afghan authorities that all cultural projects include funds for de-mining;




  1. Decides to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.



23. Angkor (Cambodia) (C 668)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List: 1992

Year of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger: 1992

Criteria: C (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
Previous International Assistance:

Total amount (up to 2004): US$142,190


Previous Bureau/Committee Deliberations:

26 COM 21 (a) 10

27 COM 7A.22
Conservation issues:

The State Party submitted a state of conservation report to the World Heritage Centre, as requested by the World Heritage Committee at its 27th session.

The Government of France organized, with the assistance of the Division of Cultural Heritage of UNESCO, the Second Intergovernmental Conference on the Safeguarding and Development of Angkor (Paris, France, 14-15 November 2003). The main objectives of this conference were: (a) to assess the past decade’s actions mainly dedicated to emergency safeguarding of the site; and (b) to launch a new decade of international assistance focused on sustainable development, in conformity with the priority of the Government of Cambodia.

The Technical Session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and the Development of Angkor (ICC/Angkor), held in Siem Reap on 9 and 10 February 2004, reflected both safeguarding and sustainable development concerns, and gathered together new partners, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the Asian Development Bank. This ICC Session also involved for the first time the APSARA Authority (Autorité pour la Préservation du site et l’Aménagement de la Région d’Angkor) in the organization of the meeting.

The State Party submitted a report to the Secretariat in January 2004. The report recapitulates the five conditions defined in 1992 as prerequisites for the property to be removed from the List of World Heritage in Danger.

From a World Heritage property in Danger, the site of Angkor has evolved into a World Heritage property in development. This has been recognised in the great efforts and corrective measures taken by the national authorities, especially since the establishment of the APSARA Authority in 1995, and in addressing the following challenges:

a) De-mining, on-site looting, and vandalism:

The de-mining of the site has now been completed. The measures adopted by the Government of Cambodia to halt on-site looting and theft of cultural heritage have resulted in a drastic decrease of theft and smuggling of cultural artefacts from within the World Heritage property. The pressure of illegal trafficking of cultural artefacts is now gradually shifting to archaeological sites outside of Angkor.


b) State of conservation:

Although the monuments and temples are in various states of conservation, the overall state of conservation of Angkor as a while has dramatically improved in the last 12 years. A dozen international teams are currently working on conservation and restoration projects on-site, in close collaboration with the APSARA Authority.


c) Administrative and legislative arrangements:

Cambodia benefits from an adequate legislation in terms of heritage management and protection, which is not however implemented to its full extent at the site-level. Since 1999, the APSARA Authority has acquired a greater financial sustainability and autonomy. The APSARA budget for 2002 totalled US$4,021,745.81, mainly from entrance fees to the Angkor Archaeological Park.


d) Training of personnel:

Training of the staff responsible for the different aspects of the management of Angkor (maintenance, restoration, administrative and financial management, tourism, etc.) is a major component in the success of APSARA over the years. The graduates of the Faculties of Archaeology and Architecture of the Royal University of Fine Arts have regularly been hired to assist in the preservation of the property.


A project entitled “Training of APSARA cultural mediators”, conceived by UNESCO and APSARA in close co-operation with the Cambodian Ministry of Tourism, to face rapid social changes and to benefit from the tourist industry, was successfully organized in September 2003. This capacity-building project, financed by the UNESCO Japan Funds-in-Trust Agreement, is an integrated component of the global strategy for the strengthening of Cambodian cultural institutions.
e) Tourism Development:

During the Second Intergovernmental Conference on the Safeguarding and Development of Angkor, the parties involved insisted on the need for concerted tourism development and management of the Angkor Archaeological Park. A series of projects have been presented, ranging from the respect of authenticity in new constructions to the development of tourist circuits and the regulation of visitor flows on and off-site.



Draft Decision: 28 COM 15A.23

The World Heritage Committee,

  1. Notes with satisfaction the extra-budgetary funded operational projects for the conservation or the restoration of the site of Angkor;



  1. Congratulates the State Party, including the APSARA Authority for their dedication in the safeguarding of the World Heritage property, as well as multilateral donors, such as France, Japan, Italy and bilateral donors such as China, India, Indonesia and Switzerland, the World Monuments Fund, and the private group ACCOR for their generous support;



  1. Takes note of the remarkable improvement of the physical state of conservation of the property, as well as the results accomplished in the management and monitoring of the property by the APSARA Authority;



  1. Requests the World Heritage Centre, the Division of Cultural Heritage, ICOMOS and other partners to work closely with the State Party to ensure the long-term conservation and management of the property;



  1. Decides to remove the property of Angkor from the List of World Heritage in Danger.


24. Group of Monuments at Hampi (India) (C 241)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List: 1986

Year of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger: 1999

Criteria: C (i) (iii) (iv)
Previous International Assistance:

Total amount (up to 2004): US$92,370


Previous Bureau/Committee Deliberations:

27 COM 7A.23


Conservation issues:

According to the Progress Report submitted to the Secretariat by the State Party on 8 April 2004, the Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority Act (2002) was adopted by the State Legislature of the Karnataka Government, and its implementation should now be ensured towards prevention of uncontrolled urbanization in the World Heritage protected area.


The State Government of Karnataka has initiated the process of acquisition of land for the construction of the by-pass road, and the work is progressing rapidly. In a meeting on 3 March 2004, the State Government of Karnataka decided to first construct the by-pass road and only thereafter to take up the construction of the remaining portions of the Anegondi Bridge. The Public Works Department was directed to strictly adhere to the recommendations of the UNESCO Mission in May 2003 with regard to the location, transversal sections, longitudinal sections, cross sections of the by-pass road. The two pylons of the suspended Hampi footbridge have been demolished as per the recommendations of the UNESCO Mission.
The UNESCO Mission of 2003 had highlighted the importance of preparing a site management plan which would cover several key issues such as redefinition of the boundaries of the protected area, elaboration of mapping and urban development challenges. The Hampi Development Authority entrusted the preparation of the management plan to the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage who completed the Hampi Management Plan. This plan is being examined by the Central Government (Archaeological Survey of India) and will then be submitted to the Secretariat for review and comments.
The Secretariat received information by the concerned local individuals that unauthorized constructions (i.e. huge shopping complex in the core zone) are taking place in and around the property which require immediate guidelines and provisions for issuing building licenses. Furthermore, it is reported that local habitants are in need of development of civic and hygienic conditions in the surrounding area, instead of investments for commercial and other activities that do not benefit the locals. There is also a need for better coordination between the State Government and the Central Government of India.
At the 27th session of the Committee in 2003, a total amount of US $75,000 was approved as Emergency Assistance, for the elaboration of a comprehensive management plan for this property. Within the framework of this Emergency Assistance from the World Heritage Fund, a Stakeholders Workshop was foreseen in January 2004 in order to meet the integrated needs of the region by establishing a better management mechanism (including legislation), institutional coordination and effective measures against rural development pressure. However, the Workshop had to be postponed and it is due to be convened in early June 2004.

Draft Decision: 28 COM 15A.24
The World Heritage Committee,


  1. Commends the State Party for its decisions to postpone the completion of the vehicular bridge until the by-pass road is constructed, and to consider the vehicular bridge to be temporary, pending the identification of a long-term solution within the Hampi management plan, as well as for implementing other recommendations of the UNESCO Mission of 2003;




  1. Stresses its concern for the need of local community participation in the decision making process for the conservation and management of the property, and its involvements concerning local development;




  1. Invites the State Party to strengthen efforts to enhance better coordination and dialogue among different national and local stakeholders;




  1. Urges the State Party to elaborate the comprehensive Management Plan, as soon as possible, in consultation with the Secretariat and the Advisory Bodies;




  1. Recommends the State Party to establish a technical unit with appropriate capacity to support the Hampi World Heritage Management Authority, to ensure building control and community advisory services for conservation;




  1. Requests the State Party to submit to the Secretariat by 1 February 2005, a progress report on the state of conservation of the property, notably on issues concerning the construction of the by-pass road and the bridges, for examination by the Committee at its 29th session in 2005;




  1. Decides to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.



25. Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121)
Year of inscription on the World Heritage List: 1979

Year of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger: 2003

Criteria: C (iii) (iv) (vi)
Previous International Assistance:

Total amount (up to 2004): US$332,775


Previous Bureau/Committee Deliberations:

27 COM 7B.52


Conservation issues:

The World Heritage Committee inscribed this property on the List of World Heritage in Danger at its 27th Session in 2003. In doing so, it recommended that the State Party should legally redefine the core and support zones of all Monument Zones, accompanied with management mechanisms to adequately conserve the remaining value of the property in the long term.


From September to November 2003, the Institute of Architecture of the University of Venice was commissioned by the Secretariat to examine the existing heritage value of the property, and prepare an inventory of recent constructions and demolitions for the Bhaktapur and Pashupatinath Monuments Zones, two of the seven Monument Zones that constitute the World Heritage property. The Final Report of this mission has been received by the Secretariat on 22 March 2004.
In September 2003, the UNESCO Regional Advisor for Culture undertook a mission to Swayambunath Monument Zone, in order to assess the negative impact of the fire, which broke out and led to serious damage of the structure and interior of the Pratappur Shrine. Following the fire, the Secretariat encouraged the State Party to submit an Emergency Assistance request to the World Heritage Fund, in order to establish a fire-fighting protocol. At the time of preparing this report, the request has not been received.
A Progress Report was submitted to the Secretariat by the State Party on 30 January 2004. It reports on the preparation of a management plan for the property: cadastral maps of all seven zones have been prepared, classification of monuments in all seven Monument Zones has been completed, maps showing the location of classified monuments are being prepared, and the recording of street facades of house, has been initiated. Work on the documentation of illegal constructions in order to decide whether any private houses should be modified or demolished is also in progress.
The State Party also stressed the need for more professional technical support for the capacity building of the national authority, and commented that the different UNESCO experts should not have given conflicting advice, and that better coordination could be exercised by the appointment of a single technical adviser.
Furthermore, a Technical Workshop is foreseen in May 2004 for the conservation of the property, to be organized by the Secretariat and the State Party. The expected outcomes of the Workshop include delineation of the protected core and buffer zones of the seven Monument Zones; identification of corrective measures to address illegal activities in the protected zones and the creation of a mechanism to enhance better coordination of the local management and monitoring, formulation of short and long term plans for the preservation of the urban fabric, active participation by stakeholders, and identification of priority areas and mechanisms for possible international partnerships. The conclusions and recommendations of the Workshop will be reported to the World Heritage Committee at its 28th session.
Draft Decision: 28 COM 15A.25
The World Heritage Committee,


  1. Takes note of the conclusions and recommendation of the Technical Workshop for the Conservation of the property;




  1. Commends the State Party for the initiatives that it has taken regarding the conservation and management of the property since its inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger;




  1. Expresses its grave concern that although the responsible authorities have made efforts with some positive outcomes, the threat of uncontrolled development persists, resulting in continuous reduction of the urban landscape and architectural fabric of the property, degrading the authenticity and integrity of the property as a whole;




  1. Recommends the State Party to continue its work to legally protect the redefined core and buffer zones of the seven Monument Zones, and to implement sustainable management mechanisms to conserve the remaining World Heritage value of the property in the long-term;




  1. Invites the Secretariat and the Advisory Bodies to assist the State Party in identifying an international technical advisor to provide professional support to the national and local authorities;




  1. Encourages the State Party to submit a request for Emergency Assistance to set up a fire-fighting protocol for the property;




  1. Requests the State Party to submit to the Secretariat by 1 February 2005, a progress report on the state of conservation of the monumental ensembles and the vernacular fabric within the property, for examination by the Committee at its 29th session in 2005;




  1. Decides to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.

26. Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) (C 171-172)

Year of inscription on the World Heritage List: 1981

Year of inscription on the List of World Heritage in Danger: 2000

Criteria: C (i) (ii) (iii)

Previous International Assistance:

Total amount (up to 2001): US$115,000



Previous Bureau/Committee Deliberations:

26 COM 21 (a) 13

27 COM 7A.24

Conservation issues:

According to a report from the Government of Pakistan in February 2004, the cultural heritage of Pakistan is being preserved under the Antiquities Act of 1975. The legislation for the provision of a 200-foot buffer zone around the protected monument is defined under this act. However, the Federal Government is not legally bound to acquire the area, which falls within the protected buffer zone. Construction in protected areas is regulated by Provincial Law and District Law. There is no provision within District Law or Provincial Law to stop such activities on privately owned land within the buffer zone of the protected monument. The Department of Archaeology and Museums therefore considers that the Provincial and District Government Laws regarding the building activities should be brought in conformity with the Antiquities Act of 1975. At present, the State Government of the Punjab has issued a directive to include provision in the Antiquities Act regarding the 200-foot buffer zone around the protected monument in the bylaws of the Provincial and District Government. In addition, in the current financial year the Government of Pakistan has allocated Rs. 5,000,000 to carry out conservation work at the Shalamar Gardens.

The World Heritage Committee, at its 24th session in 2000, approved an Emergency Assistance request for US$ 50,000 to elaborate a comprehensive management plan and undertake consolidation and conservation measures of the hydraulic work. On 4 March 2004, the Government of Pakistan submitted a revised workplan and budget breakdown for the implementation of this project as recommended by the Committee.

A two-year project for the preservation of the Lahore Fort, financed by the Government of Norway in co-operation with the UNESCO Islamabad Office (US$ 900,000), was launched in March 2003. This project focuses on a detailed examination of issues and threats facing the whole of the Lahore Fort, and the Shish Mahal in particular, and the development of a new Master Plan for the conservation and preservation of the Lahore Fort.

A World Heritage Centre mission to Islamabad and Lahore took place in June 2003 to follow up the corrective measures recommended by the World Heritage Committee for the Lahore Fort and the Shalamar Gardens. Regarding conservation of the property, the mission recommended that it was urgent to:


  1. Resolve the general problem of drainage, rising moisture levels, humidity and chemical reactions that have affected all the structures of the site, before undertaking any restoration work,

  2. Control and regulate visitors, limiting and prohibiting visits to particular zones.

Additionally, concerning the Shalamar Gardens, the mission also recommended to:

  1. Settle the problem of urban encroachments on the eastern and northern sides in order to reduce the damage to the outside wall due to surface water seepage;

  2. Undertake the deviation of the Grand Trunk Road, and developing a protection area alongside the southern wall,

  3. Repair the water supply and drainage systems of the whole of the Gardens as soon as possible, in order to stop further deterioration.

Furthermore, the “Cultural Tourism in Lahore and Peshawar” project was established between UNESCO, UNDP and the Government of Pakistan, and a report issued in January 2004. It contains recommendations and project proposals in relation to tourism management.

In February 2004, when the Prime Minister of Pakistan announced the transfer of the custody of this property to the provincial authorities, the UNESCO Office in Islamabad expressed its concern in a letter to the Ministry of Minorities, Culture, Sports, Tourism and Youth Affairs, and the Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO. The UNESCO World Heritage Centre requested the Department of Archaeology and Museums to clarify the situation concerning custody of this site, especially the effects of a change in management and administration, for discussion at the 28th session of the World Heritage Committee. According to information received from the State Party in April 2004, it was confirmed that during the visit to the Lahore Fort on 20 February 2004, the Prime Minister of Pakistan announced that the Lahore Fort and Shalamar Gardens would be handed over to the Provincial Government of the Punjab. Furthermore, the Federal Cabinet decided that these monuments should be transferred to the Government of the Punjab for their management and administration. The State Party also informed UNESCO that the Federal and the Provincial Governments are jointly preparing formalities for this transfer, which will take some time to complete.



Draft Decision: 28 COM 15A.26

The World Heritage Committee,

      1. Thanks the State Party for submitting the revised work plan and budget breakdown for implementing the Shalamar Gardens Emergency Assistance project;



      1. Requests the Advisory Bodies and the World Heritage Centre to assist the State Party in implementing this project;



      1. Further requests the State Party to examine the heritage values of the Shalamar Gardens and Lahore Fort to redefine the core, buffer and support zones of these two properties;



      1. Takes note with satisfaction of the on-going positive co-operation between the Department of Archaeology and other national, provincial and municipal authorities, in order to redress the encroachment issues surrounding the Shalamar Gardens;



      1. Requests the State Party to continue to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the existing legal management provisions, particularly with a view to harmonizing provisions of national and provincial legislation with regard to constructions in areas immediately surrounding the Shalamar Gardens;



      1. Urges the State Party to take all steps to ensure the establishment of an effective site management authority for the protection of the property, and inform the Committee of the effects that a change of custody of the property from national to provincial levels has had and will in the future have on the conservation of the property;



      1. Decides to retain the property on the List of World Heritage in Danger.


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