United Nations Development Programme Global Environment Facility Full Project – Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity on the South African Wild Coast



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Duration: 5 years


Outputs: The Conservation planner will be directly responsible for delivering the following project outputs:

  • Review of the status quo of PAs

  • Strategic and annual operational plans for PAs

  • Resource use policy, strategy, guidelines and monitoring requirements

  • Annual METT review of PAs

Institutional arrangements: The Conservation planner may be appointed by the ECPB on a retainer contract or by contractual appointment. The Conservation planner may be a part-time or full-time staff member of the CASU reporting directly to the Project Coordinator. The Conservation planner will require office space, office furniture, office equipment, computer facilities and a vehicle.
2.3 Other personnel: The ToR Legal specialist, Economist, HR specialist, Fire management specialist, Surveyor will be developed at project inception

PART IV: STAKEHOLDER INVOLVEMENT PLAN

1. A stakeholder analysis was undertaken in the Wild Coast project area during project preparation in order to identify key stakeholders and to assess their mandates, roles, importance and influence on the project. The objectives of the analysis were to: (i) identify key stakeholders with respect to protected area management; (ii) review stakeholder interests and associated impacts on resource use, land tenure and the project; (iii) identify and mitigate possible negative socio-economic impacts on local stakeholders resulting from the project; and (iv) identify and develop opportunities for the project to benefit stakeholders. Project preparation entailed consultation with a broad range of stakeholder groups using a number of different information gathering methods, including formal and semi-formal interviews, group discussions and workshops, rapid rural appraisal and literature review.


2. Table 1 assesses the stakeholder groups in terms of their influence and their importance. The importance is understood as the objective significance of the respective stakeholder group to the potential success of the initiative. Influence, by contrast, is understood as the potential influence that the group has as a consequence of its access to socio-economic power and resources. Often, groups important to the success of a project, such as community organizations representing poor and disadvantaged communities, have relatively little influence. By contrast groups of lesser importance such as volunteer conservation groups may have significant influence by virtue of their ability to mobilize significant material resources.
Table 1: Assessment of influence upon the project of, and impact of the project on, different stakeholders





Low influence

High influence

High importance

  • Communities;

  • South African National Biodiversity Institute;

  • Eastern Cape Tourism Board;

  • Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism at national and provincial level;

  • Eastern Cape Parks Board;

  • Commission for Land Restitution;

  • Department for Agriculture;

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry;

  • Department of Land Affairs;

  • Department of Housing and Local Government

  • Local Government - District (OR Tambo and Amatole) and local (Mbizana, Qaukeni, Port St. Johns, Nyandeni, King Sabata Dalindyebo, Mbhashe and Mnquma) municipalities;

  • Traditional authorities;




Low importance

  • International NGOs

  • National NGOs



  • Media

  • Donors

  • Development Agencies







        1. The analysis identified three main groups of stakeholders, which are described in detail in Table 2 in terms of their roles and mandates, interest in and influence on the project, potential impact on the project and mitigation strategies. Briefly the stakeholder groups are:

Table 2: Key stakeholders, their roles and responsibilities, interest and impact on the project and mitigation strategies




Key Stakeholder

Role in the Wild Coast


Interest in the project

Potential Impact and Mitigation of impact

Stakeholders most able to influence project outcomes

Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT)
Marine & Coastal Management

  • Provides policy framework and legislation relating to biodiversity conservation and tourism;

  • Responsible for policy, functions and regulatory oversight of coastal marine resources, this includes licensing the harvesting of fisheries and sedentary marine resources;

  • Chairs the Program Steering Committee;

  • Expansion of protected area system to cover under-represented and important vegetation types;

  • Optimizing biodiversity conservation on communal lands;

  • Co-management of MPAs;

  • Sustainable Use policy;

  • Regulations for governance of national protected areas;

  • Weak on the ground capacity for co-management and enforcement;

MITIGATION STRATEGY:

  • Devolve authority and responsibility at the appropriate level;

  • Establish of a Knowledge Management System to provide information via the State of Environmental Report feed-back to the Minister and Parliament.

Department of Water Affairs & Forestry (DWAF)


  • Statutory responsibilities for watersheds and forestry management, policy planning and monitoring and approval of permits for development on forestry land in the public estate;




  • Member of the Program Steering Committee;

  • More effective collaboration with DEAT at national and provincial level, with ECPB and communities;

  • Regulations for co-management; toolbox


  • Weak on the ground capacity for co-management and enforcement;

MITIGATION STRATEGY:



  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Capacity building to actively participate in co-management agreements;

Department of Land Affairs (DLA)

Spatial Planning and Information


Provincial Land Reform Office

  • Responsible for providing legislative and policy framework for land-use planning;

  • Responsible for tenure reform and providing policy framework for land reform;

  • Regulates land allocation in the limited development zone of the coastal strip and in any other communal land;

  • Holds land in trust for local communities and is responsible for approving any changes in land use on communal lands, though this function is increasingly being devolved to the local government sphere.

  • Member of the Program Steering Committee;

  • Incentives to secure land for indigenous biodiversity;

  • Land tenure reform;

  • Protection of informal land rights of the local communities and working on co-management arrangements(land aspects)




  • Weak on the ground capacity for integrating biodiversity concerns in spatial planning;

MITIGATION STRATEGY:

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Capacity building to actively participate in co-management agreements;




Department of Economic Affairs, Environment and Tourism (Eastern Cape Province)


  • Perform functions on behalf of DEAT and Department of Water Affairs & Forestry for enforcement of national and provincial legislation including for marine areas, discharge regulatory and operational obligations under provincial legislation including the management of provincial protected areas;

  • Lead agent in the project;

  • Co-chairs the Program steering Committee;

  • Expansion of protected area system in Eastern Cape province to cover under-represented and important vegetation types;

  • Optimizing biodiversity conservation on communal lands in the Wild Coast;

  • Weak on the ground capacity for co-management and enforcement;

  • The devolution of authority process is in incipient stage;

MITIGATION STRATEGY:

  • Strengthen capacity to coordinate and monitor the enforcement of co-management agreements;

  • Devolve authority and responsibility at the appropriate level;

Department of Housing and Local Government


  • Provide guidance in provincial and municipal planning and coordinating planning;

  • Member of the Program Steering Committee;

  • Involvement in regional planning and development to ensure benefits for communities;

  • Weak understanding of co-management principles;

MITIGATION STRATEGY:

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

Department of Agriculture


  • Locally responsible for land acquisition and provide extension services to promote agricultural development;

  • Member of the Program Steering Committee;

  • Diversification of farmers’ livelihoods in areas adjacent to the existent and new PAs;

  • Conservation-friendly practices;

  • Conflict between agricultural and conservation objectives;

MITIGATION STRATEGY:

  • Build capacity of extension services to integrate conservation objectives into farm planning;

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

Office of the Premier, ECSECC

  • Responsible for the implementation of the Provincial Growth and Development Plan (PGDP);

  • Fast-track poverty alleviation by implementing PGDP;

  • Weak understanding of co-management principles;

MITIGATION STRATEGY:

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Aligning PGDP projects with conservation priority areas;

District Municipalities (OR Tambo and Amatole)
Local Municipalities (Mbizana, Qaukeni,Port St Johns, Nyandeni, King Sabata, Mbhashe Dalindyebo, and

Mnquma)


  • Responsible for development and basic needs delivery to communities in their jurisdiction and forward planning to ensure sustainability of such development;



  • Member of the Program Steering Committee;

  • Land-use planning and service provision to the PAs;

  • Siting of necessary infrastructure and allocation of funds might not be in the identified priority areas for conservation;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Development of guidelines to mainstream conservation objectives into Integrated Development Plans;

  • Build capacity of the local and district municipalities to integrate conservation and development;

  • Recognize conservation as a land-use through the municipal land-use plan;

Commission for Land Restitution


  • Handling land claims, validation and settlement of such claims in the Wild Coast

  • Responsible restitution and post restitution assistance to land claimants;

  • Backlog of restitution claims

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Strengthen capacity to integrate conservation concerns;

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

Eastern Cape Parks Board


  • The province has established a provincial parks authority for the management of the conservation function in the Eastern Cape;

  • Executing Agency for the project;

  • Direct responsibility for key project components;

  • Expansion of protected area system to cover under-represented and important vegetation types;

  • Increased revenue from the reserves;

  • Development within the protected areas, including new skills and logistical support;

  • Strengthened capacity to fulfill its mandate;

  • ECPB is both the regulatory and the management authority;

  • Weak capacity for co-management;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Provision of support: financial and human resources to undertake project activities;

  • Capacity building for key staff members involved in brokering and implementing co-management agreements;

  • Dedicate personnel to manage and monitor the project;

  • Establishment of a Knowledge Management System

Eastern Cape Tourism Board



  • Promotion and management of tourism operations inside public owned and managed land;

  • Responsibility to market and manage hospitality within nature reserves;

  • More effective collaboration with ECPB and communities;

  • Potential partner in co-management agreements;

  • Weak support to Wild Coast tourism products

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Promote co-management agreements;

  • Capacity building for implementing co-management;

SA National Biodiversity Institute

  • Providing guidance and promoting bio-regional planning;

  • Member of Program Steering Committee

  • Biodiversity management

  • Guiding bio-regional planning

No impact


Stakeholders who will be most affected by the project

Local communities

  • Primary resource users and de-facto land owners;

  • Dependant on land and natural resources in the Wild Coast and are primary stakeholders in ensuring that any decisions taken are implemented;

  • Improved collaboration with the relevant authorities on co-management;

  • Potential employment opportunities and/or other sources of income;

  • Recipient of project funds;

  • Rural livelihoods based on natural resources



  • May feel threatened by the project’s outcomes, decision making powers on strategy development and action plans;

  • Weak capacity to act as a partner in negotiation of management agreements;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Project will facilitate capacity building activities in co-management;

  • Communication strategy and materials translated in local language about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Development of micro-enterprises based on sustainable use of resources;

  • Conflict resolution;

Traditional Leadership

  • Administer and manage communal land and promote development in their respective areas of jurisdiction

  • Member of the Program Steering Committee

  • Improved collaboration with the relevant authorities on co-management;

  • Potential employment opportunities and/or other sources of income;




  • May feel threatened by the project’s outcomes, decision making powers on strategy development and action plans;

  • Weak capacity to act as a partner in negotiation of management agreements;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Project will facilitate capacity building activities in co-management;

  • Create a mechanism to maintain relationships and contribute constructively on co-management agreements;

  • Communication strategy and materials translated in local language about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Development of micro-enterprises based on sustainable use of resources;

Fisheries Committees


  • Subsistence fishing community members;

  • Improved collaboration with the relevant authorities on co-management;

  • Potential employment opportunities and/or other sources of income;




  • May feel threatened by the project’s outcomes, decision making powers on strategy development and action plans;

  • May loose access to some of the fishing areas;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Project will facilitate capacity building activities in co-management;

  • Communication strategy and materials translated in local language about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Development of micro-enterprises based on sustainable use of resources;

  • Develop alternative sustainable livelihood projects;

Wild Coast Cottage owners and Wild Coast Hotel Owners Association

  • Land owners and holiday home owners in the Wild Coast;

  • Biodiversity management, tourism development;

  • May feel threatened by the project’s outcomes;

  • May need to pay a fee to the protected area authority;

  • Profit from biodiversity without adequately providing in cash or in kind for its ongoing conservations;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Market-based fee structures for usufruct rights

Stakeholders whose influence on, and impact from the project are negligible

National and international NGO’s

(Eastern Cape NGO Coalition,TRALSO

PondoCrop, WWF, WESSA, Indalo,

Independent Development Trust, FFI




  • Biodiversity management;

  • Land-use planning;

  • Sustainable livelihoods;

  • Environmental education


  • Improved protected area management;

  • Improved partnerships and collaboration with authorities;

  • Capacity building activities;

  • Potential recipients o project funds;

  • Difference of opinions over various issues;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

Local Business and SMMEs

(NAFCOC,

Wilderness Safaris,

Mantis Collection




  • Profit-based business enterprises;

  • Land-use planning, tourism development and micro economic development and funding opportunities

  • Indirect interest in potential economic benefits arising from the project;

  • Opportunities for business ventures (tourism services, accommodation, etc);




  • May need to pay a fee to the protected area authority;

  • Profit at expense of biodiversity;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • The project will provide conducive environment for further responsible investment of resources

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;




Development Agencies and Donors

DBSA, UNDP, ECDC,Independent Development Trust (IDT), Ntinga OR Tambo Development Agency, Port St Johns Development Agency



  • Project promotes mission of the donors and/or development agency;

  • Provision of project funds;

  • Fast track development and business opportunities in protected areas;

  • Enable benefits to flow to the communities through co-management agreements and SMME development;

  • Provide funding opportunities;

MITIGATION STRATEGY

  • Communication strategy and materials about co-management – roles, responsibilities, enforcement;

  • Investor mobilization;

Participation Plan


        1. The process of stakeholder participation is guided by a comprehensive set of principles which are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Stakeholder participation principles





Principle

Stakeholder participation will:

Value Adding

be an essential means of adding value to the project

Inclusivity

include all relevant stakeholders

Accessibility and Access

be accessible and promote access to the process

Transparency

be based on transparency and fair access to information

Fairness

ensure that all stakeholders are treated in a fair and unbiased way

Accountability

be based on a commitment to accountability by all stakeholders

Constructive

Seek to manage conflict and promote the public interest

Redressing

Seek to redress inequity and injustice

Capacitating

Seek to develop the capacity of all stakeholders

Needs Based

be based on the needs of all stakeholders

Flexible

be flexibly designed and implemented

Rational and Coordinated

be rationally planned and coordinated, and not be ad hoc

Excellence

be subject to ongoing reflection and improvement



        1. The project will provide the following opportunities for stakeholder participation, with a special emphasis on the active participation of the local communities:




  1. Decision making – through the establishment of the Project Steering Committee, Task Teams on Protected Area Co-Management, Financing and Capacity Building, Committees for co-management for each protected area. The establishment of each structure will follow a participatory and transparent process involving the confirmation of all stakeholders; conducting one-to-one consultations with all stakeholders; development of Terms of Reference and ground-rules; founding meeting to agree on the Constitution, ToR and ground-rules. Three ground rules will be considered: (a) substantive – which will establish the issues to be considered by the relevant structure; (b) procedural – which will guide the operation (meetings procedures, frequency of meetings, quorum, chairing, chairman, record keeping, decision-making); and (3) behavioral – which will guide the behavior of the participants.




  1. Capacity building – at systemic, institutional and individual level – is one of the key strategic interventions of the project and will target all stakeholders which have the potential to be involved in brokering, implementation and/or monitoring co-management agreements. The project will target especially the institutions operating at the community level to enable them to actively participate in developing and implementing co-management agreements. There is a potential for conflict and disputes to develop within the program. These need to be anticipated and preferably prevented through appropriate process design and facilitation. In cases it will be necessary to intervene into situations of conflict, the budget makes general provision for specialist intervention on an ad hoc basis for this purpose.




  1. Communication - will include the participatory development of an integrated communication strategy. The communication strategy will ensure that difficulties of accessibility associated with language, access to technology and literacy be directly addressed. Materials will be developed with the assistance of the communities and will be translated in all local languages. Community outreach teams established by the project will ensure active dissemination of information to all communities living within the planning domain. The communication strategy will be based on the following key principles: (i) providing information to all stakeholders; (ii) promote dialogue between Wild Coast CASU and stakeholders; (iii) promote access to information; and (iv) promote a consistent image and brand for the Wild Coast Project;




        1. This section outlines the participation plan for the project against the outcomes and outputs:


Outcome 1: Institutional framework and capacity to facilitate co-management systems for protected areas is in place


        1. The main mechanisms for participation in this outcome will include: (i) establishment of three Task Teams to assist with ECPB, local communities and other relevant agencies in protected area co-management; (ii) community workshops; (iii) establishment of the knowledge management system; and (iv) designing and implementing a communication strategy.


Capacity of ECPB to broker and implement co-management agreements is strengthened

        1. The CASU located in the Eastern region office of the Eastern Cape Parks Board will facilitate the establishment of a Task Team on Capacity Building composed of all relevant stakeholders (ECPB personnel, and other institutions in the Wild Coast which have managed co-management agreements, such as DWAF, DLA and ECDC). The Task Team on Capacity Building will: (i) Identify key performance areas that need to be addressed during the brokering and implementation of co-management agreements; (ii) identify the personnel and the skills required to broker and implement co-management agreements; (iii) establish the level of training required for each member; and (iv) develop a mechanism to track the effectiveness of training in order to change whenever it’s not being effective.


Capacity of strategic key institutions to participate in co-management

        1. The management and use of natural resources in the Wild Coast falls under the responsibility of a wide range of institutions such as DWAF, DEAT, DLA, ECPB, DEAET, local government and traditional leaders, private sector and others. All these role-players need to be involved in any co-management agreements that relate to their mandated responsibilities. Bilateral meetings between the ECPB and the relevant institutions will be necessary to facilitate an understanding of the need for co-management agreements and their implications. Workshops will be conducted to first establish the form and nature of co-management agreements to be established and then the required strategic institutions, their roles and responsibilities. The Task Team: Capacity Building will focus on establishing the skills requirements of such strategic institutions. Newspaper notices, electronic communication, written communication and telephonic discussions will be used to engage stakeholders.


Knowledge Management System

        1. The project will facilitate the exchange of ideas and lessons learnt between the project and other initiatives in South Africa and the region through the National Knowledge Management System housed in SANBI’s Collaborative Learning Center. The Wild Coast is unique in nature and the co-management arrangements that will be developed will be reflective of such uniqueness. A “how to” kit will be designed, in consultations with various stakeholders, to provide a practical guide to the establishment and management of various types of co-management agreements as well as a set of guidelines and interventions specific for each type of co-management agreements. The project will also provide for seccondments, village to village exchange for the representative of the local governmental and traditional authorities, workshops and study tours to ensure that the lessons learnt are shared and replicated elsewhere.


Financial mechanism for protected area management in place

        1. A Task Team: Financing PAs will be established to assist the ECPB in developing the financial mechanisms for the protected area management. The team may consist of DEAET, DEAT, tourism sector (private and public institutions e.g. ECTB, ECDC), Department of Finance, individual specialists and companies. The team will be mandated to look at ways of making protected areas more financially sustainable and will consider public - private partnerships, taxes and levies, lease arrangements and other revenue generating mechanisms in each reserve and coastal conservation area, financial monitoring system and effective financial management system for protected areas.


Sustainable resource use policy developed

        1. The project will establish a Task Team: Sustainable Resource Use, composed of relevant stakeholders, to facilitate the development of a resource use policy, based on input from specialists in different fields (e.g. botanists, zoologist, resource economists, ecologists, sociologists, policy makers, conservation planners, marine biologists). The purpose of this team is to develop a policy with defensible scientific argument for sustainable use of natural resources.


Increased awareness and understanding of key stakeholders about co-management agreements

        1. The project will develop a communication strategy and a set of tools which will target the communities living in the priority areas. The strategy will be accompanied by a series of materials translated in the local languages. The implementation of the strategy will be facilitated by a community outreach team comprised of selected individuals from local communities across the Wild Coast. Dedicated awareness raising activities will be undertaken to increase awareness and understanding of key stakeholders about co-management. The efforts will be focused in areas where a process to broker co-management agreements has been started or where there is intent to do so. Workshops, meetings, brochures, media (newspaper notices), information sessions will be means of disseminating information to the relevant stakeholders.


Comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system

        1. The key function of the M&E system which will be established by the project is to facilitate adaptive measures to improve impact and accommodate lessons emerging elsewhere. The results will be disseminated to the wider public through annual stakeholder meetings facilitated by the CASU.


Outcome 2: Management effectiveness is enhanced within a rationalized and more representative system of protected areas (IUCN category IV), operating under co-management agreements with local communities and the private sector


        1. The Wild Coast protected area estate is composed of state forests, provincial nature reserves, marine protected areas and a coastal conservation area. These areas are currently managed by different public institutions such as DEAET, DWAF, DEAT and ECPB. Co-management agreements between these institutions will necessitate the rationalization and strengthening of such areas, employing a series of active participation mechanisms.


Capacity of local community structures to negotiate co-management agreements

        1. The success of any co-management agreement lies on the satisfaction and consent of the parties involved. The ability for local communities to be able to negotiate their terms therefore becomes important in ensuring that they are satisfied with such terms. The ECPB will work with the Task Team: Capacity Building, local communities, traditional leaders and relevant local municipalities to identify the areas that need strengthening for local communities to understand their role in negotiating co-management agreements as well as identify the relevant community structures and individuals to be trained.




        1. There are currently various community institutions (traditional leadership and its council, community trusts, ward committees and even a combination of these institutions) that operate at local community level, and they vary in influence from area to area. Not all community institutions will be relevant for co-management agreements and this may necessitate a revision of the old ones and/or establishing of the new ones. Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) will be used to determine and establish the relevant institution and the relevant representative members. A series of facilitated workshops and meetings will be undertaken to identify individuals that would require skills development, as well as the level and the type of skills development needed. The use of current information dissemination mechanisms such as local institutional meetings (iimbizo), municipal notice-boards, word of mouth and community gatherings, and telephonic communication will be entertained to get community members to attend meetings and workshops.


Adaptive management planning for each protected area

        1. The project provides for the establishment of small Reserve Management Teams composed of managers, scientists and representatives of the local communities which will facilitate the participatory development of conservation management plans. In some instances Co-management Committees for the protected area management will be established. Stakeholders which may be affected (communities, tourists, government agencies) and interested (research and academic institutions , individual specialists) in the plan and will be invited to attend a series of workshops focusing on various stages of the management planning process and required to comment on the draft management plans.


Active Management interventions

        1. The project will support the implementation of active management interventions identified in the conservation management plan developed for each area. The CASU and reserve staff will communicate with local communities about proposed management interventions through the co-management, or other, structures and ensure that local communities benefit directly from the implementation of management activities through capacity building, employment, access to entrepreneurial opportunities.


Protected areas expanded into adjacent communal land through co-management agreements

        1. The project team will undertake a series of workshops with the local communities to discuss the options for expansion, how the expansion will affect the local communities. This will raise the awareness of the communities about the expansion, its implications and laying the foundation for co-management agreements. Communities will be involved through meetings, workshops, word of mouth during negotiations of boundaries, co-management agreements, development of management plans and alternative livelihoods where existing ones will be discontinued.


Outcome 3: A functioning network of multiple resource use protected areas (IUCN category VI) is in place, and is being effectively managed in active collaboration with local communities
Rationalize the management authority for protected areas

        1. Key institutions (DWAF, DEAET, ECPB, DEAT, DLA, local municipalities and traditional leadership) will work together to rationalize existing protected areas in the Wild coast. A team will be drawn from these institutions to develop mechanisms for assigning the management authority to one agency with clear roles and responsibilities for conservation and management. The results of the team’s work will constantly be reported directly to the institutions to get political backing and the necessary decisions and support to finalize the rationalization.


Capacity of local community structures to negotiate co-management agreements

        1. The success of any co-management agreement lies on the satisfaction and consent of the parties involved. The ability for local communities to be able to negotiate their terms therefore becomes important in ensuring that they are satisfied with such terms. The ECPB will work with the Task Team: Capacity Building, local communities, traditional leaders and relevant local municipalities to identify the areas that need strengthening for local communities to understand their role in negotiating co-management agreements as well as identify the relevant community structures and individuals to be trained. There are currently various community institutions (traditional leadership and its council, community trusts, ward committees and even a combination of these institutions) that operate at local community level, and they vary in influence from area to area. Not all community institutions will be relevant for co-management agreements and this may necessitate a revision of the old ones and/or establishing the new ones. Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) will be used determine and establish the relevant institution and the relevant representative members. A series of facilitated workshops and meetings will be undertaken to identify individuals that would require skills development, as well as the level and the type of skills development needed. The use of current information dissemination mechanisms such as local institutional meetings (iimbizo), municipal notice-boards, word of mouth and community gatherings, and telephonic communication will be pursued to get community members to attend meetings and workshops.


Cooperative governance structure for the coastal conservation area established

        1. The coastal conservation area is the area one kilometer inland of the high water mark. It is currently a management responsibility of DEAET while DLA and the municipalities also have their own mandates related to it. The current state of its management is not satisfactory and a cooperative institution with clear roles and responsibility is indicated. This cooperative governance structure is provided for by the current Wild Coast Tourism Development Policy but requires a dedicated institution to enable and support its functioning. The Project will facilitate bilateral meetings, workshops and will work with various government institutions to set up a relevant cooperative governance institution for the coastal conservation area.


Adaptive management planning for each protected area

        1. During the formulation of management plans for the state forests, local community structure and other stakeholders which may be affected (communities, tourists, government agencies) as well as interested parties (research and academic institutions, individual specialists) will be invited to attend a series of meetings focusing on various stages of the management planning process and required to comment on the draft management plans.


Active Management interventions

        1. The project will support the implementation of active management interventions identified in the conservation management plan developed for each area. One of the key mechanisms for participation in this output is the establishment of the community-led monitoring and enforcement service acting in the Coastal Conservation Area. The service will be composed of members of adjacent communities who will benefit from logistical and technical support for its operation.


Protected Areas consolidated into viable management units

        1. A lot of ground work needs to be carried out in consolidating the protected areas. Determination of boundaries, the extent of the area that requires consolidation, the resources in the area will all need to be documented. The Protected Area Management Task Team will facilitate a series of stakeholder workshops to discuss the options for consolidation with local communities and tourists that may be affected by the project. In addition, the teams will work with the local communities in the development of the management agreement and identifying the appropriate institutional arrangements for implementation.



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