Unit: War and Oppression 26 Day Unit Jennifer Ballard Valdosta State University November 2008



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Running head: WAR AND OPPRESSION UNIT

Unit: War and Oppression
26 Day Unit
Jennifer Ballard
Valdosta State University
November 2008

War and Oppression: Unit Purpose


Unit Goals:
The main goal of this unit is for students to understand that one of the most consistent traits of human beings in relation to one another is the urge to persecute and oppress – even to murder. The impulse to violence is universal. Literature contains archetypal characters, symbols, themes, and images that express these impulses and the effects of these actions through various forms of text and media. Students will understand that stories, songs, and poetry are the principal means of understanding oneself and others. Students will also develop an appreciation for foreign literature and world cultures. Through listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing, students will gain an appreciation for the stories, songs, poems, and essays written to challenge our ideas of others and ourselves. Stories of victims show us the uselessness and brutality of persecution, but they also show us courage and strength.
Students will analyze themes of war and oppression. Students will analyze works that consider world ethics, life in the light of death, our need for heroes, and our roles in society. Through reading and analyzing literature and its intricacies of plot, theme, irony, symbolism, poetic discourse, style, characterization, and genre, students will learn to appreciate and discuss or write about the social and political roles we each play in human rights and be open to what can be learned from texts of a different time and place.
This unit is designed to last several weeks. There are several lessons included to allow the educator to choose more relevant and meaningful lessons for his or her students.
Course/Grade Level:
This unit is designed for a tenth grade literature and composition course. The state standards are for Georgia Performance Standards.
Subject/Topic Areas:
Short stories, novels, drama, poetry
Unit Essential Question(s):


  • What role does literature play in the area of war and oppression?

  • How can you make your own moral decisions concerning humanity? On what do you base these decisions?

  • Why do people write about war and oppression?

Course: Tenth Grade Lit/Comp – Fall/Spring Semester Unit: War and Oppression




Key Learning: The main goal of this unit is to understand that one of the most consistent traits of human beings in relation to one another is the urge to persecute and oppress – even to murder. Literature contains archetypal characters, symbols, themes, and images that express these impulses and the effects of these actions through various forms of text and media. Stories of victims show us the uselessness and brutality of persecution, but they also show us courage and strength.




Unit essential question(s): What role does literature play in the area of war and oppression?

How can you make your own moral decisions concerning humanity? On what do you base these decisions?

Why do people write about war and oppression?







Concept: Literary Analysis

Students will…



  • Locate and analyze structure, imagery, symbolism

  • Relate literary elements to theme

  • Evaluate diction




Concept: Poetry

Students will…



  • Evaluate diction

  • Discuss theme

  • Compare/contrast theme across genres

Concept: Listening/Speaking/Viewing/Writing

Students will…



  • Support claims with textual evidence



Lesson EQ:

* How is oppression represented in literature?

* How important is “telling the story”?

* What is the general opinion of war as expressed in literature?




Lesson EQ:

* How do songs illustrate the theme of oppression?

* How important is courage?

* What is the general opinion of war as expressed in poetry?

* How does Yevtushenko mount a poetic protest against anti-Semitism?

* How do translations of the same work compare/contrast?



Lesson EQ:

* How do representations of oppression reflect our similarities and differences?

* Why do people risk their lives to save others?

* How can oppression be achieved through non-violence?

* How does literature from different genres treat the theme of war in similar ways?

* How can someone justify behavior such as that of the Nazis during WWII?

* If put in the same situation as that of a Nazi officer, what would you do? Why?




Vocabulary:

(Fill in terms as class needs)





Vocabulary:

(Fill in terms as class needs)




Vocabulary:

(Fill in terms as class needs)




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Oppression of Minorities
(5 day lesson)
Georgia Performance Standards:
ELA10RL1:

  • Locates and analyzes such elements in fiction as language and style, character development, point of view, irony, and structures (i.e., chronological, in medias res, flashback, frame narrative).

  • Identifies and analyzes patterns of imagery or symbolism.

  • Relates identified elements in fiction to theme or underlying meaning.

ELA10RL2:

  • Applies knowledge of the concept that the theme or meaning of a selection represents a universal view or comment on life or society and provides support from the text for the identified theme.

  • Evaluates the way an author’s choice of words advances the theme or purpose of the work.

  • Compares and contrasts the presentation of a theme or topic across genres and explains how the selection of genre affects the delivery of universal ideas about life and society.

ELA10RL3:

  • Analyzes the influence of mythical, classical, and canonical literature on contemporary literature and film.

ELA10W1:

  • Supports statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and specific examples.


Brilliant Star Objectives:
Spiritual Development:

  • Students will be able to identify the importance of a deep connection to themselves, others, nature, or to a higher power.

Personal Style

  • Students will be able to describe important similarities and differences among people.

Social/Cultural

  • Students will be able to identify physical, gender, social, ethnic and cultural factors that contribute to people being alike and different.


Lesson Essential Questions:


  • How is oppression represented in literature?

  • How do these representations reflect our similarities and differences as people/societies?


Texts: (all text links in Appendix A)
Excerpts from Anna Karenina, The Grapes of Wrath, Exodus

“Incident” by Countee Cullen


“The Negro Speaks of Rivers” by Langston Hughes (audio)

“Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes

“I Hear Them All” by Old Crow Medicine Show

“Redemption Song” by Bob Marley

“The Way It Is” by Bruce Hornsby

“The Trees” by Neil Peart

“The Unforgiven” by TimWheeler

“The Ballad of Sacco and Vanzetti” by Woody Guthrie


Procedure:

Activating Strategy:


Show students videos related to oppression. View and discuss. Some suggestions: Blood Diamond, Roots, Hotel Rwanda, FDR’s Pearl Harbor speech (available from United Streaming), and Jimmy Carter’s Human Rights speech (also available from United Streaming).

Teaching and Whole Class Discussion:

Read the Anna Karenina, Grapes of Wrath, and Exodus excerpts using the following questions as a way to begin discussion.



  1. These excerpts reflect the cultures of vastly different times and places. What do they have in common?

  2. What kinds of people tend to be oppressed?

  3. What are some examples of groups that have been or are still being oppressed?

  4. Why does the system tend to oppress groups?

  5. According to the Book of Exodus, the Israelites were led out of Egypt by Moses, who has emerged as an archetypical hero and savior. Who are some other Moses figures who have helped to free oppressed people?


Group Work:

Have groups read and analyze the poems and song lyrics associated with oppression. Each group will be responsible for presenting and explaining its poem/lyrics. Use the following questions for the poems/lyrics.

“Incident” by Countee Cullen


  1. Why is this poem entitled “Incident”?

  2. How do the last two lines affect you?

  3. This is one of the few poems which can claim to have an effectiveness that has strengthened with time. Why do you think this is so?

  4. How does this poem deal with the thematic concern of oppression?


“The Negro Speaks of Rivers” by Langston Hughes

  1. At what moments does the idea of race surface in this poem?

  2. What could the turning of the Mississippi to gold symbolize?

  3. Why do you think our speaker chose these four rivers specifically (the Euphrates, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi), and is there a significance to the order in which they appear?

  4. How does this poem deal with the thematic concern of oppression?

“Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes



  1. What is the purpose of the extended metaphor of life being a stairway mean?

  2. What is the mother’s message to her son?

  3. Hughes, who wrote this poem when he was 21, was--obviously-- neither an old woman, nor, as a college-educated intellectual, did he speak or write in the dialect in which the mother's thoughts are expressed. What then are the implications of this imaginative projection? Why would the young, highly-educated African-American poet imagine himself speaking in the voice of an old woman talking about the troubles of her life to her son? What might this old woman symbolize?

  4. How does this poem deal with the thematic concern of oppression?

“I Hear Them All” by Old Crow Medicine Show



  1. What allusions are mentioned in the lyrics of this song and what are their purposes?

  2. Who are some of the oppressed people mentioned in these lyrics?

  3. How does this song relate to the theme of oppression?

“Redemption Song” by Bob Marley



  1. What example of oppression from the past is mentioned in the first stanza?

  2. How do the lyrics refer to oppression in modern America?

  3. Who are some modern “pirates”?

  4. In one sentence, state this artist’s take on oppression.

“The Way It Is” by Bruce Hornsby



    1. How does the song compare the modern problems with the welfare system to pre-Civil Rights America?

    2. Considering your answer for number one, what is the song’s message as reflected in the chorus?

    3. Reread the third verse. What is the song’s commentary on affirmative action?

    4. Implicit in the song is a message on how to fight racism. What is it? What is this song’s message about oppression?

“The Trees” by Neil Peart



  1. What modern struggle is symbolized by the struggle between the maple and the oak?

  2. Religious and philosophical leaders from many cultures have used parables and fables to teach morality. If this song is a fable, what lines would be the moral? What do they mean?

  3. How does this song deal with the thematic concern of oppression?

“The Unforgiven” by Tim Wheeler



  1. Who is the ubiquitous “they” to whom the speaker refers?

  2. What has happened to the boy from the first verse to the second? How do “they” manage to do this to him?

  3. Why is the boy dubbed “unforgiven”?

  1. How does this song deal with the thematic concern of oppression?

“The Ballad of Sacco and Vanzetti” by Woody Guthrie



  1. According to the song, which factors cause oppression in the world?

  2. Why does the speaker tell his father not to be “ashamed to tell his crime”?

  3. Why might the speaker be proud of his arrest?

  4. Compare the tone of the first verse to that of the second. How are they different?

  5. How does this song deal with the thematic concern of oppression?

Formative Assessment:

Gauge student understanding of oppression through informal observations. Have students suggest titles of novels, movies, or songs that deal with the thematic concern of oppression, the plight of the oppressed.



Summative Assessment:

Reflection piece: Make a general statement about the position literary works tend to take on minority oppression. Show evidence by explaining how oppressed minorities are represented in three works (movies, books, songs, etc.). How are their presentations similar yet different? What factors contribute to these similarities and differences? Also discuss how the presentation of the theme of oppression varies across genre.


Hannah Arendt: Oppression and Resistance
(3 day lesson)



Georgia Performance Standards
:
ELA10RL4:

  • Explains important ideas and viewpoints introduced in a text through accurate and detailed references or allusions to the text and other relevant works.

ELA10RL1:

  • Relates identified elements in fiction to theme or underlying meaning.


Brilliant Star Objectives:
Spiritual Development:

  • Students will be able to identify the importance of a deep connection to themselves, others, nature, or to a higher power.

Conation/Volition: Self-Reactiveness:

  • Students will be able to describe specific attitudes (e.g., courage, gratitude, caring) and give examples of people who displayed that attitude.

Social/Cultural Skills:

  • Students will describe specific examples of how people have risked their own safety so that others may be free.


Lesson Essential Questions:


  • How important is courage?

  • Why do people risk their lives to help others?

  • How important is “telling the story?”


Texts:
Excerpt from: Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil, rev. and enl. (New York: Penguin Books, 1994). 230-231.
Procedure:
Activating Strategy:
Show students video segments of the Karl Adolf Eichmann trial of 1960. Complete a word splash of what students know about Jewish persecution during WWII.
Presentation:
Read the excerpt about Anton Schmidt from Eichmann in Jerusalem (pages 230-231), and explain the reference to Yad Vashem, the memorial to Holocaust victims in Jerusalem.
Collaborative Pairs:
Have students complete the following questions. Students should prepare to share their answers and explanations with the class in a whole class discussion.


    1. Anton Schmidt did not risk his life “because of the money.” What could have motivated him?

    2. How do you account for the fact that he was almost alone among German soldiers in his resistance to Nazi persecution of the Jews?

    3. Is Hannah Arendt correct in assuming that if more people had acted like Schmidt, the story in Europe would have been very different? How can one person act alone against the views of the majority?

    4. If everyone agrees that accepting totalitarian oppression is the best way to survive, why would anyone decide that personal survival is less important than resistance?

    5. Schmidt was executed. Was his courage useful to anyone? Did it make a difference?


Small Groups:
Have students read Peter Bamm, Die Unsichtbare Flagge, (1952) quoted in Eichmann in Jerusalem with a small group. Students should then read Arendt’s response and answer the following questions.



  1. Rephrase the argument of Peter Bamm – a German army physician who tried to explain the inaction of so many German soldiers – in your own words.

  2. Why is it important to “tell the story?” What point does Hannah Arendt make about the possibility that evil can be completely suppressed and that no one will ever know?

  3. What accounts for the fact that under conditions of terror, some people will not comply? How would you explain the motivation of such people?


Formative Assessments:
Throughout exercises, gauge student understanding through observations and questioning.
Summative Assessment:
Reflective Journal: Do you accept the argument that some sacrifices for the sake of others is “useless.” How important is courage and “telling the story?” Using evidence from literature or personal experience, explain your answers.
Grade according to understanding of concepts discussed and support for assertions.

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Nadine Gordimer: “The Last Kiss”


(4 day lesson)
Georgia Performance Standards:
ELA10RL1:

  • Locates and analyzes such elements in fiction as language and style, character development, point of view, irony, and structures (i.e., chronological, in medias res, flashback, frame narrative).

  • Relates identified elements in fiction to theme or underlying meaning

ELA10RL2:

  • Applies knowledge of the concept that the theme or meaning of a selection represents a universal view or comment on life or society and provides support from the text for the identified theme.


Brilliant Star Objectives:
Conation/Volition: Intentionality

  • Students will be able to discriminate between intended and unintended actions or behaviors


Lesson Essential Question:


  • How can oppression be achieved through non-violent means?


Texts:
“The Last Kiss” by Nadine Gordimer
Procedure:
Notes:
“The Last Kiss” is a story of a human being dehumanized by a town’s perception of him as a relic of a former time. Once an important man, he is now seen as a character, an eccentric. Neglect reduces him to bronchial cough in the dark of the cinema. An uncharacteristic action brings him back into the public view and, at least for the reader, forces a confrontation with his humanity.
Gordimer’s story points out that oppression is not always a deliberate attempt to reduce a person to powerlessness. It can take place through neglect when a person ceases to have a significant social role.
Activating Strategy:
Read aloud the opening line of “The Last Kiss,” which asserts that people tend to regard “characters” as objects rather than as individuals. Ask students why this might be true and encourage examples of real-life characters.
Presentation:
Read “The Last Kiss” aloud with students.
Collaborative Pairs/Small Groups:
Have small groups or partnerships complete the handout “Poor Old Van As” (Appendix B).
Formative Assessment:
Observe group interaction and explanations to gauge understanding.
Summative Assessment:
Individuals complete a graphic organizer that illustrates the main character’s decline from Van As to Old Van As to Poor Old Van As. Students include a paragraph explaining how societies can oppress an individual unintentionally and without force.

War and Literature
(8 day lesson)


Georgia Performance Standards
:

ELA10RL1:

  • Relates identified elements in fiction to theme or underlying meaning.

ELA10RL2:

  • Applies knowledge of the concept that the theme or meaning of a selection represents a universal view or comment on life or society and provides support from the text for the identified theme.

  • Analyzes and compares texts that express a universal theme, and locates support in the text for the identified theme.

  • Compares and contrasts the presentation of a theme or topic across genres and explains how the selection of genre affects the delivery of universal ideas about life and society.


Brilliant Star Objectives:
Personal Style:

  • Students will be able to describe important similarities and differences among people.

Cognitive/Thinking:

  • Correlation: Students will be able to identify a relationship between two or more things related to each other (not necessarily causally).


Lesson Essential Questions:


  • What is the general opinion of war as expressed in literature?

  • How does literature from different genres treat the theme of war in similar ways?


Texts: (all texts linked in Appendix A)
“The Man He Killed” by Thomas Hardy

“Dulce et Decorum Est” by Wilfred Owen

“Innocence” by Thom Gunn

“The Sniper” by Liam O’Flaherty


Procedure:
Activating Strategy:
Project pictures of soldiers from different eras on the board. Have students prepare a list of 7-10 character traits that they would deem essential for someone to be considered a good soldier. Discuss as a class.
Presentation:
Project the poem “The Man He Killed” by Thomas Hardy on the board. Discuss the meaning of the poem with the class. Have students summarize the poem.
Presentation and Collaborative Pairs:
Project the poem “Dulce et Decorum Est” by Wilfred Owen on the board. Translate the last two lines of the poem (“It is sweet and proper to die for one’s country.”) for students. Ask pairs of students to debate why Owen calls this thought an “old lie,” in the face of patriotic duty in World War I.
Discuss “Innocence” by Thom Gunn with the class. Ask students to cite lines that indicate that we can become so indoctrinated and desensitized that war’s horrors go unnoticed.
Presentation:

Read aloud the short story “The Sniper” by Liam O’Flaherty. Ask students to consider the cause and effect relationship between the sniper's political ideology and the outcome of the story. Focus attention on the correlation between beliefs and actions. Make the connection between actions and consequences. Discuss the consequences of the sniper's actions.

Use the following questions as springboards to solutions:


  • The narrator is a young man. How can age influence a person's decision-making ability? Do you think he fully understands the ramifications of his political convictions?

  • How does the narrator's decision to smoke endanger his safety? Knowing this, why does he risk smoking? Do you think the cigarettes and whiskey help the sniper cope with his situation? Why/Why not?

  • The sniper hardly considers whether or not to shoot the old woman. Should he feel remorse for shooting her? Why/Why not?

  • Do you think the narrator knew his brother was fighting for the opposing side? How do you think their political differences developed? If they had known the eventual outcome, do you think their decisions would have been different? Are political ideologies worth sacrificing family ties? Explain.

  • How do you think the sniper will deal with the consequences of his action? How do you think the rest of the family will respond? Is reconciliation possible? Why/Why not?

Formative Assessment:

Have students think of the five most important traits of an effective soldier. Choose a different animal to represent each trait. (Example: If the characteristic is quiet, a mouse may be an animal that would represent the trait.) Then have students create a new creature that reflects the characteristics of all of the traits of a good soldier. (Example: The creature could have the stripes of a zebra, the trunk of an elephant, the neck of a giraffe, etc.) The students must include a written explanation of what each character represents with reflections to the literature explaining why the five chosen traits were picked.


Collaborative Pairs:
Give students the information on “Novels at War with War” (available in Appendix C) and ask students to complete the handout following the models suggested. After completion, students can share their answers.
Formative Assessment:
Observe student responses and questions during shared responses.
Summative Assessment:
The perspectives on war are as diverse as the people who are affected by those conflicts. Have students convey their views by using what they have discovered through the various readings, images, and pictures that have been presented in class. To complete this lesson, have students construct a poem and incorporate visuals to complement it.
Directions:

  • Decide on the view of war you wish to convey

  • Find an existing poem and imitate it, retaining the same style but having it reflect your viewpoint on war.

  • You are to find relevant images/pictures to accompany your poem.

  • Using Microsoft Word, copy the images onto a blank page, or you may save the pictures in a file and then access them by going to the main toolbar and pulling down the insert menu to the picture option. Once you have the picture on your page, go to view on the main toolbar and go to the toolbars option and make sure that both the picture and drawing options are checked. Use the picture toolbar to modify your pictures.

  • Once you have the picture(s) the way you want, go to text box on the drawing toolbar and enter your poem. Be sure to include your name, the title of your poem, and the name and author of the original poem.

  • On the back of your poem or on a separate sheet, write a couple of paragraphs explaining the common attitudes most authors generate toward war, and indicate how these attitudes may conflict with a sense of patriotism. Explain ways to resolve these conflicting emotions.

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Yevtushenko’s “Babi Yar”
(3 day lesson)

Georgia Performance Standards:
ELA10RL1:

  • Identifies, responds to, and analyzes the effects of diction, syntax, sound, form, figurative language, and structure of poems as these elements relate to meaning.

  • Analyzes and evaluates the appropriateness of diction and imagery (controlling images, figurative language, understatement, irony, paradox).

ELA10RL2:

  • Evaluates the way an author’s choice of words advances the theme or purpose of the work.

ELA10RL4:

  • Identifies and assesses the impact of ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.


Brilliant Star Objectives:
Spirituality:

  • Students will be able to identify the importance of a deep connection to themselves, others, nature, or to a higher power.

Moral Character Development:

  • Students will be able to recognize a clear image of themselves and how to identify behavior that does not follow moral rules.

  • Given a story or situation in which a choice must be made between acceptable or appropriate behavior and unacceptable or inappropriate behavior, the students will be able to discern the moral dilemma, make a choice, and provide a rationale for that choice.


Lesson Essential Questions:


  • How does Yevtushenko mount a poetic protest against ant-Semitism?

  • How do translations of the same work compare?

  • How can someone justify behavior such as that of the Nazis during WWII?

  • If put in the same situation as a Nazi officer, what would you do and why?


Texts:
“Babi Yar” by Yevgeny Yevtushenko
Procedure:
Activating Strategy:
Show students videos or images about Babi Yar. These can be found in several places on the Internet. There are nice video clips on youtube.com and good images at Wikipedia.org. Discuss the history behind the poem before reading the poem. It may be beneficial to relate Babi Yar to more familiar situations such as the story of Anne Frank or Schindler’s List.
Small Collaborative Groups:
As a class read the poem “Babi Yar” as translated by Rose Styron (can be found in Poets on Street Corners: Portraits of Fifteen Russian Poets, ed. Olga Carlisle [New York: Vintage Books, 1968], 291-295). In small groups answer the following questions along with the questions posed by Russian and American students at http://www.iearn.org/hgp/aeti/1995-discuss-babi-yar.html. Discuss as a class.
1. What is Babi Yar?

2. Explain the allusion in lines 5-7.

3. What happened to Dreyfus?

4. What happened in Bielostok?

5. What does Yevtushenko praise and what does he condemn?

6. What happened to Anne Frank?

7. The verb howl is used twice. Why?

8. Why does the poet identify himself with the Jewish people?

9. What is the Internationale?

10. Why does Yevtushenko choose to incur on himself the wrath of anti-Semites?


Formative Assessment:
Gauge student understanding through observation of student work in groups. Also assess through questioning during discussion.
Presentation:
Explain that translations from one language to another can often lead to reinterpretations of text. Synonyms do not share the same meanings; there is no word-to-word translation among languages. Context can change the meaning, tone, and nuance of any word. Show students an original Russian text of “Babi Yar.”
Collaborative Pairs:
Have students read George Reavy’s translation in Literary Cavalcade (October 1967) and Robin Milner-Gulland and Peter Levi’s translation in Yevtushenko: Selected Poems (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1962). Explain to students that the translations are similar, yet they differ in some details. Ask students to think about the similarities and differences among these poems and the Styron translation with their partners and decide which of the three they like best. Conduct a brief discussion based on their responses.
Summative Assessment:
Ask students to select any series of three to six lines and to complete a detailed comparison/contrast essay of the three versions. Grade on interpretation and evaluation of the essential questions.

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Cumulative Summative Assessment
(3 class days)
Summative Assessment:
Students or teacher chooses from the following list of projects for students to complete to illustrate understanding of standards, objectives, and concepts from this unit.
Options:
According to Senator Bob Kerrey, a Vietnam War veteran, dying for your country is not the worst part of war, killing for your country is: “Because that’s the memory that haunts.” Using texts we have read in class, discuss this idea with supporting textual evidence.
Compare and contrast Yehuda Amichai’s poem “The Diameter of the Bomb” with Nguyen Duy’s “A Small Song of Peace.”
According to political science professor Benjamin R. Barber, our nation has been “nominally democratic for so long that we presume it is our natural condition rather than the product of persistent effort and tenacious responsibility.” Agree or disagree with Barber’s statement in a thoughtful and well-supported essay.
“The world is too dangerous to live in – not because of the people who do evil, but because of the people who sit and let it happen.” (Albert Einstein) Relate Einstein’s comment to the writings in this unit (Hannah Arendt may be especially helpful).
Using the literature in this section as inspiration, create a lesson plan for teaching fifth graders about oppression. Include the following elements: objectives, procedures, materials, and projects.
Read Haing Ngor: A Cambodian Odyssey by Haing S. Ngor. Then write a review of the work that details the four years of terror and brutality Dr. Ngor spent under Pol Pot’s rule. Relate your ideas about this work to ideas discussed in our unit.

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Appendix A


I. Oppression of Minorities


    1. Anna Karenina -- http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/52/95/frameset.html (Paragraph when Nicolay Levin says to his brother, “You know that the capital oppresses the laborer…”

    2. The Grapes of Wrathhttp://www.archive.org/stream/grapesofwrath030650mbp/grapesofwrath030650mbp_dju.txt (“They were hungry and they were fierce…” to “land and food; and to them the two were one.”)

    3. Exodus 1:8 -14; 5:6-14 – http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?book_id=2&chapter=1&version=31

    4. “Incident” by Countee Cullen -http://www.duboislc.org/ShadesOfBlack/CounteeCullen.html

    5. “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” by Langston Hughes – http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15722

    6. “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes -- http://oldpoetry.com/opoem/10388-Langston-Hughes-Mother-To-Son

    7. “I Hear Them All” by Old Crow Medicine Show http://www.cowboylyrics.com/lyrics/old-crow-medicine-show/i-hear-them-all-17586.html

    8. “Redemption Song” by Bob Marley –

http://www.lyricsfreak.com/b/bob+marley/redemption+song_20021829.html

    1. “The Way It Is” by Bruce Hornsby –

http://www.lyricsfreak.com/b/bob+marley/redemption+song_20021829.html

    1. “The Trees” by Neil Peart -- http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/The-Trees-lyrics-Rush/914E9FF5E00C318948256BBF003287D4

    2. “The Unforgiven” by Tim Wheeler -- http://www.sing365.com/music/lyric.nsf/The-Unforgiven-lyrics-Metallica/360FC7F120071E214825688D00340910

    3. “The Ballad of Sacco and Vanzetti” by Woodie Guthrie – http://www.lyricstime.com/dulce-pontes-the-ballad-of-sacco-e-vanzetti-lyrics.html

II. Hannah Arendt –


http://books.google.com/books?id=ZwjNGDPUSPsC&dq=eichmann+in+jerusalem&pg=PP1&ots=ZydCsQ3ypY&sig=yaCw00r-iB5pq35NigydhycRmyQ&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/search%3Fhl%3Den%26rlz%3D%26q%3Deichmann%2Bin%2Bjerusalem%26btnG%3DGoogle%2BSearch&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail
III. War and Literature


    1. “The Man He Killed” by Thomas Hardy -- http://www.theotherpages.org/poems/hardy01.html

    2. “Dulce et Decorum Est” by Wilfred Owen -- http://www.warpoetry.co.uk/owen1.html

    3. “Innocence” by Thom Gunn -- http://doricwilson.blogspot.com/2008/10/innocence-for-tony-white.html

    4. “The Sniper” by Liam O’Flaherty -- http://www.classicshorts.com/stories/sniper.html

IV. “Babi Yar” -- http://www.iearn.org/hgp/aeti/1995-discuss-babi-yar.html


Appendix B
Poor Old Van As




Directions: Use the following questions to guide your understanding of Nadine Gordimer’s “The Last Kiss.”


        1. Trace the main character’s decline by focusing on the following points.




          1. Provide evidence that he was once a respected, successful person




          1. What actions reveal his determination?




          1. Describe society’s reactions to him in his later years.




        1. Find key images that underscore the deterioration of Van As.




        1. Describe the effect of Gordimer’s description of the main character’s daily train ride, surrounded by teenagers.




        1. Recalling details from the story, interpret and respond to the following quotations.




          1. “When people become characters, they cease to be regarded as human.”




          1. “Nothing fades so quickly as what is unchanged.”




          1. “He might have been some harmless, slow-reacting creature in a zoo, dimly hearing the sound of pieces of thrown orange-peel bouncing off its hide.”




          1. “…while the first kiss was something to make your eyes prick in the cinema, it was assumed that the last must be ridiculous and obscene…”




          1. “It was as if the town’s only statue, a shabby thing of an obscure general on a horse…were to have been observed, bleeding.”



        1. The townspeople view the kiss as a scandal and a crime. Are there other ways to interpret it?




        1. Reexamine the story’s opening and closing sentences. Then identify social criticisms expressed in “The Last Kiss.”

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Appendix C
Novels at War with War




Directions: Write your own summaries to as many novels, short stories, movies as you are able. Follow the examples given.
Title – The Red Badge of Courage Author – Stephen Crane
Summary – A young man’s courage is tested and defined as he witnesses and actively participates in injury and death on the battlefields of the Civil War.
Title – Slaughterhouse Five Author – Kurt Vonnegut
Summary – As a prisoner of war in Dresden, Germany, during World War II, Billy Pilgrim witnesses the destruction of that defenseless city, known for hundreds of years for its delicate art work in porcelain.
Suggested titles and authors:
All Quiet on the Western Front

Erich Remarque

Endgame

Samuel Beckett

The Sun Also Rises

Ernest Hemingway



Friendly Persuasion

Jessamyn West



War and Peace

Leo Tolstoy



The Deer Hunter

E. M. Cordner



Mila 18

Leon Uris


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