|Unit VI Semester Exam Review
1. What right concerning religion does the First Amendment protect? What limit does this place on the government?
Guarantees people have the freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and press, and the right of people to petition the government.
2. What is Federalism?
In this government system, power is divided between national and state governments.
3. How might Freedom of the Press and Speech as protected by the First Amendment influence politics in America?
Citizens and members of the press are free to speak and report their views on political issues in America without reprisal from the government.
4. What is the main function of the Legislative Branch?
Congress, the legislative branch of government, makes the nation’s laws. It also has the power to “lay and collect taxes” and declare war. Congress has two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate. Congress has two main functions: to make the nation’s laws and control government spending.
5. Which amendment assures that the people of the United States have the right to trial by a jury of one’s peers in criminal cases and then civil cases? Amendment 6 then Amendment 7
6. What is self-incrimination? Which amendment deals with the protection against self-incrimination?
Self-incrimination is being forced in a trial or while in custody of police to testify against himself or herself. Amendment 5.
7. What was the stance of Anti-Federalists when it came to the Bill of Rights? Why did they say it must be enumerated in the Constitution?
Against the Constitution
Feared that the Constitution took too much power away from the people
Thought the Constitution gave too much power to the federal government
Believed that states should be more powerful than the federal government because states are closer to the people
Considered the Bill of Rights necessary because the absence of such a bill raises the threat of tyranny
8. What protections does the Fifth Amendment provide?
This amendment contains important protections for people accused of crimes. Government may not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. Grants the right against self-incrimination, and of protection of private property
9. What does the Third Amendment protect against?
Forbids the government of quartering of soldiers in citizens’ houses.
10. What is Representative Government?
The US and many other democracies have representative governments, in which voters elect people to act on their behalf — to represent them. In the US, the House of Representatives is the largest legislative body at 435 members as opposed to the Senate having 100. Its members — congressmen and congresswomen — are elected by the voters of their districts. These representatives are supposed to listen to the views of the people from their districts and act in their best interests in policymaking and the creation of laws.
11. What does the Tenth Amendment protect against?
The Tenth Amendment restates the Constitution’s principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the national government nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states and to the people.
12. Define Separation of Powers. What French philosopher argued that for governments to be successful they must have separation of powers?
The Constitution creates a government with three different branches. This separation of powers ensures that no branch becomes powerful enough to overwhelm the other two. The legislative branch (Congress) makes the laws, the executive branch (the president) enforces the laws, and the judicial branch (the courts) interprets the law. Each branch functions independently from the others, possessing its own powers and area of influence. No branch can accomplish anything of significance without the cooperation of at least one of the others. By dividing power in this way, the framers sought to prevent tyranny: No one person or group can exercise excessive power. Montesquieu.
13. What steps must be taken to amend the Constitution?
Changing the Constitution is a two-step process:
An amendment must be proposed by either a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress or by conventions called in two-thirds of the states.
The amendment must then be ratified by either the approval of three-fourths of the state legislatures or by special ratifying conventions held in three-fourths of the states.
14. What are the powers of the President as ascribed by the Constitution?
These roles include the commander in chief, nation’s chief executive, chief diplomat, chief of state, and legislative leader.
As chief diplomat directs foreign policy, appoints ambassadors, and negotiates treaties with other nations.
As chief of state the president serves as a symbolic role as the representative of all Americans.
As Legislative leader the President proposes laws to Congress and works to see that they are passed. He also delivers the State of the Union Address and presents goals for the nation.
As commander in chief of the armed forces, the President can use the military to intervene or offer assistance in crises at home and around the world.
15. What is Republicanism? What does John Locke say about representative government?
It is where people elect their representatives. Voters hold sovereign power. The people elect representatives and give them the responsibility to make laws and conduct government. That government is based on an agreement, or contract between the people and the government. The contract protects the people’s rights by limiting the government’s power by operating on behalf of the will of the people.
16. How does the Constitution address the concept of Federalism?
Federalism is a system of government in which the national and state governments share power. The Constitution recognizes state governments and grants them certain powers, making federalism an implicit part of the Constitution.
17. What is the role of the Federal Court System?
The role of the federal court system is to examine the laws of local, state, and national governments and to cancel them if they violate the Constitution.
18. What is the main duty of the Judicial Branch as ascribed by the Constitution?
The Constitution in Article III calls for the creation of a Supreme Court and “such inferior (lower) courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” The Supreme Court is both a political and legal institution because it is responsible for settling disputes and interpreting the meaning of laws. The Court is a political institution when it applies the law to specific disputes; it often determines what national policy will be.
19. What are the main components of the principle of Limited Government in the Constitution?
The Constitution limits the actions of government by specifically listing powers it does and does not have. They wanted to prevent the government from using its power to give one group special advantages or to deprive another group of its rights. No people or groups are above the law. Government officials must obey the law.
20. What are checks and balances?
Each branch of government holds some control over the other two branches.
21. What protections does the Fourth Amendment provide?
The right against unreasonable searches and seizures, warrants without probable cause and description of what is being searched and things to be seized.
22. What are the main goals of the preamble in the Constitution?
The main goals of the Preamble are:
23. What is popular sovereignty?
A doctrine in political theory that states government is created by and subject to the will of the people.