Unit V, Segment 5 of 5 [From History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals

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American History A

Mr. Bekemeyer

Progressive Era (1890-1920):

Reform and the Progressive Presidents

(Unit V, Segment 5 of 5)

[From History Alive! Pursuing American Ideals – Chapter 16 (Section 5), Chapter 17 (Section 4) and Chapter 18 (Sections ALL)]
I. City, state, & national governments were in need of reform:

A. Corrupt ___________________________________ controlled city governments

B. Monopolists used their wealth to influence politicians, encourage monopolies, &

fight labor laws

C. Political positions were gained based on patronage not merit

D. Corruption scandals plagued the national government

II. In the 1880s, reformers began to demand change in city gov’ts:

A. Reformers tried to end patronage (appointment based on loyalty by passing the

____________________________________ which required merit-based exams

B. Reformers tried to make gov’t more efficient & break the power of machines by

shifting power to city commissions & managers

1. After a hurricane destroyed the city of Galveston, Texas politicians created the 1st city commission gov’t; Rather than 1 mayor making all decisions, a committee

oversaw different aspects of local government

2. Other cities adopted this model, but added a trained ________________________ to carry out the day-to-day operation of government

III. Progressive Reform in the States

A. Progressive reformers impacted state governments too:

1. States began regulating railroads & other big businesses to help workers &

promote competition

2. States passed laws limiting ___________________________ for children & women
B. The most significant state reformer was governor Robert La Folette’s


1. Used academic “experts” from the University of Wisconsin to help

create state laws

2. Wisconsin was the 1st state to create an ________________, & regulate railroads

C. Progressives helped make state governments more democratic

1. Referendum: Citizens vote to increase taxes for new programs

2. Initiative: Citizens can put an issue on a state ballot & vote to make it a law

3. Recall: Citizens can vote to remove an elected official

4. _____ Amendment was ratified which allowed for the direct election of Senators by the people

IV. Progressive Reform by the National Gov’t: President Theodore

Roosevelt (1901-1909)

A. Theodore Roosevelt: A “____________________” President

1. VP Theodore Roosevelt became president after the ________________________

of William McKinley

2. TR was a different kind of president

a. He thought the gov’t ought to take responsibility for the welfare of the

American people

b. His agenda of progressive reform was called the “_____________________”

3. TR was committed to a series of reforms:

a. Breaking up harmful monopolies (called “__________________________”)

b. Regulating businesses such as railroads & the meat industry

c. Conservation of natural resources

B. Trustbusting

1. During the Gilded Age, Congress passed a series of laws designed to keep

_________________________________ in check:

a. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890 made it illegal for companies to restrict


i. Congress did not use the law at first to break-up monopolies
2. Roosevelt saw the benefit of efficient monopolies, but wanted to control


a. Roosevelt administration “busted” ________ trusts in 7 years

C. Supporting Workers

1. 1902, the United Mine Workers went on ______________ to demand higher pay

& an eight-hour work day

2. The Anthracite Coal Strike lasted _____ months & threatened the nation as winter


3. Unlike the Gilded Age presidents, TR did not side with the ______________ &

break up the strike

4. TR forced both sides to _________________________ or face gov’t seizure of the coal mine; The result was a “_________________________” for both sides
D. Regulating Business -- When muckraker Upton Sinclair’s ___________________

was published, Roosevelt pushed for regulation of the meat packing industry

1. Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act in 1906

2. To ban harmful products & end false medicine claims, the Pure Food and Drug

Act passed in 1906

E. Conservation of the Environment

1. During the Gilded Age, corporations clear-cut forests & viewed America’s

natural resources as endless

2. Roosevelt began the 1st national _____________________ conservation program

a. The gov’t protected 195 million acres as off limits to businesses

b. The Reclamation Service placed natural resources (oil, trees, coal) under

federal _______________________

F. The Legacy of Theodore Roosevelt

1. In 1908, Roosevelt decided not to run for ___________________ as president

2. TR’s presidency was important because for the first time, the national government (a) regulated big business, (b) protected the environment, & (c) assumed responsibility for the welfare of workers & consumers

V. Progressive Reform by the National Gov’t: Presidents William

Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson

A. The Presidency of Taft (1909-1913)

1. When Roosevelt decided not to run for re-election in 1908, his successor to the

presidency was Republican William Howard Taft:

2. Like TR, Taft believed that the U.S. needed ____________________________:

a. In his 4 years as president, Taft helped break up twice as many monopolies as


b. Created the Children’s Bureau & pushed for child labor laws

c. Helped create ______________________ for coal miners & railroad workers

3. But, Taft did not always _____________ the gov’t to solve problems & often

sided with Conservative Republicans:

a. He angered progressives when he supported a high tariff which helped


b. He allowed a cabinet secretary to sell ___________________ acres of

conservation land to businesses

4. Progressive politicians hoped that TR would run for president again

B. The Election of 1912

1. TR decided to run for president in 1912 but the _______________________Party

picked ______________ as their candidate

a. TR created the Progressive (“___________________________”) Party

b. Taft was the Republican nominee & the Democrats ran a reform governor,

Woodrow Wilson

2. Republican voters were divided in whom to support: Roosevelt or Taft

3. With the Republicans divided, Democrat Woodrow Wilson won the election of


C. President Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921) -- President Wilson oversaw a great

wave of progressive reforms:

1. 16th Amendment created the 1st ________________________ in U.S. history

2. 17th Amendment allowed for the direct-election of U.S. Senators

3. 18th Amendment outlawed alcohol (prohibition)

4. 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote (suffrage)

5. Created the _______________________________ to regulate the economy by

adjusting the money supply & interest rates

6. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act limited the ability of companies to form monopolies

& protected workers’ right to strike

7. The Federal Trade Commission monitored ________________ business practices

VI. The End of Progressive Reform

A. The Progressive Era (1890-1920) brought major changes:

1. Gov’t ________________________ of big business

2. Improvements in U.S. ______________

3. More _______________________ for the people

B. But, the outbreak of _________________________ in Europe distracted

Americans & brought an end to the Progressive Era

C. _______________________

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