Unit four study guide

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Terms to know: senatorial courtesy; magistrate judge; original jurisdiction; appellate jurisdiction; judicial review; adversary system; class action suit; plea bargain; judicial restraint; judicial activism; stare decisis; writ of certiorari; amicus curiae brief; grand jury; public defender; prosecutor; defendant; justiciable dispute; writ of habeas corpus; dissenting opinion; concurring opinion; majority opinion; criminal law; civil law; Article III; “during good behavior”; “rule of four”; Solicitor General; Chief Justice.
How are the Federal Courts organized? What type of jurisdiction does each level have?

What requirements for the courts are in Article III of the Constitution?

How does the appointment process of federal judges work? How can Supreme Court rulings be overturned?

Know these court cases: Marbury v. Madison (1803) Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

Terms to know: prior restraint; commercial speech; fighting words; sedition; libel; slander; obscenity; bad tendency test; clear and present danger test; free exercise clause; establishment clause; selective incorporation; due process clause; preferred position doctrine; civil liberties; political rights; legal rights; Bill of Rights; freedom of expression; eminent domain; regulatory taking; double jeopardy; plea bargain; petit jury; exclusionary rule; immunity; procedural due process; substantive due process; search warrant; police powers; contract clause; property rights; just compensation; privacy rights; unreasonable searches and seizures; self-incrimination; right of citizenship.

Know the importance of these Constitutional Amendments: Fourteenth; Fourth; Fifth; Sixth; Eighth.

Is prayer in the schools constitutional? What is allowed?

Know these court cases: Barron v. Baltimore (1833); Gitlow v. New York (1925); Schenk v. United States (1919); New York Times v. Sullivan (1964); Miller v. California (1973); Near v. Minnesota (1931); Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971); Know these court cases: Roe v. Wade (1973); Mapp v. Ohio (1961); Miranda v. Arizona (1966); Gideon v. Wainwright ( 1963);

Terms to know: de facto segregation; de jure segregation; Jim Crow laws; affirmative action; equal protection clause; white primary; poll tax; literacy test; grandfather clause; Redeemers; Compromise of 1877; civil rights; civil rights movement; strict scrutiny; ordinary scrutiny; heightened scrutiny; Emancipation Proclamation; Black Codes; Civil Rights Act of 1964; Voting Rights Act of 1965; Fair Housing Act 1968; Seneca Falls convention; suffrage movement; Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967; Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; nationalization; right of expatriation; dual citizenship; grand jury; jus soli; jus sanguinis; political refugee; political asylum.

How can you lose your citizenship?

When was busing required?

Know these Constitutional Amendments: Thirteenth; Fifteenth; Nineteenth.

What is the last frontier of the civil rights crusade?
Know these court cases: Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857); Civil Rights Cases (1883); Plessy v. Ferguson (1896); Brown v. Board of Education (1954); Craig v. Boren (1976); Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)

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