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Appendix 2.6.5




Napoleon's Proclamation to His Troops in Italy (March-April 1796)



In 1796, Napoleon, then a young officer of 27 years of age, was given command of the French army in Italy. In the Italian campaign, he demonstrated his genius for propaganda and psychological warfare, as the following selections from his proclamation to his troops makes clear:

Soldiers, you are naked, ill fed! The Government owes you much; it can give you nothing. Your patience, the courage you display in the midst of these rocks, are admirable; but they procure you no glory, no fame is reflected upon you. I seek to lead you into the most fertile plains in the world. Rich provinces, great cities will be in your power. There you will find honor, glory, and riches. Soldiers of Italy, would you be lacking in courage or constancy?

You have won battles without cannon, crossed rivers without bridges, made forced marches without shoes, camped without brandy and often without bread. Soldiers of liberty, only republican phalanxes [infantry troops] could have endured what you have endured. Soldiers, you have our thanks! The grateful Patrie [nation] will owe its prosperity to you. . . .The two armies which but recently attacked you with audacity are fleeing before you in terror; the wicked men who laughed at your misery and rejoiced at the thought of the triumphs of your enemies are confounded and trembling.

But, soldiers, as yet you have done nothing compared with what remains to be done. . . .

Undoubtedly the greatest obstacles have been overcome; but you still have battles to fight, cities to capture, rivers to cross. Is there one among you whose courage is abating? No. . . .  All of you are consumed with a desire to extend the glory of the French people; all of you long to humiliate those arrogant kings who dare to contemplate placing us in fetters; all of you desire to dictate a glorious peace, one which will indemnify the Patrie for the immense sacrifices it has made; all of you wish to be able to say with pride as you return to your villages, "I was with the victorious army of Italy!"

Friends, I promise you this conquest; but there is one condition you must swear to fulfill—to respect the people whom you liberate, to repress the horrible pillaging committed by scoundrels incited by our enemies. Otherwise you would not be the liberators of the people; you would be their scourge. . . . Plunderers will be shot without mercy; already, several have been. . . . Peoples of Italy, the French army comes to break your chains; the French people is the friend of all peoples; approach it with confidence; your property, your religion, and your customs will be respected.



"Napoleon’s Proclamation to His Troops." The History Guide. 13 May 2004. Web. 10

Jan. 2010. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/nap1796.html.

Appendix 2.6.6


Napoleon's Account of the Internal Situation of France in 1804

Five years after Bonaparte had become the head of the French government he sums up the general situation in France in a statement which he laid before the Legislative Body, December 31, 1804.
The internal situation of France is today as calm as it has ever been in the most peaceful periods. There is no agitation to disturb the public tranquility, no suggestion of those crimes which recall the Revolution. Everywhere useful enterprises are in progress, and the general improvements, both public and private, attest the universal confidence and sense of security. . . .
A plot conceived by an implacable government was about to replunge France into the abyss of civil war and anarchy. The discovery of this horrible crime stirred all France profoundly, and anxieties that had scarcely been calmed again awoke. Experience has taught that a divided power in the state is impotent and at odds with itself. It was generally felt that if power was delegated for short periods only it was so uncertain as to discourage any prolonged undertakings or wide-reaching plans. If vested in an individual for life, it would lapse with him, and after him would prove a source of anarchy and discord. It was clearly seen that for a great nation the only salvation lies in hereditary power, which can alone assure a continuous political life which may endure for generations, even for centuries.
The Senate, as was proper, served as the organ through which this general apprehension found expression. The necessity of hereditary power in a state as vast as France had long been perceived by the First Consul. He had endeavored in vain to avoid this conclusion; but the public solicitude and the hopes of our enemies emphasized the importance of his task, and he realized that his death might ruin his whole work. Under such circumstances, and with such a pressure of public opinion, there was no alternative left to the First Consul. He resolved, therefore, to accept for himself, and two of his brothers after him, the burden imposed by the exigencies of the situation.
After prolonged consideration, repeated conferences with the members of the Senate, discussion in the councils, and the suggestions of the most prudent advisers, a series of provisions was drawn up which regulate the succession to the imperial throne. These provisions were decreed by a senatus consultus of the 28th Floreal last. The French people, by a free and independent expression, then manifested its desire that the imperial dignity should pass down in a direct line through the legitimate or adopted descendants of Napoleon Bonaparte, or through the legitimate descendants of Joseph Bonaparte, or of Louis Bonaparte.

From this moment Napoleon was, by the most unquestionable of titles, emperor of the French. No other act was necessary to sanction his right and consecrate his authority. But he wished to restore in France the ancient forms and recall those institutions which divinity itself seems to have inspired. He wished to impress the seal of religion itself upon the opening of his reign. The head of the Church, in order to give the French a striking proof of his paternal affection, consented to officiate at this august ceremony. What deep and enduring impressions did this leave on the mind of Napoleon and in the memory of the nation! What thoughts for future races! What a subject of wonder for all Europe!


In the midst of this pomp, and under the eye of the Eternal, Napoleon pronounced the inviolable oath which assures the integrity of the empire, the security of property, the perpetuity of institutions, the respect for law, and the happiness of the nation. The oath of Napoleon shall be forever the terror of the enemies of France. If our borders are attacked, it will be repeated at the head of our armies, and our frontiers shall never more fear foreign invasion.

The principles safeguarded by the coronation oath are those of our legislation. Hereafter there will be fewer laws to submit to the Legislative Body. The civil code has fulfilled the expectations of the public; all citizens are acquainted with it; it serves as their guide in their various transactions, and is everywhere lauded as a benefaction. A draft of a criminal code has been completed for two years and has been subjected to the criticism of the courts; at this moment it is being discussed for the last time by the council of state. The code of procedure and the commercial code are still where they were a year ago, for pressing cares have diverted the emperor's attention elsewhere. New schools are being opened, and inspectors have been appointed to see that the instruction does not degenerate into vain and sterile examinations. The lycees and the secondary schools are filling with youth eager for instruction. The polytechnic school is peopling our arsenals, ports, and factories with useful citizens. Prizes have been established in various branches of science, letters, and arts, and in the period of ten years fixed by his Majesty for the award of these prizes there can be no doubt that French genius will produce works of distinction.


The emperor's decrees have reestablished commerce on the left bank of the Rhine. Our manufacturers are improving, although the mercenaries subsidized by the British government vaunt, in their empty declamations, her foreign trade and her precarious resources scattered about the seas and in the Indies, while they describe our shops as deserted and our artisans as dying of hunger. In spite of this, our industries are striking root in our own soil and are driving English commerce far from our shores. Our products now equal theirs and will soon compete with them in all the markets of the world. Religion has resumed its sway, but exhibits itself only in acts of humanity. Adhering to a wise policy of toleration, the ministers of different sects who worship the same God do themselves honor by their mutual respect; and their rivalry confines itself to emulation in virtue. Such is our situation at home.

“Napoleon's Account of the Internal Situation of France in 1804.” Hanover Historical



Texts Project. 23 March. 2010. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. http://history.hanover.edu/text

NAPOLEON.html.



Appendix 2.6.7


The Return of Napoleon from Elba, 1815

The determination of Louis XVIII and the Royalists to put everything back where it was before the Revolution aroused great dissatisfaction. Many began to long for the return of Napoleon. In March, 1815, their wish came to pass, for Napoleon landed on the shores of France. He had only a few followers, but as he pushed on to Paris, his old soldiers hurried forward to join him. His whole journey was one glowing welcome. The following account was written by an English lady, a partisan of the Bourbons, who was in Paris at the time of Napoleon's arrival.
We were enjoying the breezes of a fine March morning when suddenly an officer issued from the palace and whispered to us that Bonaparte had landed! Had a thunderbolt fallen at our feet its effects could not have produced a more terrible sensation than did this unexpected intelligence on our hearts. We instantly returned home, and that night it was no longer a secret in Paris. Some could not conceal the terror the name of Napoleon always inspires; others, judging from their own loyal sentiments, exclaimed, "The hand of God is to be seen in this!" Another party, appreciating present circumstances, rejoiced in the idea that he would be taken and secured forever; as if Napoleon, in risking the chance of success, had not secured the means of insuring it! The king issued an ordonnance declaring him a traitor […]
The streets were quieter than usual; every person seemed to have a more serious mien, and to be preoccupied. Of the beau-monde some had fled, others kept within their hotels. No carriages of the opulent contested the passage with the cabriolets or with the vehicles of commerce, no belles skipped lightly along. In the shops few purchasers, and those few looking gloomy and silent; suspicion and fear seemed to predominate. Entering two or three shops where I had been in the habit of purchasing, they exclaimed, "Softly! softly! mademoiselle; speak low, we are surrounded with spies." At the open stalls, and in the shops on the bridges and on the quays, the proprietors were busily occupied in removing the engravings, and other emblems of the Bourbons, and replacing those of the usurper and his military partisans. Ladders were placed at the corners of the streets and against the shops, while workmen were effacing the names and brevets of the Bourbon dynasty, to be replaced by those of the Corsican family, or in haste substituting a design analogous to the merchandised within. We entered for a moment the Chamber of Deputies. The flags taken in the different campaigns were brought from their concealed depots. The President's chair, embroidered with fleur-de-lis, was being removed. "Where will you find another?" I hastily demanded. "The old chair is in the garret," was the quick reply. In a few moments it was brought down; the portraits of the king and of the princes were already removed from their frames, and those of Napoleon and Maria Louisa had replaced them.
On the 19th of March cries were heard of "Vive we Roi!" in the square of Louis XV. On the morning of the 20th they were supplanted by shouts of "Vive l'Empereur!" The next morning I determined to see Napoleon, but when our carriage arrived at the Pont Royal thousands were collected there. Our servant advised us to descend and proceed on foot. The crowd civilly made way: they were waiting to see the review. An unusual silence prevailed, interrupted only by the cries of the children, whom the parents were thumping with energy for crying "Vive we Roi!" instead of "Vive l'Empereur!" which some months before they had been thumped for daring to vociferate! A friend recommended us to proceed to the review, to see which he had the good-nature to procure me admittance to a small apartment in the Tuileries, and from the window I saw and heard for the first time the scourge of the Continent---his martial, active figure, mounted on his famed white horse. He harangued with energetic tone (and in those bombastic expressions we have always remarked in all his manifestos, and which are so well adapted to the French) the troops of the divisions of Lefol and Defour. There was much embracing of the "Ancient Eagles" of the Old Guard, much mention of "great days and souvenirs dear to his heart," of the "scars of his brave soldiers," which, to serve his views, we will reopen without remorse. The populace were tranquil, as I had remarked them on the bridge. Inspirited by my still unsatisfied curiosity I rejoined my escort and proceeded to the gardens, where not more than thirty persons were collected under the windows. There was no enthusiastic cry, at least none seemed sufficient to induce him to show himself. In despair at not being able to contemplate his physiognomy at greater advantage, I made my cavalier request some persons in the throng to cry, "Vive l'Empereur!" Some laughed and replied, "Wait a moment," while others advised us to desire some of the children to do so. A few francs thrown to the latter soon stimulated their voices into cries of the loyalty of the day, and Napoleon presented himself at the window, but he retired often and reappeared. A few persons arrived from the country and held up petitions, which he sent an aide-de-camp to receive. His square face and figure struck me with involuntary emotion. I was dazzled, as if beholding a supernatural being. There was a sternness spread over his expansive brow, a gloom on the lids of his darkened eye, which rendered futile his attempts to smile. Something Satanic sported round his mouth, indicating the ambitious spirit of the soul within!
Much agitation seemed to reign in the salon. The ministers and generals paced up and down with their master in reciprocal agitation and debate. The palace has now the appearance of a fortress, the retreat of a despot, not the abode of a sovereign confiding in the loyalty of his people, and recalled by their unanimous voice, but feeling that he is only welcomed back by military power, whose path was smoothed by the peasantry of Dauphiny. A range of artillery is now placed before it; soldiers stretched on straw repose under the finely-arched corridors, and military casqued heads even appear from the uppermost windows. Napoleon had the gallant consideration the day after his return to renew the guard of honor at the hotel of the Dowager Duchess of Orleans, to whom he has always accorded the respect due to royalty.
The Return of Napoleon from Elba, 1815.” The Modern History Sourcebook. 30

March 2007. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1815

napoleon100days.html.

Appendix 2.6.8 – Part A


Napoleon on Trial: Was Napoleon a Traitor to the Revolution?

Your task is to put Napoleon Bonaparte on trial in a court of law. The court will be run like modern courts, but no evidence after 1815 will be admissible.

Napoleon is accused of being a traitor to the Revolution. Depending on your role in the court case you will accuse Napoleon of being a traitor to the Revolution, or defend him as its heir. You will select if you would like to be a juror, a witness or part of the opposing legal teams. Your teacher will act as the courtroom judge.

Remember, regardless of your role, you are in a court of law, and you need to convince the jury of your case. You will be given a handout to help you develop your role. You are only obligated to use material from class. If you wish to do outside research you are welcome to do so, but must provide a bibliography of works consulted.


Depending on your role you will need to develop the following:


  • Legal Teams: Opening and closing statements, as well as a list of questions you will be asking your witnesses (this must be given to them a head of time so they can prepare)

  • Witnesses: As a group you will be assigned roles as key individuals from the past 100 years – you will be expected to prepare answers to the questions that the legal council will provide you

NOTE: Napoleon himself will not appear on the witness stand – this is unfair to the one individual who would have to take on this role

  • Jury: You will have to ultimately come to a decision after you have heard the case in a closing statement in which you justify your decision. You must also provide a suggested punishment.

Everyone will complete an exit ticket at the completion of the trial.


The final mark will come from the teacher based on the attached rubric. Good Luck!

Name:


Napoleon on Trial: Was Napoleon a Traitor to the Revolution?





Level 4

Level 3

Level 2

Level 1

K/U

  • Identifies significant individuals and events

  • Understands the historical elements that relate to the historical characters

COV.03

Thorough identification and understanding of significant individuals and events as they relate to the historical character

10 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.2



Substantial identification and understanding of individuals and events as they relate to the historical character
7.8 7.4 7.1

Partial or incomplete identification and understanding of individuals and events as they relate to the historical character

6.8 6.4 6.1



Serious misunderstandings regarding the identification and understanding of individuals and events as they relate to the historical character
5.8 5.4 5.1

Thinking

  • Demonstrates critical thinking skills in reaching conclusions

  • Synthesizes key elements of character in order to be authentic

HIV.02

Highly effective and accurate in facts and concepts relating to historical character

10 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.2



Effective with minor inaccuracies relating to historical character with an overall accurate representation

7.8 7.4 7.1



Moderately effective and numerous inaccuracies distract from the representation of the historical character
6.8 6.4 6.1

Ineffective with major accuracies and significant errors throughout which results in an inaccurate representation of the historical character

5.8 5.4 5.1



Communication

  • Speaks with conviction in portrayal of chosen role

  • Exit ticket articulates a justified historical opinion

HIV.03

Student is exceptionally clear and easy to follow during presentation, and exit ticket contains clear, well developed opinion

10 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.2



Student is generally clear to follow during the presentation, and exit ticket contains a somewhat developed opinion

7.8 7.4 7.1



Student lacks clarity and is difficult to follow during the presentation, and exit ticket has some evidence of developed opinion

6.8 6.4 6.1



Student is unclear and impossible to follow while portraying the historical character with little accuracy, and exit ticket shows little evidence of a developed opinion

5.8 5.4 5.1



Application

CCV.01

Student successfully able to make connections between the hundred years in question

10 9.5 9.0 8.6 8.2



With minimal assistance student makes connections between the hundred years

7.8 7.4 7.1



With moderate assistance student makes connections between the hundred years

6.8 6.4 6.1



With considerable assistance student makes connections between the hundred years
5.8 5.4 5.1

Comments

Appendix 2.5.8 – Part B – Teacher Copy


Napoleon on Trial: Was Napoleon a Traitor to the Revolution?
Judge: Teacher Name
Prosecution: Number will vary based on class size












Defense: Number will vary based on class size












Witnesses: Between five and six students. Cannot be Napoleon.














Jury: Between ten and twelve students























Appendix 2.5.8 – Part B – Student Copy
Napoleon on Trial: Was Napoleon a Traitor to the Revolution?

Your Role:

Your Group Members:

Your stance on the accusations made against Napoleon:












Main Issue Related to Following Witnesses:


Louis XVI





Marie Antoinette





Maximilien de Robespierre





Abbe Sieyes





Charles Maurice Talleyrand





Mary Wollstonecraft





Pope Pius VII








Activity 2.7

Culminating Activity:

Teacher Resource?



Activity 2.7: Culminating Activity: Teacher Resource

Time: 225 Minutes
Description

This lesson is meant to act as a guide to the teacher in implementing the unit’s Culminating Activity. Students are being asked to explore the revolutionary one hundred years between 1715 and 1815 through a fabricated newspaper publication they will create. Students must pick one idea, individual, or event from the hundred years studied and provide a context for their chosen topic as well as a rationale for why they feel it is the most significant element of the past one hundred years. They will also be asked to find two primary sources with opposing viewpoints on their topic of choice, and they will write responses to those primary sources in a letter to the editor section. Also, students must provide a political cartoon from the era as part of a discussion of their topic of choice (they may draw one if they wish).


The objective of what students should take away from this Culminating Activity is the importance of historical opinion, and the ability to validate one’s opinion through historical evidence. Finally, outside the product of the newspaper, students will reflect on why their topic is still relevant and critical for the modern age.
Strand(s) & Learning Expectations
Strand(s): Communities: Local, National, and Global; Change and Continuity; Citizenship and Heritage; Social, Economic and Political Structures; Methods of Historical Inquiry
Overall Expectations

COV.03 evaluate the key factors that have led to conflict and war or to cooperation and

peace.


CCV.01 demonstrate an understanding of how the historical concept of change is

used to analyze developments in the West and throughout the world since the

sixteenth century.

CHV.04 demonstrate an understanding of the range and diversity of concepts of

citizenship and human rights that have developed since the sixteenth century.



SEV.04 demonstrate an understanding of key aspects of women’s economic, social,

and political lives in Western and non-Western societies since the sixteenth century.



HIV.02 critically analyze historical evidence, events, and interpretations.

HIV.03 communicate opinions and ideas based on effective research clearly and

concisely.


Planning Notes

  • The student’s textbook, Legacy: The West and The World, chapters four, five, and six will provide students with the background information necessary to complete this assignment.

  • Also, throughout the previous activities students were given the opportunity to practice numerous skills that are outlined below in the ‘Prior Knowledge’ section. These skills will be beneficial to the completion of the Culminating Activity.


Prior Knowledge Required

  • Students should be familiar with working with primary sources, and having to defend their historical perspective.

  • Students will have also practiced infusing modern day events into lessons relating to the French Revolution.

  • Media Literacy has also been explored in the classroom, allowing students to practice the drafting of a Culminating Assignment.

  • Students will also explore web quests in order to practice locating primary resources online.


Teaching/Learning Strategies

  1. The teacher will hand out all of the material needed for the Culminating Assignment. They will read through the culminating task with students to ensure that they understand what is expected of them. Each component handed to students must be addressed and discussed individually.

  2. The teacher will take time to go over the requirements of effective article writing so that students understand the concise nature of such writing, and emphasize the fact that students must be to the point in their articles and well organized. The teacher will have students write a brief draft of a newspaper article to provide to the teacher for formative assessment.

  3. The teacher will provide students with a full period in a computer lab so that students have time to conduct research for their newspaper.

  4. The teacher should allow for students to bring drafts of the paper to the teacher for formative assessment. Prior to student presentations, the teacher should provide an example of how to effectively pitch a newspaper story to an editor through the use of appropriate argumentative techniques.

  5. The day that the assignment is due (including both the newspaper and the reflection for relevance to modern day) students will be placed into groups of four and will present their newspaper to their fellow classmates.


Assessment and Evaluation of Student Achievement

Note: Numbers refer to the Teaching/Learning Strategies above

3. Assessment: The teacher will collect the students’ newspaper articles and provide them with written feedback in preparation for the Culminating Activity.

4. Paper drafts will be formatively assessed, through written commentary, regarding improvements students should make to their draft.

5. Student will be evaluated on their final product, by the teacher, as per Appendix 2.7.1.


Accommodations:

  • Students who require an extension will be allowed to ask for one from the teacher.

  • Students who are unable to work with software will be allowed to design the newspaper by hand. However, the written portions of the assignment must be typed up.

  • Students who do not have a printer should be able to email the teacher the final assignment.

  • Any student who is absent for the day of the presentation will have the choice to present directly to the teacher, or submit a written response as to why their newspaper should be chosen.


Resources

  • A list of resources can be found in the Culminating Activity section at the end of the unit

  • The Culminating Rubric is included in the culminating section of the unit


Research to Practice:

Instructional Strategies for the History Classroom

Lee-Ann Galati
Infusing Critical Thinking into the History Classroom
In order for students to develop a transformative learning experience, they must engage in critical thinking. Real learning comes from a deep understanding of the course material, and not superficial rote memorization of facts and figures. We want our students to experience authentic learning episodes that allow them to experience an understanding of content that they infuse outside of the classroom and across multiple disciplines. The Critical Thinking Consortium describes critical thinking as a skill that involves thinking through problematic situations about what to believe or how to act where the thinker makes reasoned judgments that embody the qualities of a competent thinker. A person is attempting to think critically when she thoughtfully seeks to assess what would be sensible or reasonable to believe or do in a given situation. The need to reach reasoned judgments may arise in countless kinds of problematic situations such as trying to understand a passage in a text, trying to improve an artistic performance, making effective use of a piece of equipment, or deciding how to act in a delicate social situation. What makes these situations problematic is that there is some doubt as to the most appropriate option.

Critical Thinking skills should be used to heighten student’s accountability and increase learning. These skills need to be infused into all classroom lessons, regardless of grade level or strand. Each student is capable of thinking critically and it is the teacher’s obligation to provide the framework and skills to make that happen. Our job is to teach students how to think. When using Bloom’s Taxonomy or applying questioning techniques in our classrooms for example, we are usually trying to put more focus on questions that provide opportunities to compare and contrast, to invent, to create, to consider and to evaluate ideas, using specific criteria.

Unfortunately, as supported by The Critical Thinking Consortium, thinking critically is greatly valued yet inadequately addressed in many classrooms. There are many terrific websites and other resources that should be used to help students move beyond low-level questioning in their classrooms. If our aim is to have students acquire a higher-level of learning, then we need to support them through our tasks and activities.

Critical thinking and the notion of historical thinking complement one another. As we have already established, critical thinking involves using reasoned judgment to work through a problematic situation about what to believe or how to act. A natural extension of this is in a history classroom where a student is not challenged to remember historical facts, but to assume historical thinking where they are using the following benchmarks as noted by Peter Seixas:



  • Historical Significance

  • Evidence

  • Continuity and Change

  • Cause and Consequence

  • Historical Perspective

  • Moral Dimension

Seixas emphasizes that these are not skills but concepts that work with content to produce a meaningful understanding. If teachers employ these benchmarks in the creation of their lessons and activities, they are crafting a more authentic learning experience for their students. Tackling one of these benchmarks, along with a critical challenge enables the student to become an active learner. And in doing so, the course content resonates with them and results in a deeper appreciation and understanding of the curriculum.

Bibliography

http://www.tc2.ca/wp/profresources/criticaldiscussions/,” last modified February 2011.

Lazarovitis, Kathy. “Teach Thinking – It’s Critical” Speaking of Reading! Fall 2010, 1-2.

“The Purposes of Teaching Canadian History” Canadian Social Studies Volume 36,

Number 2. Winter 2002.


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