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Appendix 2.6.5 - Napoleon's Proclamation to His Troops in Italy (March-April 1796)


Appendix 2.6.6 - Napoleon's Account of the Internal Situation of France in 1804

Appendix 2.6.7 - The Return of Napoleon from Elba, 1815

Appendix 2.6.8 – Napoleon on Trial: Was he a Traitor to the Revolution

Appendix 2.6.1 – Teacher Copy


Napoleon: Traitor or Heir to the Revolution?
“It is said that I am an ambitious man, but that is not so; or at least my ambition is so closely bound to my being that they are both one and the same”

-- Napoleon (Merriman 517)


Use this organizer as a tool for note taking, both when reading page 195 to 200 for homework, as well as the lecture we will have in class.


Significant Dates

Significant Information

1769

  • Napoleon is born on Corsica (an island which was formally Italian and became French territory in 1768)

1790s

  • Napoleon is personally in favor of the revolution for three reasons: a. wanted to end reign of the old regime, b. wanted his island of Corsica to be legitimately considered a part of France instead of a conquered territory, c. it offered a chance for promotion

  • Napoleon joins the French Army, and through his stellar performance is given control of the French Army in Italy

  • In 1798 he, along with Abbe Sieyes, overthrows the ruling directory to create the Consulate in which three individuals held power as a means of balancing one another

  • Napoleon held the position of First Consul (the most powerful)




Early 1800s

(Domestic Affairs)



  • Napoleon personally oversees the drafting of the constitution 1799 – which allowed only a small number of male nobles to be enfranchised

  • In 1801 he signs a Concordant with the Catholic Church. This allows the Church to be under state control. Napoleon allows for non-Catholics to practice safely in France and he restores religious holidays.

  • Napoleon’s treaty helped end the church’s support of the monarchy’s return

  • He becomes ‘consul for life’

  • Two years later (1804) he is crowned emperor of the French

  • THE NAPOLEONIC CODE (1804)

  • Guarantee equality of people before the law, and freedom of religion

  • Created a uniform law for all of France, which had formally differed between territories

  • He outlined the right to private property

  • Also made men head of family, and women had few financial rights

  • They also suffered greater penalties for adultery than males did

  • By 1808 Napoleon had developed the primary and secondary school systems and created the first public university system

Early 1800s

(Foreign Affairs)



  • Napoleon had created an empire in Europe that was matched only by the empire of Ancient Rome

  • He abolished serfdom in the nations he conquered

  • Austria, Britain and Russia formed the Third Coalition in 1805 to fight against Napoleon

  • Napoleon failed to conquer Britain, due to Britain’s superior Navy, but he continually defeated Austria, and eventually signed a peace Treaty with Russia in which France agreed to support Russian aggression in Southeastern Europe

  • Russia promised to close their ports to British goods




The Continental System (1806 to 1811)

  • A system Napoleon created in 1806 in which he wanted to cripple Britain’s economy by blocking all ports to Europe through which British ships were sold

  • This did lead to some industrial expansion in France, however British goods continued to find markets in the United States

  • Due to an economic depression the blockade came apart in 1811

The Peninsula War

(1803-1813)



  • The greatest example of this was putting his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne. In an attempt to block Portugal’s ports (Britain’s perpetual ally) Napoleon received permission to march through Spain to conquer Portugal. Soon the Spanish king was forced to abdicate, and Joseph took control

  • The many countries within the Spanish empires (in Central and South America) refused to acknowledge Joseph as their king and instead began forming independent local governments which laid the foundation for Latin American independence

Growing European Nationalism

  • While Napoleon claimed to be liberating other European nations, the presence of the French army caused people (specifically the German and Italian states) to seek the creation of their own nation

1812: The Beginning of the End

  • Napoleon divorces his wife Josephine and marries Austrian Princess Marie Louise in order to create an alliance with Austria. She has a son shortly after their marriage to be Napoleon’s heir.

  • In 1812 Napoleon and 600 000 French soldiers invade Russia

  • The Russians retreat further into the country, forcing Napoleon’s armies to go further inland

  • By October of that year, with his failure to capture Moscow, Napoleon retreated back to Paris, but the Russian winter took a monumental toll on Napoleon’s troops who were dying off due to the cold and Russian attacks

  • By March of 1814 Napoleon’s armies were not able to protect Paris, which soon fell to Russian and Prussian hands

  • In Paris, Talleyrand, a Bishop who had served Napoleon from 1799 to 1807 as minister of Foreign affairs, called a Senate in Paris which voted for Napoleon’s deposition

  • His son was not allowed to rule

  • Napoleon took poison that failed to kill him

1815: The Final Year

  • Louis XVIII, the brother of Louis XVI returned to the throne, and signed a charter guaranteeing equality before the law and freedom of expression and religion

  • Napoleon was banished to the island of Saint Elba, but in March of 1815 “The Hundred Days Began” – in which he returned to France and the Royal Family fled

  • Napoleon resurrected an army to take control of France again, but on June 18, 1815 Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo by the British General the Duke of Wellington

  • He was finally exiled to Saint Helena and died in 1821

Reasons for Napoleon being the heir to the Revolution:



  • The Napoleonic Code created equality of all people before the law and the protection of personal property

  • He believed in careers based on personal merit rather than social class – this assisted some peasants and the middle class

  • Ended serfdom in the nations he conquered (primarily Poland)

Reasons why he was a traitor to the Revolution:



  • He made one’s right to participate in political life based on property ownership

  • He turned French nationalism into a secular religion, which demanded loyalty to him in elementary and secondary schools

  • The Napoleonic Wars killed 1 in 5 Frenchmen born between 1790 and 1795

Appendix 2.6.1 – Student Copy
Napoleon: Traitor or Heir to the Revolution?
“It is said that I am an ambitious man but that is not so; or at least my ambition is so closely bound to my being that they are both one and the same”

-- Napoleon (Merriman 517)


Use this organizer as a tool for note taking, both when reading page 195 to 200 for homework, as well as the lecture we will have in class.


Significant Dates

Significant Information

1769

  • Napoleon is born on Corsica (an island which was formally Italian and became French territory in 1768)

1790s



Early 1800s

(Domestic Changes in France)






Early 1800s

(Foreign Affairs)






The Continental System (1806 to 1811)



The Peninsula War

(1803-1813)





Growing European Nationalism



1812: The Beginning of the End




1815: The Final Year


Reasons why Napoleon was the heir to the Revolution?

Reasons why Napoleon was a traitor to the Revolution?

Appendix 2.6.2


Name: Date:
Napoleonic Key Terms
1801 Concordant:

  • An agreement signed on 15 July 1801 between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII that solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority Church of France and brought back most of its civil status

  • However, much of the workings of the Church were brought under state control, allowing Napoleon to curtail the Church’s power while simultaneously removing their desire to support a restoration of the monarchy

Consulate:



  • The government of France after the fall of the Directory in 1799 until Napoleon was made Emperor in 1804

  • Napoleon establishes himself as First Consul, with two other individuals who acted as Second and Third Consul

  • As First Consul Napoleon created an authoritarian state which led to the foundations of French government

Directory:



  • A body of five directors after the fall of the Convention (1795 to 1799)

  • They ruled during the terror, and were overthrown by Sieyes and Napoleon in 1799 to form the Consulate

First Consul:



  • The title Napoleon adopted after becoming head of the Consul following the Directory’s fall

The Continental System:


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