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Appendix 2.5.3

The Levée en Masse, August 23, 1793

1. From this moment until that in which the enemy shall have been driven from the soil of the Republic, all Frenchmen are in permanent requisition for the service of the armies. The young men shall go to battle; the married men shall forge arms and transport provisions; the women shall make tents and clothing and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall turn old linen into lint; the aged shall betake themselves to the public places in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach the hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic.

2. The national buildings shall be converted into barracks, the public places into workshops for arms, the soil of the cellars shall be washed in order to extract therefrom the saltpeter.

3. The arms of the regulation caliber shall be reserved exclusively for those who shall march against the enemy; the service of the interior shall be performed with hunting pieces and side arms.

4. The saddle horses are put into requisition to complete the cavalry corps the draft horses, other than those employed in agriculture, shall convey the artillery and the provisions.

5. The Committee of Public Safety is charged to take all necessary measures to set up without delay an extraordinary manufacture of arms of every sort which corresponds with the ardor and energy of the French people. It is, accordingly, authorized to form all the establishments, factories, workshops, and mills which shall be deemed necessary for the carrying on of these works, as well as to put in requisition, within the entire extent of the Republic, the artists and workingmen who can contribute to their success.

6. The representatives of the people sent out for the execution of the present law shall have the same authority in their respective districts, acting in concert with the Committee of Public Safety; they are invested with the unlimited powers assigned to the representatives of the people to the armies.

7. Nobody can get himself replaced in the service for which he shall have been requisitioned. The public functionaries shall remain at their posts.

The Levée en Masse, Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham University. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1793levee.html

Word Bank

Levee en Masse- A call to arms or mass conscription.

Saltpeter- A component of gunpowder.

Ardor- Extreme energy and vigour.

Caliber- Size of the barrel or size of the bullet.

Barracks- Temporary or permanent housing for armed forces.

Appendix 2.5.4

During the films

What did you notice? Was there anything that stuck out to you? Can you find any historical inaccuracies or mistakes? Write down anything that sticks out in your mind when you are watching the films.


After the films

What do you still want to know? Was there anything that you would like to discuss? How did the movie compare to what you already knew about the Revolution? Write down anything that sticks out in your head after the films are done.


Appendix 2.5.5

Evaluating Information Sources

There are a lot of poor resources out there. This handout outlines some basic questions you should ask yourself when looking for resources. These same criteria also apply to other forms of media. If you do not question your sources, who will? Always ask who, what, when, where, and why. If you cannot answer one or more, your source may not be credible.


Consider these questions


Where is the information coming from? If it is an opinion can you trust the author? What is the author’s credential? Is it an academic source or is it a commercial? Who produced it?


What is the objective of the source? Do they have a mission statement or goal? What kind of sources do they use (articles, TV shows, propaganda, hearsay)? Can you detect bias in the writing or research? What values are being promoted? Is the text emotional, exaggerated, or one sided?


Are the facts correct? Is the information cited, such as statistics? If not, how do you know if it is true? Are there opinions being presented and if there are, are they backed up with other sources? Is the information well documented?


Is the source complete, accurate, and covered in depth? Is it simply topical information or is it well researched with well balanced ideas? Do they answer their questions?

Up to Date?

Is the information relevant and up to date, or is it outdated? When was the information procured and produced? Have things changed on your subject between when this was produced and now?


Is the information relevant to your topic of interest? Can you use this source or is it not in depth enough?

Format (Not always necessary)

Is the information well presented? Does the source have order and is it arranged in a logical manner? Is it presented in an attractive and well planned out way? Are there visual aids to complement the information?

Adapted from the TDSB document, Research Success @ Your Library. 2005.

Questions for Media Literacy

There are five main concepts for media literacy. To be media aware and literate you must know all five and keep them in the back of your head when using media.

  1. All media is constructed

  • Someone has made this media source for a certain purpose.

  • It is not real. Media has been designed.

  1. The media contains beliefs and values

  • All media has their own beliefs and values already infused into it. It is your job to determine what those are.

  • Whose voice is represented in this source?

  1. Each person interprets media differently

  • Everyone has their own experiences and background and will therefore interpret things differently. Ask yourself; What are some other ways this could be interpreted?

  1. The media has special (commercial, political, social) interests.

  • Most media is created for profit. What is the message behind this media and what are the implications that brings?

  1. Each medium has its own language, style, form, techniques, conventions, and aesthetics.

  • Media creates meaning using language (books), visual (TV, Movies), sound, etc. What are the meanings behind these different techniques?

  • Once you understand these, you will truly be media literate

Adapted from: Think Literacy: Cross Curricular Approaches to Grade 7-12, Think Literacy, Cross Curriculum Approaches Grade 7-12: Subject Specific Examples. p. 4.

Questioning Framework for Media


  • Who is the target audience for this text?

  • How can I tell?

  • How and why does the text appeal to its target audience?

  • In what different ways do people use or consume the text?

  • How does the text appeal to me?


What kind of text is this?

  • In what ways does this text tell a story?

  • Does the text contain any

biases, stereotypes, or prejudices?

  • What values are being promoted?

  • How do I know this?

  • Whose point of view do the values


  • Are my values represented?


  • Who produced this text, and for what purpose?

  • Who could influence the production of this kind of text?

  • How could this text have been distributed or sold to the public?

  • How was the text made?

Adapted from: Hoyes, M. (2000). TDSB, as found in: Bates, J., et al. (2005). Media Studies K12. Toronto: Toronto District School Board, p.82.

Activity 2.6


Traitor or Heir to the Revolution?

Activity 2.6: Napoleon: Traitor or Heir to the Revolution?

Time: 225 Minutes

This lesson is meant to extend student understanding of France’s transformation from Republic to empire through the study of Napoleon. Students will be provided with background information regarding Napoleon’s rise to power and a brief description of the Napoleonic Wars. Through the instructional strategy of creative controversy, students will role-play a courtroom drama in which Napoleon will be accused of betraying the Revolution due to Megalomania. Napoleon’s defense will argue that he is the heir to the Revolution who upheld its principles. Students are responsible for developing historical characters that will sit on the witness stand, as well as write a script and perform the trial. This activity is meant to prepare students for the Culminating Assignment by allowing them to practice their public speaking skills, as well as forming a justified, historical opinion through the critical analysis of primary documents.

Strand(s) & Learning Expectations
Strand(s): Communities: Local, National, and Global; Methods of Historical Inquiry
Overall Expectations

COV.03 evaluate the key factors that have led to conflict and war or to cooperation

and peace;

CCV.01 demonstrate an understanding of how the historical concept of change is used

to analyze developments in the West and throughout the world since the sixteenth century;

HIV.02 critically analyze historical evidence, events, and interpretations;

HIV.03 communicate opinions and ideas based on effective research clearly and


Specific Expectations

CO3.01 demonstrate an understanding of the key factors that have led to conflict and


CO3.02 demonstrate an understanding of the consequences of war;

HI2.04 draw conclusions based on effective evaluation of sources, analysis of

information, and awareness of diverse historical interpretations;

H13.01 communicate effectively, using a variety of styles and forms;

Planning Notes

  • The student textbook, Legacy: The West and The World, will provide basic information about Napoleon on pages 195 to 200.

  • The teacher will reiterate this information through an auditory and visual lecture concerning European and Global events tied to the Revolution from 1795 to Napoleon’s death in 1821

  • The teacher will prepare an organizer for the students to fill out while reading and hearing the lecture in order to acquire the factual information students will need prior to their mock trial

  • The teacher will introduce and provide a context for the primary sources which will be read by students

  • Work with primary sources, as well as speaking in the mock trial, allows students to practice skills that will be critical to the creation of an effective Culminating Assignment

Prior Knowledge Required

  • Students should know the main ideas concerning Human Rights that emerged from the Enlightenment

  • Students should know the facts of the French Revolution up to this point, and the various stages that the Revolution has gone through (i.e. Constitutional Monarchy, Republic, the Directory etc.)

  • Students should have knowledge about how to read and analyze primary resources

  • Students will also have experience in conducting research

Teaching/Learning Strategies

  1. For homework, students were asked to read pages 195 to 200, they were also given the graphic organizer entitled “Napoleon: Traitor or Heir to the Revolution?” (Appendix 2.6.1). They were also given a list of key terms to assist them both for homework and for today’s lecture (Appendix 2.6.2).

  2. The Teacher will play the trailer for the video game Napoleon: Total War, in order for students to understand the magnitude of Napoleon’s life and legacy. They are to understand that Napoleon’s legacy is so potent, that he still influences the modern consciousness, as evident through the creation of this video game

End of Minds On Activity

  1. The teacher will then prepare a verbal-visual PowerPoint providing more detailed information concerning the rise and life of Napoleon as well as the Napoleonic wars and their influences on Latin American independence. Students will use Appendix 2.6.1 to add in information from the lecture provided by the teacher.

  2. After receiving this basic information the teacher will divide the class into five groups. First they will compare their “Napoleon: Traitor or Heir to the Revolution” organizer as a means of ensuring all individuals have access to the same information.

  3. Next, a jigsaw will take place in groups of five. Each home group will read one of the following five primary sources: The Imperial Catechism (Appendix 2.6.3), excerpts from The French Civil Code (Appendix 2.6.4), “Napoleon's Proclamation to His Troops in Italy” (Appendix 2.6.5), “Napoleon's Account of the Internal Situation of France” (Appendix 2.6.6), “The Return of Napoleon from Elba, 1815” (Appendix 2.6.7). After spending time in home groups students will discuss the core components of the primary document, and will develop an opinion from the primary sources which answers the original question of the activity

  4. Students will then be placed into teaching groups, in which they will all teach each other about their respective primary documents. These groups will also discuss the overall question posed at the beginning of the activity.

End of Day One

  1. After this, the teacher will introduce the mock trial task, as outlined in Appendix 2.6.8. Students must be given class time to do work on this assignment. The assignment is reviewed in class. Students will be provided with a rubric and list of outside sources if they would like to do further research in preparation for the mock trial.

End of Day Two

  1. The final period of this activity is dedicated to the mock trial.

  2. Students will be given a short preparatory time to collect their materials.

  3. The Trial will then take place, with the teacher acting as the judge

  4. After the completion of the trial, students will write an exit ticket, in which they can agree or disagree with the verdict handed down from the jury. They must provide support regarding their opinion of the jury’s decision.

End of Day Three
Assessment and Evaluation of Student Achievement

Note: Numbers refer to the Teaching/Learning Strategies above

3. Assessment: The teacher will assess the students’ knowledge through studying the completion of the organizer. Note, while the students should all have the same ideas after their consultation, no sections should be direct words taken off of the PowerPoint, or copied from another student. The point of looking at the organizer is to assess students in their note taking skills.

4 and 5. The teacher will sit in on various group discussions to assess the thinking and inquiry taking place within the home groups. The teacher will then assess how well students are able to communicate their learning to their fellow classmates in the learning groups.

7. The mock trials as well as exit tickets will be teacher evaluated based on the included rubric (Appendix 2.6.8). Formative assessment, through written feedback, should be included on the exit ticket.


  • A list of key terms was provided for students who may struggle with particular historical terms

  • Students who do not learn as well from lectures will have the opportunity to work with other students to compare notes. Certain students who use technology assistance can have the PowerPoint presentation emailed to them if that will help them in their comprehension of the topic.


Christopher, James R. and George G. Witter. Modern Western Civilization. Toronto:

Oxford University Press, 1991.
Merriman, John. A History of Modern Europe, Second Edition. From the Renaissance to

the Present. New York: W.W. Norton. 2002. Print.

Newman, Garfield et al. Legacy: The West and the World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill.

Ryerson Limited, 2002. Print.
Newman, Garfield and Cynthia Grenier. Impact-Western Civilization and the Wider

World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Ltd., 1996. Print.
Weber, Eugene. A Modern History of Europe. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 1971.


“Napoleon's Account of the Internal Situation of France in 1804.” Hanover Historical

Texts Project. 23 March. 2010. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. http://history.hanover.edu/text


“Napoleon’s Proclamation to His Troops.” The History Guide. 13 May 2004. Web. 10

Jan. 2010. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/nap1796.html.

“Napoleon: Total War Launch.” Youtube.com. 1 February 2011. Web.


“The Civil Code Index, 1804.” Research Subjects: Government and Politics and

Napoleon Series. 2010. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. http://www.napoleon-


The Imperial Catechism, 1806.” The Modern History Sourcebook. 30 March 2007.

Web. 10 Jan. 2010. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1806catechism-

The Return of Napoleon from Elba, 1815.” The Modern History Sourcebook. 30

March 2007. Web. 10 Jan. 2010. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1815


Appendix 2.6.1 – Napoleon: Traitor or Heir to the Revolution?

Appendix 2.6.2 – Napoleonic Key Terms

Appendix 2.6.3 – The Imperial Catechism, 1806

Appendix 2.6.4 – The French Civil Code, 1804

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