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Strand(s) and Expectations


Communities: Local, National, and Global, Change and Continuity, Methods of Historical Inquiry

Overall Expectations:

COV.03 evaluate the key factors that have led to conflict and war or to cooperation and


CCV.01 demonstrate an understanding of how the historical concept of change is used to

analyze developments in the West and throughout the world since the sixteenth


HIV.02 critically analyse historical evidence, events, and interpretations.
Specific Expectations:

CO3.01 demonstrate an understanding of the key factors that have led to conflict and


CC1.02 identify forces that have facilitated the process of change and those that have

tended to impede it.

HI2.04 draw conclusions based on effective evaluation of sources, analysis of

information, and awareness of diverse historical interpretations.

Planning Notes

  • Prior to beginning this activity (i.e. the class beforehand), number each student in your class as follows: 1, 2, 3A, 3B, and repeat until all of the students in your class have been numbered. Record each student’s number, as these will be the groups that they will remain in for the duration of this activity. For the following day, rearrange the desks into these four groups with labels: 1, 2, 3A, and 3B.

  • Three of the four sub-activities (The Cahiers de Doleances, The Tennis Court Oath Discussion, and Rights Document Venn Diagram) are collaborative activities that require chart paper and markers, so make sure that you have an sufficient amount of these supplies.

  • Make enough photocopies of “The Cahiers de Doleances: Peer Feedback Form” (Appendix 2.4.3), three for each student.

  • Possibly convert “The Tennis Court Oath Image” (Appendix 2.4.5) into overhead format, or else make four photocopies of this appendix, one for each group.

  • “The Tennis Court Oath Discussion Questions” (Appendix 2.4.6) can either be: written on the board, placed on a PowerPoint Presentation, or handed to each group.

  • Make eight photocopies (two for each group) of the various Rights Documents (Appendices 2.4.8-2.4.10)

  • Make enough photocopies of the two historical perspectives, and the “Symbolism and Current Events Task and Rubric” (Appendices 2.4.14- 2.4.17) for each student. Remember to bring in some sample letters to the editor from your local newspapers (about two per estate).

Prior Knowledge Required:

  • Students will have a sufficient knowledge of: the system of feudalism in the Middle Ages, the financial situation of France in the 1770s and the 1780s, and the Age of Enlightenment, including its main principles and leading thinkers.

Teaching/Learning Strategies and Activity Sequence:

  1. When students arrive to class on the first day of this activity have them wait outside of the classroom (and remind them of the numbers that you gave them on the previous day). Invite a student numbered 1, inside the classroom. The teacher will stand inside the classroom, at the front of the class, and tell the representative from group 1 to go outside the classroom and let all students numbered 1 to enter the classroom, issue a salutation, such as “Good morning sir/miss”, and sit at the grouped desks labeled 1. As the students labeled 1 do this, the door is shut by the representative, leaving the students numbered 2, 3A and 3B outside. The teacher should also fully acknowledge the students numbered 1 with a formal greeting, such as “Good morning NAME”. The process is repeated with students numbered 2 and 3 (A and B will enter together), whereby a representative from 2 and 3 (A or B) is selected and lets the student enter the classroom and sit at their respective grouped desks. However, there are a few changes for 2 (the door is left slightly ajar and the teacher only acknowledges theses students with a physical gesture and no talking) and for 3 (the door is left completely open and the teacher does not acknowledge these students at all). After every student is seated in their respective groups, the teacher states that the manner in which the students entered the classroom mirrored the manner in which representatives from each estate (social class) of France entered the Palace of Versailles, and that the teacher was the king (Louis XVI). The teacher also informs the students that each of their numbers represents the different societal divisions and the lower your number, the higher up you were on the social scale. At this point, the teacher facilitates a class discussion as to what the students believe several items meant. What did the closed door, semi-closed door, and open door represent? (Answer: The lower your social class, the less private your audience with the king) What did the various levels of acknowledgement by the teacher mean? (Answer: The lower your social class, the less acknowledged your grievances would be by the king) Why is half the class in the lowest social class (i.e. two groups of 3)? (Answer: France was mostly made up of the third estate). End of Minds On activity.

  2. A lecture on “The Estates General” is provided (see Appendix 2.4.1).

  3. Based on what has been taught in Step 2., and after the students understand the cahiers de doleances, each estate (group) is responsible for creating their own cahiers and presenting it to the other three estates in 5 minute intervals for peer feedback (see Appendices 2.4.2-2.4.3). End of Day 1

  4. A lecture on the “Tennis Court Oath” is provided (see Appendix 2.4.4).

  5. Based on what has been taught in Step 4., and after the students have been shown a period painting of The Tennis Court Oath (see Appendix 2.4.5), each estate is responsible for answering the discussion questions provided on chart paper (see Appendix 2.4.6). End of Day 2

  6. A lecture on “Towards The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” is provided (see Appendix 2.4.7).

  7. Based on what has been taught in Step 6., and after the students have been provided with The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, The American Declaration of Independence, and the English Bill of Rights (see Appendices 2.4.8-2.4.10), each estate is responsible for creating and filling in the “Rights Document Venn Diagram” on chart paper (see Appendix 2.4.11) for teacher assessment (checklist) (see Appendix 2.4.12). End of Day 3

  8. A lecture on “The Road To The Terror & The Fall of the Bastille” is provided (see Appendix 2.4.13).

  9. Based on what has been taught in Step 8., each individual student will analyze two historical perspectives on “The Fall of the Bastille” (see Appendices 2.4.14 & 2.4.15), and complete the “Symbolism and Current Events” Task (see Appendix 2.4.16), where writing a letter to the editor is discussed, to be submitted for teacher evaluation (see Appendix 2.4.17). All of this is to prepare students for the writing a letter to the editor component of the Culminating Activity. End of Day 4

Assessment/Evaluation Techniques:

Note: Numbers refer to the Teaching/Learning Strategies above

  1. Peer Written Feedback for “Cahiers de Doleances Group Written and Oral Piece” (A/C)

  1. Teacher Assessment Checklist for “Rights Document Group Graphic Organizer” (K&U/C)

9. Teacher Evaluation Rubric for “Symbolism and Current Events Individual Written Piece” (T/A/C)

  • For students with visual and/or auditory impairments, they will be able to sit closer to the front of the class, be provided with all lecture notes and accompanying appendices.

  • For ESL and ELL students, a word bank will be provided (see Appendix 2.4.18).

Mitchner, E. Alyn and Joanne Tuffs, ed. Century of Change: Europe from 1789-

1918.Edmonton: Reidmore Books, 1997.
Halsall, Paul, ed. (1997). “The Bill of Rights”. Internet Modern History

Sourcebook. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu
Halsall, Paul, ed. (1997). “The Declaration of Independence”. Internet Modern History

Sourcebook. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu
Hunt, Lynn and Jack Censer, ed. (2001). “A Conqueror of the Bastille Speaks”. Liberty,

Equality, Fraternity: Exploring The French Revolution. Retrieved from

Hunt, Lynn and Jack Censer, ed. (2001). “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and

Citizen, 26 August 1789”. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring The French

Revolution. Retrieved from http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution
Hunt, Lynn and Jack Censer, ed. (2001). “A Defender of the Bastille Explains His Role”.

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring The French Revolution. Retrieved from

Hunt, Lynn and Jack Censer, ed. (2001). “The Tennis Court Oath at Versailles by

Jacques-Louis David”. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring The French Revolution. Retrieved from http:chnm.gmu.edu/revolution


Appendix 2.4.1 – “The Estates General” Lecture Notes

Appendix 2.4.2 – “Cahiers de Doleances” Task

Appendix 2.4.3 – “Cahiers de Doleances” Peer Feedback Form

Appendix 2.4.4 – “The Tennis Court Oath” Lecture Notes

Appendix 2.4.5 – “The Tennis Court Oath” Painting

Appendix 2.4.6 – “The Tennis Court Oath” Discussion Questions

Appendix 2.4.7 – “Towards The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” Lecture

Appendix 2.4.8 – “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” Primary Source

Appendix 2.4.9 – “The American Declaration of Independence” Primary Source

Appendix 2.4.10 – “The English Bill of Rights” Primary Source

Appendix 2.4.11 – “Rights Document Venn Diagram” Template

Appendix 2.4.12 – “Rights Document Venn Diagram” Teacher Checklist

Appendix 2.4.13 – “The Road to the Terror & The Fall of the Bastille” Lecture Notes

Appendix 2.4.14 – “A Conqueror of the Bastille Speaks” Primary Source

Appendix 2.4.15 – “A Defender of the Bastille Explains His Role” Primary Source

Appendix 2.4.16 – “Symbolism and Current Events” Task

Appendix 2.4.17 – “Symbolism and Current Events” Rubric

Appendix 2.4.18 – ESL/ELL Word bank

Appendix 2.4.1

The Estates General

  • Was similar to a political party convention, in that delegates from each estate traveled to the Palace of Versailles in order to represent their estate

  • Recall that the First Estate was comprised of the clergy, the Second Estate was made up of the nobility, and the Third Estate (the largest) contained the bourgeoisie and the peasant farmers

  • The government of France was at a political impasse by 1788, so King Louis XVI called the Estates General to convene on May 5, 1789 (which was the first time that the Estates General met since 1614)

  • The Third Estate had a “man on the inside” – Jacques Necker, the king’s finance minister, who sympathized with the Third Estate and convinced King Louis XVI to double the representation in the Third Estate, in order to appease the bourgeoisie (who were the only group contained within the Third Estate that had delegates at the Estates General)

  • This decision was probably partly influenced by the popular January 1789 pamphlet written by a member of the First Estate: Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, entitled “What is the Third Estate?”, to which he responds that it is the most important Estate, yet has no power in the political order

  • Doubling representation was only beneficial if the Estates General was conducted on a vote by head (as the Third Estate will always outnumber the other two Estates). A vote by Estate will not be favourable for the Third Estate (as the First Estate and Second Estate usually agree on every issue) and they will lose every vote 2:1

  • King Louis XVI asks each estate to compile a list of grievances, known as the “Cahiers de Doleances”

Facts About Each Estate

The First Estate

  • Owned 10% of France’s land, which was used for purposes of the church

  • The clergy were divided into a strict hierarchy, from top to bottom: bishops, archbishops, cardinals, priests

  • The priests were extremely poor, but had a great deal of influence on the parish

  • Collected a tax known as the “tithe”; which was 10% of everyone’s income

  • Not required to pay taxes to the king, but they could “vote a gift” to the king (usually 5% of the clergy’s revenue)

The Second Estate

  • Owned 25% of France’s land

  • Only the nobility could become army officers or hold any judicial or administrative positions

  • Hunting privileges without concern for the damage of peasant farmlands

  • Excused from most taxes (including the property tax known as the “taille”) and could bribe most tax collectors

  • Divided into The Nobility of the Sword (i.e. nobles by birth) and the Nobility of the Robe (i.e. bourgeoisie that bought their way into The Second Estate; see below)

The Third Estate

  • Two main groups: bourgeoisie and peasant farmers

  • Owned 65% of the land; made up 98% of the population of France

  • The upper bourgeoisie were upset as they were incredibly prosperous but political power was closed to them, so they remained in their estate

  • The bourgeoisie could rise in social rank by buying a royal office or marrying into a higher estate

  • Peasants (80%-90% of the population of France) were burdened by taxation because of feudal dues owed to the nobility, to the king (the taille) and the clergy (the tithe)

Appendix 2.4.2

Using the facts that you have learned about your estate (i.e. students numbered 1 are in the First Estate, students numbered 2 are in the Second Estate, and students numbered 3A and 3B are in the Third Estate), as a group compile a list of grievances (complaints) (at least three per group) on the chart paper provided. Remember that you are a part of the Estates General and that you want issues about land, taxation etc. addressed by King Louis XVI during this meeting. Remember to include the reasons that you believe that each of your grievances are valid, as your estate will be presenting your list of grievances to each of the other three groups in five minute intervals. Every member of your estate must speak at some point during your short presentation.
POSSIBLE ANSWERS (Do not photocopy this portion of Appendix 2.4.2):
The First Estate should focus on the hierarchy of the clergy, as well as the fact that the parish priests were impoverished. This estate could also focus on the rates of the tithe (i.e. Do we want to increase the rate?). The Second Estate should focus on the fact that the upper bourgeoisie are finding their way into the Second Estate. This estate could also focus on expanding hunting privileges and high authority positions. The Third Estates should focus on the fact that they make up most of the population of France and yet only possess about half of its land. This estate could also focus on more ways for the bourgeoisie to rise to the Second Estate. Note that this estate could mention the concerns of the peasantry, but does not need to because at the real Estates General, the peasantry had no representation.

Appendix 2.4.3

PEER FEEDBACK FORM: Name of Peer Reviewer: __________________________
Estate Presenting (Circle One): 1 2 3A 3B

  1. QUALITY OF EXPLANATION (i.e. Do the grievances listed connect to the “Facts About Each Estate”? Are there at least three grievances listed?) (Application)

B) COHESION AS A GROUP (i.e. Does every member contribute to the presentation? Do you clearly understand their arguments?) (Communication)



Appendix 2.4.4

The Tennis Court Oath

  • King Louis XVI ordered each estate to meet separately to draw up their list of grievances

  • Remember that the Third Estate wanted a vote by head, so meeting separately would ensure that a vote by head could not take place, as there would be no collaboration of ideas between estates

  • The Third Estate asks members of the other estates to join them; a few clergy and nobles join the Third Estate, but they are not the majority; However, enough members of the First and Second Estates join the Third Estate, that they declare themselves to be the National Assembly on June 17, 1789

  • The National Assembly issues two decrees: I) if the National assembly is dissolved, then no one in France has to pay taxes, and II) when France has a solid constitution, the national debt will be paid by the nation

  • Advisors of the First and Second Estates encourage King Louis XVI to make a show of force to solve this problem; on June 20, 1789, the National Assembly is locked out of their meeting room by King Louis XVI

  • The National Assembly decides to meet in the indoor Tennis Court and sign an oath not to leave until a constitution has been created for France

  • Since the National Assembly was composed of more than one estate, many historians consider the Tennis Court Oath to be the First Act of the French Revolution

  • On June 23, 1789, King Louis XVI gives in to the demands of the National Assembly and orders all three estates to meet in this Séance Royale (Royal Session), where he considers the demands of the Cahiers de Doleances, agrees to a vote by head on most of the issues, and allows all the remaining members of the First Estate and the Second Estate to join the National Assembly and begin working on a constitution

  • The discontent expressed by the Third Estate inside the Palace of Versailles was slowly making its way out into the streets of France, most notably Paris and turmoil was beginning to brew!

Appendix 2.4.5

“The Tennis Court Oath at Versailles” by Jacques-Louis David

Appendix 2.4.6


  1. Where is every person facing in this painting? Why do they have their hands raised? What does the position of their bodies symbolize?

  2. Do you see any members of the First Estate or the Second Estate pictured here? If so, how do you know?

  3. There are two things to notice in the upper left-hand corner of the painting. The first, is that a breeze seems to have entered the tennis court, indicated by the flowing curtain. What do you believe the painter’s intention was? The second, is that only one person turns his back to the celebration. What does this symbolize?

Possible Answers (Do not photocopy this portion of Appendix 2.4.6):

  1. (Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis) Every person is facing toward the central figures in this painting. They have their hands raised either because they are taking the oath or as a display of solidarity. The position of their bodies symbolize that they are united in the goal of drafting a constitution for France.

  2. (Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge, Analysis) Members of the First Estate are clearly present. This is evidence by the individual in the front and center of the painting wearing clerical robes.

  3. (Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluation, Analysis) The painter’s intention with the flowing curtain caused by a breeze entering the tennis court was probably indicating that the “winds of liberty” were entering the place where the French Revolution began. The individual who turns his back on the celebration symbolizes members of the First and Second Estates who did not originally join in the Tennis Court Oath.

Appendix 2.4.7

Towards The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

  • In Paris there is a rumor spreading that King Louis XVI is going to fire Necker, so the Paris population take to the streets and demand that Necker be kept on; Necker is sent into exile and replaced by the unpopular Baron Bretuil; Paris was sliding into anarchy and its population marches to the Bastille to arm themselves

  • After the Fall of the Bastille (to be discussed subsequently), King Louis XVI had no choice but to recall Necker, wear the tricolour cockade, bearing the white colour of royalty and the blue and red of the people of Paris, recognizing the revolution that was occurring and symbolizing that his absolute authority as monarch and absolutism in France was at an end, and that real change was indeed beginning

  • The Parisian mob was gaining control of the city and directing the revolutionary activity characterized by violence that would continue into the second phase of the Revolution in 1793

  • The countryside, like Paris, was experiencing trouble, known as the Great Fear, which begins as rumors spread that King Louis XVI is sending thugs to murder people in their sleep!

  • What symbolised the rural peasants’ anger with the Old Regime and their feudal obligations to landlords was the burning of their landlords’ houses

  • The National Assembly finally abolishes feudalism by August 11, 1789 by having the clergy give up the tithe, and the nobles cancel the feudal dues owed to them by the peasantry

  • However, the main goal of the National assembly was to create a constitution and on August 26, 1789 the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was issued by the National Assembly

Appendix 2.4.8

The representatives of the French people, constituted as a National Assembly, and considering that ignorance, neglect, or contempt of the rights of man are the sole causes of public misfortunes and governmental corruption, have resolved to set forth in a solemn declaration the natural, inalienable and sacred rights of man: so that by being constantly present to all the members of the social body this declaration may always remind them of their rights and duties; so that by being liable at every moment to comparison with the aim of any an all political institutions the acts of the legislative and executive powers may be the more fully respected; and so that by being founded henceforward on simple and incontestable principles the demands of the citizens may always tend toward maintaining the constitution and the general welfare.
In consequence, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following rights of man and citizen:

  1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on common utility.

  2. The purpose of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptable rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

  3. The principle of all sovereignty rests essentially in the nation. No body and no individual may exercise authority which does not emanate expressly from the nation.

  4. Liberty consists in the ability to do whatever does not harm another; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no other limits than those which assure to other members of society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by the law.

  5. The law only has the right to prohibit those actions which are injurious to society. No hindrance should be put in the way of anything not prohibited by the law, nor may any one be forced to do what the law does not require.

  6. The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part, in person or by their representatives, in its formation. It must be the same for everyone whether it protects or penalizes. All citizens being equal in its eyes are equally admissible to all public dignities, offices, and employments, according to their ability, and with no other distinction than that of their virtues and talents.

  7. No man may be indicted, arrested, or detained except in cases determined by the law and according to the forms which it has prescribed. Those who seek, expedite, execute, or cause to be executed arbitrary orders should be punished; but citizens summoned or seized by virtue of the law should obey instantly, and render themselves guilty by resistance.

  8. Only strictly and obviously punishments may be established by the law, and no one may be punished except by virtue of a law established and promulgated before the time of the offense, and legally applied.

  9. Every man being presumed innocent until judged guilty, if it deemed indispensable to arrest him, all rigor unnecessary to securing his person should be severely repressed by the law.

  10. No one should be disturbed for his opinions, even in religion, provided that their manifestation does not trouble public order as established by law.

  11. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may therefore speak, write, and print freely, if he accepts his own responsibility for any abuse of this liberty in the cases set by the law.

  12. The safeguard of the rights of man and the citizen requires public powers. These powers are therefore instituted for the advantage of all, and not for the private benefit of those to whom they are entrusted.

  13. For maintenance of public authority and for expenses of administration, common taxation is indispensable. It should be apportioned equally among all the citizens according to their capacity to pay.

  14. All citizens have the right, by themselves or through their representatives, to have demonstrated to them the necessity of public taxes, to consent to them freely, to follow the use made of the proceeds, and to determine the means of apportionment, assessment, and collection, and the duration of them.

  15. Society has the right to hold accountable every public agent of the administration.

  16. Any society in which the guarantee of rights is not assured or the separation of powers has not settled has no constitution.

  17. Property being an inviolable and sacred right, no one may be deprived of it except when public necessity, certified by law, obviously requires it, and on the condition of a just compensation in advance.

Appendix 2.4.9

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.
That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

[…] He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

[…] He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

[…] He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

[…] For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

[…] He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the Lives of our people.

[…] In every stage of these Oppressions We have petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
[…] We therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the Protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

Appendix 2.4.10

Whereas the said late King James II having abdicated the government, and the throne being thereby vacant, his Highness the prince of Orange (whom it hath pleased Almighty God to make glorious instrument of delivering this kingdom from popery and arbitrary power) did (by the advice of the lords spiritual and temporal, and diverse principal persons of the Commons) cause letters to be written to the lords spiritual and temporal, being Protestants, and other letters to the several counties, cities, universities, boroughs, and Cinque Ports, for the choosing of such persons to represent them, as were of right to be sent to parliament, to meet and sit at Westminster upon the two and twentieth day of January, in this year 1689, in order to such an establishment as that their religion, laws, and liberties might not again be in danger of being subverted; upon which letters elections have been accordingly made.
And thereupon the said lords spiritual and temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being new assembled in a full and free representation of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done), for the vindication and assertion of their ancient rights and liberties, declare:

  1. That the pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal.

  2. That the pretended power of dispensing with the laws, or the execution of law by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal.

[…] 5. That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal.

  1. That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of parliament, is against law.

[…] 9. That the freedom of speech, and debates or proceedings in parliament, ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of parliament

[…] 13. And that for redress of all grievances, and for the amending, strengthening, and preserving of the laws, parliament ought to be held frequently.

And they do claim, demand, and insist upon all singular the premises, as their undoubted rights and liberties…
Having therefore an entire confidence that his said Highness the prince of Orange will perfect the deliverance so far advanced by him, and will still preserve them from the violation of their rights, which they have here asserted, and from all other attempt upon their religion, rights, and liberties:
The said lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, assembled at Westminster, do resolve that William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, be, and be declared, king and queen of England, France, and Ireland…
Upon which their said Majesties did accept the crown and royal dignity of the kingdoms of England, France, and Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the resolution and desire of the said lords and commons contained in the said declaration.

Appendix 2.4.11


Bill of Rights (1689)


Declaration of Independence (1776)


Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)


Estate #:__________

On your piece of chart paper, please copy the following Venn Diagram template:

This is an exercise in seeing the similarities and differences of global conceptions of human rights in the eighteenth century. You will be able to see what characteristics of human rights are unique to each country, which ones are common to two countries and what all three countries value as central to human rights.

As an estate, read through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights. As an estate, fill in at least one point in each of the seven sections on this Venn Diagram. When reading through the documents, keep an eye out for how each country views monarchy, lawmaking, imprisonment, liberty, property, and taxes, to name a few. Once you have filled out the Venn Diagram, turn the chart paper over and based on the documents that you have just read, justify which country addresses the issue of these human rights the best in a short paragraph. There is no right or wrong answer to this part, as this is based on your estate’s collective opinion. You will then hand in the chart paper for assessment based on the accompanying checklist.

Appendix 2.4.12


Achievement Chart Focus

Check Here for “Yes”

Check Here for “No”


Knowledge and Understanding

Each of the Seven Sections of the Venn Diagram contains at least one Relevant Point


A Short Paragraph is provided justifying the Document that addresses Human Rights the best


Evidence of Group Cohesion during the Work Period
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