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Unit 2 Assessment and Evaluation Overview: What was the most significant element of 1715-1815 that helped shape the modern age?

Topic/Task

Achievement Chart Focus

Strategies

Tools

Assessor Peer / Self / Teacher

Summative / Culminating Task: A Century in Review: What was the most significant element of 1715-1815 that helped shape the modern age?

Newspaper Article

Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application

Evaluation

Rubric

Teacher

Presentation

Communication

Evaluation

Rubric

Teacher

Reflection

Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application

Evaluation

Rubric

Teacher

Formative Assessment and Evaluation

Activity 2.1 Class Discussion

Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application, Communication

Assessment

Oral Feedback

Teacher

Activity 2.2 Research and Role-Play

Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application, Communication

Assessment

Oral and Written Feedback, Task Sheet, Exit Card

Peer, Self, Teacher

Activity 2.3

Group video presentation



Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application, Communication

Assessment

Checklist and Rating Scale

Peer and Teacher

Activity 2.4 Collaborative Primary Written and Visual Analysis

Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application, Communication

Assessment and Evaluation

Checklist, Written Feedback, and Rubric

Peer and Teacher

Activity 2.5 Art Analysis, Group Discussions, Think-pair-share, Four Corners

Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application, Communication

Assessment

Oral/Peer Feedback, Self-Assessment, Informal Observation

Peer, Self, Teacher

Activity 2.6 Mock Trial and Exit Ticket

Knowledge and Understanding, Thinking and Inquiry, Application, Communication

Evaluation

Rubric

Teacher


Century in Review:

What was the Most Significant Element of 1715 to 1815 that Helped Shape the Modern Age?
Culminating Activity Description

Students are being asked to explore the revolutionary one hundred years between 1715 and 1815 through a fabricated newspaper publication they will create. Students must pick one idea, individual or event from the time period in question and provide a context for their chosen topic as well as a rationale for why they feel it is the most significant element of the one hundred years in study. They will be asked to find two primary sources with opposing viewpoints on their topic of choice, and they will write responses to those primary sources in a letter to the editor section. Also, students must provide a political cartoon from the era as part of a discussion of their topic of choice (they may draw one if they wish).


The objective of what students should take away from this Culminating Activity is the importance of historical opinion, and the ability to validate one’s opinion through historical evidence. Finally, outside the product of the newspaper, students will reflect on why their topic is relevant and critical for the Modern Age.
Overall Expectations Which Will be Evaluated

Communities: Local, National and Global



COV.03 · evaluate the key factors that have led to conflict and war or to cooperation and

peace.
Change and Continuity



CCV.01 · demonstrate an understanding of how the historical concept of change is

used to analyse developments in the West and throughout the world since the

sixteenth century;
Citizenship and Heritage

CHV.04 · demonstrate an understanding of the range and diversity of concepts of

citizenship and human rights that have developed since the sixteenth century.


Social, Economic and Political Structures

SEV.04 · demonstrate an understanding of key aspects of women’s economic, social, and

political lives in Western and non-Western societies since the sixteenth century.


Methods of Historical Inquiry

HIV.02 · critically analyze historical evidence, events, and interpretations;

HIV.03 · communicate opinions and ideas based on effective research clearly and

concisely;


Basic Instructions

Everything that will be handed out to students is included in this contained section of the unit. All teacher resources are outlined in Activity 2.7.




Century in Review: What was the Most Significant Element of 1715 to 1815 that Helped Shape the Modern Age?



Your Task:

The year is 1815, and you are a fresh new writer trying to make your way in the world of cutting edge journalism. Your editor is seeking to publish a “Century in Review” edition of your local newspaper. You can name it what you wish.


Your task contains three sections.
Task Number One:

Your two-page spread will consist of the following:



  • On the front page:

    • You have been asked to pick a person, event, practice or idea that you consider to be the most influential or critical in affecting change from 1715 to 1815. If you would like to work within the French Revolution or the Enlightenment you must pick a certain component of those events as opposed to a discussion of the entire event.

    • Within your story you must include a visual representation (you can draw or include an existing visual) illustrating your topic of choice, as well as providing a brief context and background information about your topic for readers.

    • Secondly, you will state why you believe your topic of choice was the most critical element of the past one hundred years.

  • On the second page:

    • You must include a ‘letter to the editor’ section in which you must include two excerpts from primary documents related to your topic of interest. The two primary documents must explore opposing viewpoints on your issue. You will then act as the editor and write a response to each author.

    • Secondly, you must include a political cartoon related to your chosen topic. You may draw a cartoon if you wish, or find one from the time period you are discussing. Either way you must include a caption describing what is occurring in the political cartoon and why you believe it effectively demonstrates or supports the importance of your chosen topic.


Task Number Two:

After your two page spread is complete you will need to convince a small group of associate journalists that your pages should be run in the final version of the paper. Remember, that the context you are in is 1815, so you cannot include information after this date.


Task Number Three:

Write a 1- 2 page (doubled-spaced) reflection, based on your topic of choice, discussing its relevance to modern day. Why do we still study this topic, and why will it continue to be important?


Assessment and Evaluation

Your product and ‘sales pitch’ will be evaluated by your instructor, as per the attached rubric.


See the handout as a guide for creating your paper. A checklist has also been included to ensure that you have completed all that is required. Finally, you must include a bibliography for all of the sources you consulted.
Good luck!


List of Student Resources
Christopher, James R. and George G. Witter. Modern Western Civilization. Toronto:

Oxford University Press, 1991.


Halsall, Paul. Modern History Sourcebook, 22 Sept. 2001. Web. 6 Jan. 2010.
Hanover Historical Texts Project. 23 March. 2010. Web.
Merriman, John. A History of Modern Europe, Second Edition. From the Renaissance to

the Present. New York: W.W. Norton. 2002. Print.
Newman, Garfield et al. Legacy: The West and the World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill

Ryerson Limited, 2002. Print.


Newman, Garfield and Cynthia Grenier. Impact-Western Civilization and the Wider

World. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Ltd., 1996. Print.
The History Guide. 13 May 2004. Web.
Weber, Eugene. A Modern History of Europe. New York: W.W. Norton Company. 1971.

Print.
World History Sources. Centre for History and New Media. 2005. Web.

Date: Name:
Century in Review: What Was the Most Significant Element of 1715 to 1815 that Helped Shape the Modern Age?
Topic of Choice:


Topic

Context/Background

Reasons for Significance
















































Primary Sources:




Primary Source

Response















Political Cartoon:


Picture or Drawing

Context/Background

Reasons for Significance
















































Presentation Preparation:


List three reasons (and make reference to your newspaper) as to why yours should be included in the final version of the newspaper.













Three reasons why your topic is still relevant and important to know today:














Date: Name:


Culminating Completion Checklist
This brief checklist is to ensure that you have completed the various elements of your culminating task for our Century in Review assignment.
Front Page:

  • Your newspaper has a title

  • Your paper has a date

  • Each story has an appropriate title

  • You have a visual representation of your chosen topic

  • You have provided a context for your theme, a brief description of your selection

  • You have provided your rationale for why you believe your selection is the most significant element of the past one hundred years

Second Page:



  • You have included two primary sources with different viewpoints on your topic

  • You have responded to each viewpoint in a ‘Letter to the Editor’ section

  • You have included a political cartoon which illustrates your example

  • You have described your political cartoon, and explained why and how it relates to your topic of choice

Pitching Your Newspaper:



  • You will provided an explanation of your paper

  • You will then try to justify to your group why your version of the paper should be included in the final published edition

Your Reflection



  • You have created a two page reflection which outlines why you believe your topic of choice is still relevant today, and why it will continue to be relevant in the future

Name: Date:


Century in Review Rubric:

What was the most Significant Element of 1715-1815 that Helped Shape the Modern Age?


Knowledge and Understanding

LEVEL 4

99-80%

LEVEL 3

79-70%

LEVEL 2

69-60%

LEVEL 1

59-50%

Demonstrates knowledge of the social, political, and cultural issues between 1715 and 1815.
Chooses and defends their choice of the most influential person, event, practice, or idea, as being critical.

COV.03

  • Demonstrates thorough understanding of the time period, along with associated ideas and concepts.

  • Facts and concepts are completely accurate

  • Demonstrates substantial understanding of the time period, along with associated ideas and concepts.

  • Facts and concepts are generally accurate. Minor inaccuracies do not affect overall result.

  • Demonstrates adequate understanding of the time period, along with associated ideas and concepts.

  • Facts and concepts are inaccurate. Numerous errors detract from result.

  • Demonstrates limited knowledge of the time period, along with associated ideas and concepts.

  • Facts and concepts contain major inaccuracies. Significant errors throughout.




10 9.5 9 8.5 8

7.9 7.5 7

6.9 6.5 6

5.9 5.5 5

Thinking













Uses a variety of resources to complete the newspaper articles.
Evaluates the importance of a variety of social, political and cultural events.
Uses critical thinking to defend choices.

SEV.04

HIV.02

  • Superb ability to think creatively

  • Assess the influences of key social, political and cultural events to a high degree of effectiveness.

  • Integrates substantial and compelling historical supporting evidence.

  • Shows thorough analysis and reflection.

  • Highly effective use of critical thinking to defend your choice.

  • Skilled ability to think creatively

  • Assess the influences of key social, political and cultural events effectively.

  • Integrates considerable and convincing historical supporting evidence.

  • Shows considerable analysis and reflection.

  • Effective use of critical thinking to defend your choice.

  • Adequate ability to think creatively

  • Assesses the influence of key social, political and cultural events with moderate effectiveness.

  • Provides some supporting historical evidence, but is occasionally vague.

  • Provides some analysis and reflection.

  • Moderately effective use of critical thinking to defend your choice.

  • Limited ability to think creatively

  • Ineffectively assesses the influences of key social, political and cultural events.

  • Provides limited historical supporting evidence, and is frequently vague.

  • Provides limited explanation of ideas.

  • Ineffective use of critical thinking to defend your choice.




10 9.5 9 8.5 8

7.9 7.5 7

6.9 6.5 6

5.9 5.5 5

Comments:


Communication













Organizes articles and information with clarity and focus.
Chooses relevant images or visual representations to complement the paper.
Uses appropriate/ correct language structures, grammar devices and punctuation in the reflection piece.
Contains a properly cited bibliography using MLA or Chicago style format.

CHV.04, HIV.03

  • Organizes information and ideas with a high degree of coherence and clarity.

  • Language and style are sophisticated, well-crafted and have a strong sense of purpose.

  • Few grammatical errors.

  • Contains a properly cited bibliography with one or no errors. Adheres to one of the appropriate formats.

  • Organization is generally clear, focused and logical.

  • Language and style are effective and demonstrate a considerable sense of purpose.

  • Errors do not significantly interfere with expression of ideas.

  • Contains a properly cited bibliography with four or less errors. Adheres to one of the appropriate formats.

  • Occasional lapses in coherence and clarity. Hard to follow.

  • Language and style are occasionally ineffective, but demonstrate some sense of purpose.

  • Errors occasionally interfere with expression of ideas and thoughts.

  • Contains a bibliography will numerous errors. Does not follow a proper format.

  • Frequent loss of focus and logical sequencing of ideas. Unclear and impossible to follow.

  • Language and style are frequently ineffective and demonstrate limited sense of purpose.

  • Errors frequently interfere with expression of ideas and thoughts.

  • Bibliography does not follow a proper format.




10 9.5 9 8.5 8

7.9 7.5 7

6.9 6.5 6

5.9 5.5 5

Application













Compares and contrasts the two primary sources in the “Letters to the Editor” Section.
Designs a political cartoon and caption that demonstrates an thorough understanding of the time period. Uses effective techniques such as satire, analogies, and metaphors.
Reflection paper makes social, political, and cultural connections between then and now.

CCV.01, HIV.02

  • Organizes and synthesizes information with a high degree of effectiveness.

  • Demonstrates a deeper understanding of important concepts through political cartoon.

  • Compares and contrasts primary sources thoroughly with a high degree of effectiveness.

  • Makes connections between time periods with a high degree of effectiveness.

  • Organizes and synthesizes information effectively.

  • Demonstrates a solid understanding of important concepts through political cartoon.

  • Compares and contrasts primary sources effectively.

  • Makes connection within and between time periods with a considerable degree of effectiveness.



  • Organizes and synthesizes information with moderate effectiveness.

  • Demonstrates a some understanding of important concepts through political cartoon.

  • Partially compares and contrasts primary sources thoroughly with moderate effectiveness.

  • Makes connections between time periods with some effectiveness.

  • Ineffectively organizes and synthesizes information.

  • Demonstrates little understanding of important concepts through political cartoon.

  • Does not compare and contrasts primary sources. Ineffective application of information.

  • Makes connections between time periods with limited effectiveness.




10 9.5 9 8.5 8

7.9 7.5 7

6.9 6.5 6

5.9 5.5 5

Comments:


Activity 2.1
Which Factors Influence Change?



Activity 2.1: Which Factors Influence Change?

Time: 75 Minutes
Description
Students will be introduced to the concept of change and its influence on society through the viewing of a trailer from the film The Social Network (2010). Students will be asked to explore how social networks, such as Facebook, have altered their daily lives as well as their relationship to society. Students will examine the power of individual thought, through the example of Mark Zuckerberg, and connect this idea to individuals who proposed revolutionary thought in the 1715 to 1815 time period, including Voltaire, Robespierre and Napoleon, among others.
Following this discussion, students will be given the culminating assignment for the unit. After witnessing the example of Zuckerberg’s individual idea of Facebook, which transformed modern ways of thinking, students will be asked to examine how one individual, event, idea shaped, and revolutionized, the period between 1715 to 1815.

Strand(s) & Learning Expectations
Strand(s): Change and Continuity, Citizenship and Heritage
Overall Expectations

CCV.01 · demonstrate an understanding of how the historical concept of change is used

to analyze developments in the West and throughout the world since the

sixteenth century.

CHV.04 · demonstrate an understanding of the range and diversity of concepts of

citizenship and human rights that have developed since the sixteenth century.


Specific Expectations

CC1.02 – identify forces that have facilitated the process of change (e.g., increase in

literacy, humanism and liberalism, scientific revolutions) and those that have

tended to impede it (e.g., rigid class or caste systems, reactionary and

conservative philosophies, traditional customs).



CC1.03 – assess the influence of key individuals and groups who helped shape Western

attitudes to change (e.g., Luther, Montesquieu, Wollstonecraft, Marx, Darwin,

Einstein, de Beauvoir, Hawking; explorers and innovators, Luddites, Fabians,

Futurists, environmentalists).



CH4.03 – demonstrate an understanding of key factors that have slowed or blocked the

advancement of human rights (e.g., poverty, religious intolerance, racial bias,



imperial exploitation, authoritarian governments).
Planning Notes

  1. Students will view the trailer for the 2010 film The Social Network.

  2. Through think-pair-share, students will consider the following:

    1. How social networking has changed their personal lives

    2. The pros and cons of social networking

    3. How it has influenced society, and its relationship to societal factors (ie. religion, politics and personal relationships)

  3. As a class we will discuss the above questions. The intent or focus of the class discussion is to reinforce the notion of how one individual, element or idea can transform society, and its relationship to the self through the example of Mark Zuckerberg.

  4. Students will be given the culminating assignment, and the teacher will read through it with them. Students will be given time to ask questions concerning the Culminating Activity.

  5. Students will be informed that all activities throughout the unit are designed to support their creation of the Culminating Activity.


Prior Knowledge Required

  1. Students will have covered the social, scientific, and political order that was established and maintained through the Church during this time.

  2. Students will have explored the foundations of the Renaissance, the Reformation and global exploration and colonization.

  3. Developed an understanding of the interaction between the Western and Non-Western world, and the changing relationship between self and society.

  4. Students should be familiar with absolute monarchy as a form of government.

  5. Students are competent in independent research skills as well as presentation experience.

  6. Students have had experience with analyzing and critiquing primary sources.


Teaching/Learning Strategies

  1. Students will use think-pair-share to explore the above guiding questions.

  2. As a class, we will move into a group discussion regarding what the students discussed in think-pair-share.


Assessment Evaluation of Student Achievement

Note: Numbers refer to the Teaching/Learning Strategies above

  • Assessment as learning and for learning will take place, as the teacher circulates around the room to take part in student discussions.

  • Assessment will also take place during the class discussion as well.


Accommodations:

  1. For visual and auditory learners, students will have the opportunity for physical, auditory and visual accommodations by allowing students to move closer to the front of the room.

  2. A word bank with key terms pertaining to the Culminating Activity and the introductory lesson will be provided for all students. This will benefit all students, but will be of particular assistance to ESL and ELL students.

Resources
Electronic

Sony Pictures. “ The Social Network Official Trailer.”

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lB95KLmpLR4
Appendices


  • Refer to Activity 2.7 as a teacher resource for distributing the Culminating Activity.

  • The handouts for the Culminating Activity are included in the Culminating Activity section of the unit.


e:\oise\history\unit group\salon photo.jpg


Activity 2.2

An Afternoon at the Salon:

Were the Salonières a powerful venue for societal reform?



Activity 2.2: An Afternoon at the Salon: Were the Salonières a powerful venue for societal reform?

Time: 225 Minutes
Description

This activity is intended to provide students with an understanding of some of the leading thinkers and revolutionary figures of the Enlightenment. Through a lively and interactive critical challenge, this lesson requires students to assume historical perspective to gain an understanding of the shifting values and radical thought responsible for change during this time period.


This activity has been structured to support the class for their culminating unit task. After completion of this three-day activity, students will have practiced the following skills required for successful completion of their summative evaluation:


  • researching and analyzing primary sources

  • critically responding to historical text

  • presentation and role-playing


Strand(s) & Learning Expectations
Strand(s): Communities: Citizenship and Heritage; Social, Economic and Political Structures; Methods of Historical Inquiry
Overall Expectations

CHV.04 demonstrate an understanding of the range and diversity of concepts of citizenship and human rights that have developed since the sixteenth century.

SEV.04 demonstrate an understanding of key aspects of women’s economic, social, and political lives in Western and non-Western societies since the sixteenth century.

HIV.02 critically analyse historical evidence, events, and interpretations
Specific Expectations

CH4.02 describe the efforts of individuals and groups who facilitated the advancement of individual and collective human rights (e.g., Locke, Rousseau, Kropotkin, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, Rigoberta Menchú; suffragists, Amnesty International);

SE4.03 demonstrate an understanding of the efforts and achievements of individuals and groups who have worked for the advancement of women’s status (e.g., Mary Wollstonecraft, Florence Nightingale, Nellie McClung, Eleanor Roosevelt, Simone de Beauvoir, Golda Meir, Indira Gandhi; first- and second-wave feminist organizations).

HI3.01 communicate effectively, using a variety of styles and forms (e.g., essays, debates, role playing, group presentations)
Planning Notes

  • The activity “minds on” requires the use of a laptop and LCD projector to navigate a chat room for students to experience a modern social venue where ideas are shared and challenged.

  • The teacher must provide each student with a copy of Appendix 2.2.1. This Task Sheet outlines the activity in “student” language. It scaffolds the activity and acts as a checklist for students to follow.

  • The library must be booked a few weeks in advance so that students have one complete work period to conduct the research required.

  • The teacher must emphasize that students are limited to research web sites listed on Appendix 2.2.1. Any other web sites should be presented to the teacher for approval before use.

  • The teacher must provide each student with a copy of Appendix 2.2.3. This is an Exit Card that will be used at the end of their research period to gather self and peer feedback.

  • The teacher should consider providing appropriate music and perhaps snacks to help establish the atmosphere and heighten the authenticity of the event.


Prior Knowledge Required

  • Students will have experience working with primary sources, developing critical responses to historical documents, and making presentations.

  • Students will have experience with web quests and locating primary resources online.

  • Students are competent in sourcing of primary and secondary materials.

  • Students have experience using check lists and exit cards to conduct self and peer assessment.


Teaching/Learning Strategies


  1. In a teacher-led discussion, students will be asked to describe and define characteristics of an online chat room. The teacher will begin the class establishing criteria for a modern-day social networking venue where ideas and theories are discussed, similar in concept to the Salonières (Salons) during the Enlightenment. This minds-on technique should provide relevance and context for the students. The teacher will also take some time to show students an example of a chat room so that they understand how it works and the variety of ideas that can be discussed. TEFL is one chat room geared towards English students and teachers. It can be used for reference with the students and does not require registration. http://edition.tefl.net/articles/englishclub/chat-rooms/ End of Minds On

  2. The class will be divided into four groups of six using numbered heads. Refer to Appendix 2.2.2.

  3. The teacher will distribute and review the hand-out describing the Afternoon at the Salon Task Sheet (Appendix 2.2.1). In this Task Sheet (which will serve as a check list for the students), students will be informed of their obligation to produce a two-paragraph response justifying the significance of the Salon gathering. In addition, within their Salon Group, each student will research a different influential figure from those listed on the task sheet. They are required to produce a three-paragraph critical response justifying their person’s significance and contribution to change during the Enlightenment Period. Students will be responsible for discussing the intellectual contributions of their person in the Salon Event. They are also encouraged to dress the part! Refer to Appendix 2.2.4 for a directional sense of responses the teacher should expect.

  4. Students should be informed that their research notes will be handed in. Be sure to emphasize that this exercise is practice for the culminating task. This is their chance to practice research and critical thinking skills required for a successful summative evaluation. End of Day One

  5. The teacher will provide students with a full work period in the library so that they have time to conduct research required.

  6. The teacher will refer students to the Task Sheet for research requirements.

  7. Students are encouraged to discuss ideas with the teacher during the work period so that the teacher is able to assess for and during learning. Furthermore, the teacher will be able to provide timely feedback.

  8. Students are also encouraged to work collaboratively during their work period. This is an opportunity for peers to support each other and provide feedback on particular research methods and written responses.

  9. At the end of the work period, the teacher should have students complete an Exit Card (see Appendix 2.2.3) so that they can conduct and record a self and peer assessment. End of Day Two

  10. On the third day of the activity, students will meet briefly (15 minutes) with those who researched the same influential figure. Students will debrief and exchange findings.

  11. Students will reconvene with their Salon Groups. One member of the group will be the Salon Hostess (group members to determine). All others will assume the role of a Salon Guest. Students will create their own French persona and introduce themselves accordingly. They will socialize and educate one another on their assigned influential figure.

  12. At the conclusion of the Salon Event, students will hand in their research notes. The teacher will provide formative feedback to help prepare students for the culminating task. End of Day Three


Assessment and Evaluation of Student Achievement

Note: Numbers refer to the Teaching/Learning Strategies above.

  1. Instantaneous formative oral feedback will be provided to students during the class discussion.

7. Teacher will be available for consultation and provide formative oral feedback.

9. Students are asked to complete the Exit Card (Appendix 2.2.3) to conduct and record self and peer assessment of their efforts during the research period.

10. Students will provide peer oral feedback to support their understanding of their shared influential figure. The teacher will be assessing the participation and student responses for understanding and application. The teacher will provide oral feedback so that students are comfortable with their understanding of the material.

10. The teacher will be observing Salon Groups and providing oral feedback. Students will also provide peer oral feedback as they engage each other in conversation during the Salon Event.

11. The teacher will provide written formative feedback for students.
Accommodations:


  • Auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learning styles are considered and incorporated into this activity.

  • Students who require extra support conducting research will benefit from the assistance of the teacher, group members, and the librarian.

  • Students who do not have a printer should be able to email the teacher the final assignment.


Resources

A list of resources can be found in the Afternoon at the Salon Task Sheet. See Appendix 2.2.1.


Electronic Resources

http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook13.html

http://www.histoire-image.org/site/lettre_info/hors-serie-revolution-francaise.php
Appendices

Appendix 2.2.1 – An Afternoon at the Salon Task Sheet

Appendix 2.2.2 – Numbered Heads Instruction

Appendix 2.2.3 – Exit Card

Appendix 2.2.4 - Exemplars


Appendix 2.2.1


An Afternoon at the Salon Task Sheet -

Were the Salonières a powerful venue for societal reform?






http://www.kaschaandjohn.com/salon/img/history/salon.jpg


An Afternoon at the Salon

Were the Salonières a powerful venue for societal reform?


Day One – Making Decisions
In your group of six, you will divide and assume the responsibility for researching one of the influential figures below. Remember, each historical philosopher should be covered in your group. Discuss your selection with your group members to avoid overlap.
Influential Figures to be discussed at your Salon.

John Locke

Adam Smith

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Mary Wollenstonecraft

Voltaire


Montesquieu

Final decisions include:



  • Start thinking about a French persona you will assume during the Salon Event.

  • Appoint a Salon Host responsible for introducing Salon Guests at your Salon Event.

  • What will you wear?

Day Two – Research and Response

You are responsible for the following:



  1. Use one or two primary sources to write a two-paragraph critical response justifying the significance of a Salon gathering.

  2. Locate and source a photograph of your influential figure.

  3. Use one other primary source to prepare a three-paragraph critical response justifying your person’s significance and contribution to change during the Enlightenment Period.

Research Resources are limited to:

http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook13.html

http://www.histoire-image.org/site/lettre_info/hors-serie-revolution-francaise.php

Day Three – Share and Role-Play!

  • Meet briefly with students who share your same influential figure. Take a few minutes to discuss your findings.

  • Get into your Salon Group and role-play your persona and share your research with your peers! Exchange thoughts and inspirations – and maybe a little gossip!

  • Hand in research notes so that you can receive formative assessment feedback.

Have Fun!




Appendix 2.2.2
Numbered Heads
What:

- a technique to organize students and provide roles for students within groups


Why:

- to increase accountability

- to engage all students in an activity

- to nurture effective group work by ensuring that all students have a voice and a responsibility

- to reduce management problems
When to use it:

- when you are having students work in small groups (3-4 students)

- when you need to divide up work amongst group members

- when you want different students to examine different resources


How:

When you should give students their roles? Some considerations:

- if students know at the beginning that they will not be “presenting” at the end, will they “buy out” of the activity?

- if you let students choose their roles, this might increase a feeling of emotional safety



BUT

- if you let students choose their own roles all the time, are we nurturing growth?


How (possible script):
“Today we are going to be working in small groups. Each person will have various roles and responsibilities throughout this activity.”
“In your groups, please number yourselves off from 1 to 4.” (Give students 15 seconds to number themselves off)
OR you number off students. Start with an anchor point in each group (e.g. person in front left corner is always #1 and move in a clockwise position when you number off in that group)
“Number 1s: please raise your hands.” (make sure that each group has a number 1) “Number 2s please raise your hand.” (continue in this fashion until you ensure that every group has numbered off and everyone knows their number.)


Appendix 2.2.3
Self and Peer Assessment
EXIT CARD


One way I helped my fellow student with their research today:


One way someone helped me in my research today:



Appendix 2.2.4
Teacher Reference Sample Answers

An Afternoon at the Salon Activity
Listed below are main ideas that should be included in student responses to the questions posed in this activity.

The Salonières

  • Many of the brightest minds of the Enlightenment assembled in salons to discuss the major issues of the day.

  • Certain women organized salons and took part in the discussions

  • Salonières or women of Paris Salons promoted an anti-hierarchical sociability reflecting their influence in managing male discourse. These women also caused males increased anxiety about their potential to exercise real political power.

  • affirmed respect for the human mind’s capacities and for human autonomy

  • argued that the individual was able to govern himself – the mind was self-sufficient and could therefore rely on its own ability to think and to weigh the evidence of its own experience (reason)

  • rejected the authority of tradition – people should have the courage to break with beliefs and institutions that did not meet the test of reason and common sense



John Locke

Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1690

  • One of the great works of the Enlightenment

  • Stressed the importance of the environment on human development: Education was the key

  • tabula rasa: the human mind was born as a blank slate and registered input from the senses passively.

  • Saw all human knowledge as the result of sensory experiences without any preconceived notions

  • Rejected Descartes’ view that all people are born with certain basic ideas and ways of thinking.

  • For progress to occur in society, education was critical in determining human development.

Two Treatises of Civil Government



  • Philosophical defense for the “Glorious Revolution” in England.

  • State of nature: humans are basically good but lack protection

  • This contrasts with Hobbes’ view of humans in a state of nature: nasty and brutish

  • Governments provide rule of law but only through the consent of the governed

  • The purpose of government is to protect “natural rights” of the people: life, liberty and property

  • Right to rebellion: People have a right to abolish a government that doesn’t protect natural rights.

Mary Wollstonecraft

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

  • British writer

  • One of the founding feminist philosophers.

  • In England, she promoted political and educational equality for women

  • In “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” Wollstonecraft argues that women should be educated in order to raise the children of the nation and in order to be companions to their husbands rather than just wives

    • Political and education treatise

    • Celebration of the rationality of women

    • Supported Revolution and its supporters

Adam Smith

Wealth of Nations (1776)

  • Wealth of Nations considered the “Bible” of capitalism.

  • Refined and expanded laissez-faire philosophy of the physiocrats.

  • Believed the economy is governed by the natural laws of supply and demand.

  • In a free market economy, competition will encourage producers to manufacture most efficiently in order to sell higher quality, lower cost goods than competitors.

  • Gov’t regulation only interferes with this natural self-governing style.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Social Contract (1762)

  • Attacked rationalism and civilization as destroying rather than liberating the individual.

  • Believed there was too much of an emphasis on property, and not enough consideration of people = a root cause of social injustice.

  • The general will, a consensus of the majority, should control a nation. This strongly implied democracy and influenced the French Revolution after 1791. Downside: Minority viewpoints were not recognized.

  • Though these ideas seem to support democracy, the ambiguous nature of “general will” was later manipulated by dictators to rationalize extreme nationalism and tyranny (e.g. Robespierre).

  • Though considered part of the Enlightenment, Rousseau is more accurately seen as the founder of the Romantic Movement.

  • After the French Revolution, the Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason gave way to a glorification of emotion.

Voltaire

  • Perhaps the most influential of all Enlightenment philosophers.

  • He wrote his criticisms with a sharp sarcasm that ridiculed those with whom he disagreed.

  • Challenged traditional Catholic theology

    • Strong deist views

    • Believed prayer and miracles did not fit with natural law

    • Believed that human reason was the key to progress in society, not religious faith

  • His influential social criticism inspired many to call for change, setting the stage for the French Revolution.

  • He hated bigotry and injustice and called for religious toleration.

  • His most famous quote against religious intolerance was “crush the infamous thing” (“Ecracsez l’infame”)

  • Although Voltaire was raised as a Christian, he came to distrust organized religion as corrupt in its leadership and for having moved away from the central message of Jesus.

  • Advocated “enlightened despotism” (a more benevolent form of absolutism) believing that people were incapable of governing themselves. Although Voltaire was raised as a Christian, he came to distrust organized religion as corrupt in its leadership and for having moved away from the central message of Jesus.

  • His views influenced several “Enlightened Despots” including Frederick the Great of Prussia (who invited Voltaire to live in his court in Berlin), Catherine the Great of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Napoleon of France.

  • Believed in equality before the law but not in the equality of classes.

Montesquieu

Spirit of the Laws

  • Member of the French nobility; hated the absolutism of Louis XIV.

  • Spirit of the Laws (1748) called for separation of powers in government into three branches (monarchy, nobility and the rest of the population)

  • Goal: prevent tyranny and promote liberty

  • Principle of checks and balances would ensure that no single branch of gov’t became too powerful as the other two branches could check excess power.

  • He favored the British system of a monarch, Parliament and independent courts

  • He supported the 13 parliaments in France (judicial tribunals of nobles) as a check against tyrannical absolute rule by the monarch

  • Montesquieu’s ideas had a significant impact on the creation of the U.S. Constitution and the French Revolution in the 1780s.

Research Resources:

http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook13.html



http://www.histoire-image.org/site/lettre_info/hors-serie-revolution-francaise.php

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Activity 2.4

1789-1793:

The Beginning of Change?



Activity 2.4: 1789-1793 The Beginning of Change?

Time: 300 minutes
Description: This activity will explore the first phase of the French Revolution, focusing on the topics of The Estates General, The Tennis Court Oath, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, and the fall of the Bastille. Throughout this activity, students will become a part of the Estates General in a collaborative setting, analyze visuals and historical perspectives to form their own opinion of various events during this period. Students will be able to see how the first phase of the French Revolution helped to build the Modern Age through a connection to current events. This activity will prepare students in forming their responses to their selected primary sources as the editor of the “Century in Review” newspaper.

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