Unit African Challenges Topic Slavery



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Fitzgerald

Unit - African Challenges

Topic - Slavery

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Europeans in the Region
When did Europe start trading with Africa?
What were they originally hoping to trade?

West and Central Africa begin to trade with Europe

Late 1400s



  • Had traded gold with Arab traders

  • Now Europe interested in gold

  • Soon slave trade starts

Trading in slaves not new to Africa

  • Had traded slaves across Sahara

  • Trade with Europe much greater







Atlantic Slave Trade begins
How did the currents on the Atlantic Ocean encourage the slave trade?

Describe the trade and why slaves fit into this trade.



Slaves begin to be traded to Europe's colonies in the Americas

  • 1500s

  • Part of "The Triangular Trade"

    • Europe traded manufactured good to Africa for slaves

    • African slaves traded to colonies in Caribbean islands and American colonies

    • Molasses, sugar, and rum produced by slave labor traded to Europe to complete triangle




Effects of the Trade
What horrible record does the slave trade hold?
Describe the negative effect the slave trade had on African governments.
Why would an African government participate in the slave trade?

Largest forced migration in history

  • About 13 million taken as slaves

  • Caused several effects

Many negative effects

  • African states no longer lived peacefully alongside each other

  • Stronger states attacked weaker states to capture slaves to trade

  • Wars hurt governments and economies of regions

African culture was brought to the Caribbean and America - Examples

    • Religion

    • Music




Those nations that participated got guns. If a nation did not participate, it would be weaker, as the others would have guns. Then the nation would be attacked and its people taken. They had no choice but to participate.


Fitzgerald

Unit - African Challenges

Topic - European Colonization in Africa



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European Colonization in Africa: A Closer Look
When did the European nations divide Africa between themselves?
For how long did European nations rule African nations?

1880s rush to divide all of Africa between European nations

  • Called "The Mad Scramble"

  • Europeans have a machine gun that makes resistance impossible

  • Rule from 1880s to 1960s

  • Damage still felt




Causes
Why did European nations seek to colonize Africa?

  • To win prestige

  • To get resources needed for Europe's factories

  • To control markets for European goods - force them to buy goods only from their “mother nation”

If a nation was a French colony, France got all its resources and it could only buy French goods.

Event

What infamous event occurred in 1184?



  • 1884 - European leaders hold a meeting to divide Africa between them




Effects
What effects did European colonization have?


  • Drew new borders that ignore African tribal borders

  • Did not develop African economies

    • Forced African people to only produce resources Europe needed

    • No manufacturing allowed - must buy manufactured goods from Europe

Economic Levels

Primary - harvest resources

Second – manufacture

Tertiary – provide services

Stuck at Primary Level

Colonialism

Though slavery outlawed in 1800s, Europeans start colonies in Africa

  • Seek to rule in Africa, not trade

  • Also called imperialism

  • By 1900, all of Africa had become a colony of one European country or another

Colonialism –

mother country rules another country for its own economic benefit, the colony serves the mother country



Poster

  • Title - Growing Markets for Our Goods

  • Banner - Jungles today are gold mines tomorrow

  • Table - lists goods sold and goods we received - in millions of British pounds!




Fitzgerald

Unit - African Challenges

Topic - Civil War

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Early Dreams and Harsh Realities
Name three problems that African nations face when they become independent.

What did these problems cause?



Countries in Africa become independent

  • 1960-1975

  • peaceful change

  • problem - people had not been governing self for decades

Two important other problems

  • Europeans still controlled economies

  • Borders of countries drawn by European countries ignored ethnic and language groups

Problems caused

  • Groups within countries fought for control of the country

    • Strongest group won

  • Governments

Democracy doesn’t work because each group just votes for its own people and the largest group wins. Then the majority runs the country for its own benefit, abusing the minorities.


Each group wanted to control the wealth of the country

Example - Civil War in Nigeria
Describe the problem

In Nigeria.



Nigerian people oppose British rule in 1940s

  • Over 40 ethnic groups

  • Becomes independent in 1960s

Different ethnic groups fight

  • Igbo people try to break away (secede)with 3 eastern states to form new country - Biafra

    • Had been victims of ethnic fighting

Bloody civil war

  • Biafra rich in oil

  • 500,000 die before Biafra rejoined

The majority group had abused the minority Igbos.



Example - Civil War in Democratic Republic of Congo
Describe the problem in the Democratic republic of the Congo.

Nation of the Democratic Republic of Congo starts

  • Leader - Kabila, does not rule democratically

  • Rebels led by Mobutu are helped by Uganda and Rwanda

  • Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe help Kabila

United Nations helps negotiate peace

  • Rebel groups still fight

  • Partly caused by desire to control resources

Fighting leave nation on shambles

5 million at least have died

Deaths due to war or just poor conditions caused by war




Fitzgerald

Unit - African Challenges

Topic - Dictatorship



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Independence and Beyond
What is Pan-Africanism?

Call for Independence after World War II

  • Leaders arose in some colonies that had allowed some Africans to participate in government

  • A leader from Ghana promoted Pan-Africanism after war

  • Pan-Africanism - called for Black Africans from to unite in call for independence




Early Dreams and Harsh Realities



Countries in Africa become independent

  • 1960-1975

  • peaceful change

  • problem - people had not been governing self for decades

Two important other problems

  • Europeans still controlled economies

  • Borders of countries drawn by European countries ignored ethnic and language groups

Problems caused

  • Groups within countries fought

  • Governments

    • banned opposition

    • led by dictators

Majorities abused minorities in democracies. Minorities created dictators if they won to stay in power and protect themselves.



Example - Trouble in Congo
Describe the problem in the Congo.

Chaos occurred when Belgium abruptly grants independence

  • So army takes control led by Mobutu

  • Renames country Zaire, a traditional name

  • Says will restore cultural identity

  • Rules as dictator for 32 years!




Example - Dictatorship in Sudan and Zimbabwe
Describe the problem in the Sudan and Zimbabwe.

Sudan is a dictatorship though called a republic

  • "president" rules by force

  • People can't participate in government

  • People can't choose leaders

Zimbabwe is also a dictatorship though it has a constitution

  • "president" rules as dictator

  • One party only for 28 years

  • Corruption and oppression are common - cause economy has collapsed

  • Millions flee to neighboring countries

Corruption - people in power use power for own gain (steal wealth from country)

Oppression - use power to control the people


Example - Corruption

In Nigeria


Describe the corruption in Nigeria.

Nigeria is considered one of the most corrupt countries in the world

  • Corruption is the use of power for personal gain

  • it is one of the top ten producers of oil in the world

  • Yet 70% of people live on less than $1.00 per day



Fitzgerald Name _______________________

http://www.onlinedigitalpubs.com/publication/?i=47599&p=2

Notes on Upfront Article “Armed and Underage”



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How many conflicts involving child soldiers were there in the world in 2004?

27




How many conflicts involving child soldiers were there in the world in 2010?

15




How many children is it estimated are being used as combatants worldwide?

200,000




What is the definition of a child soldier?


Anyone under the age of 18 who is the member of an armed force




At what age can you become a soldier in the United States?

17




List the countries in Africa that had child soldiers in 2010.

See map on page 9 and list on page 7.








List five reasons children can be considered “the perfect weapon.”


  • Easily brainwashed, easily manipulated

  • Intensely loyal

  • fearless

  • Don't even have to be paid

  • Abandoned by parents

  • In endless supply




In African the problem is particularly bad. How does the article describe many of the wars in Africa today, which makes this problem worse.


  • No longer fighting for independence from colonial rule

  • Criminal drives led by warlords whose goals are nothing more than plunder, greed, and power




Describe the life many of these child soldiers have led.



  • never been in a classroom

  • never played in a park

  • growth stunted by famine caused by conflict (can't farm in the middle of a war)

  • psyche damaged by witnessing so much killing

  • only enjoy the gun

  • abandoned by parents

  • live in filthy houses littered with cigarette boxes and smelly

  • fly-ridden mattress shared with two other boys

  • no idea how old they are







In Somalia, the leading rebel group is backed by Al Qaeda, the terrorist group behind 9-11, and the group is called Al Shabab. What does Al Shabab mean?

Youth




Give two example of how the international justice system is working against this problem in Africa.



  • International justice system has an International Criminal Court in the Hague, Netherlands

  • sets up special courts to try commanders in specific conflicts like Sierra Leone, Congo, Liberia

  • Press covered trial of former Liberian president Chuck Taylor because Naomi Campbell, a famous model, testified that he had given her diamonds

  • Extremely important that a former president is being tried

  • Send a message you will be punished




The article does not say that it is common to control the child soldiers by giving them drugs. How can giving the soldiers drugs lead to the ability to control them?

  • the goal is to make the boy addicted

  • then they depend on the warlord for the drug and will do anything to get it




Fitzgerald

Unit - African Challenges

Topic - Economic Dependence and Lack of Infrastructure



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Introduction
What are the two major problems that African nations struggle with since the end of colonization?

Countries in Africa struggle after independence

Still struggle today

  • With political unrest

  • With poverty




Economic Challenges
Why are even countries that have a resource to sell still poor?

Nations in West and Central Africa among poorest in world

  • Even those with resources struggle

  • Trying to build a healthy economy

Healthy economy has three levels - Primary activity - harvest resources

Secondary activity - manufacturing

Tertiary activity - services


Legacies of Colonialism

Define infrastructure.


Why did European nations not build it in their colonies?
How did African nations try to build infrastructure and why was it a problem?
Why do African nations have a negative trade balance?

Colonial powers did not build the economy of their colonies

  • Infrastructure kept weak

  • Infrastructure def - body of public work - roads, bridges hospitals

  • Needed for a strong economy

  • Borrowed money to build - now owe huge debts

Many still only export one or two resources

  • Resources go up in down in price drastically

  • Thus still have to import manufactured goods

  • Negative balance of trade if value of imports is higher than value of imports

Water treatment, sewer. electricity. rail



Unit - African Challenges

Topic - Subsistence Farming

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Define subsistence farming.
What holds African farmers back from commercial farming?
How does subsistence farming keep kids out of school?

Majority of farmers are subsistence

  • Example - Mali - 80% of farmers grow food just to survive, not sell

  • Many areas lack good land - so farming difficult way of life

  • Since make no money, can't afford equipment to increase production

With farming difficult - kids often needed to work

Subsistence Farming - grow only enough for family, none to sell

(not commercial farmers)


Example - irrigation


Unit - African Challenges

Topic - Literacy

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Facts on Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • 1 in 3 adults can't read

  • 176 million adults

  • 47 million youths aged 15-24

  • Kids not in school -




Definition of Literacy

  • can read and write a short, simple statement about own life

  • illiteracy denies a person opportunities

  • causes poverty

  • hurts health

  • effects ability to be an active citizen




Improvement

But still problems



  • literacy rate is rising

    • 1990 - 52%

    • 2008 - 63%

    • also rising global

  • but still problems

    • because the population is increasing, there are actually more illiterate people than before

    • Sub-Saharan Africa's literacy rates are the lowest in the world

    • there is a difference between men and women - 70% of men can read but only50% of women





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