Unit 9: reform and culture



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UNIT 9: REFORM and CULTURE



Rationale:

This unit bundles student expectations that address the cultural aspects of United States history during the 19th century. In addition, this unit addresses the reform movements of the mid-1800s, including public education, temperance, prison reform, care of the disabled and women’s rights. Lastly, this unit provides an in-depth study of the abolition movement and students will trace its beginnings and its impact.

Prior to this unit, students learned about the impact of industrialization and urbanization. The increase of concentrated populations in urban centers exposed many injustices. During this unit students examine how reformers addressed the injustices in society during the 19th century. Students examine primary source documents and apply historical thinking skills to sequence social reforms.




Key Academic Vocabulary Supporting Conceptual Development

  • Reform- to amend or improve by change of form or removal of faults or abuses

  • Suffrage- the right of voting

  • Abolition- the act of abolishing (ending or stopping something)

8.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through 1877.

8.1A Identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including…religious revivals such as the Second Great Awakening…reform movements… and describe their causes and effects

8.1B Apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods

8.25 Culture. The student understands the impact of religion on the American way of life. The student is expected to:

8.25B Describe religious motivation for immigration and influence on social movements, including the impact of the first and Second Great Awakenings.

RELIGIOUS MOTIVATION FOR IMMIGRATION AND INFLUENCE ON SOCIAL MOVEMENTS

  • Second Great Awakening brought more denominations that intensified the lines between classes and regions. It spawned many of the humanitarian reform movements, eg., prison, women’s rights, temperance, and abolition of slavery

8.24B Evaluate the impact of reform movements, including educational reform, temperance, the women's rights movement, prison reform, abolition, the labor reform movement, and care of the disabled.

IMPACT OF REFORM MOVEMENTS

  • Public education – opening of public schools primarily in the North as well as private grade schools and colleges by churches and other groups

  • Temperance – Organized societies that worked at trying to stop the drinking of alcohol. Some states passed laws that made it illegal to sell alcohol

  • Women's rights – well organized groups that fought for better working conditions for women. Were able to pass a federal law that ordered a 10 hour working day

  • Prison reform – Pushed for separate jails for women, men, and children; called for the mission of prisons was to rehabilitate

Care of the disabled – Building of new hospitals for the mentally ill, deaf and blind.

8.24A Describe the historical development of the abolitionist movement

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT

  • 1807 – Congress banned the importation of African slaves into the United States and then demand began to end slavery

  • 1820 – 1840 – Abolitionists grew in number

1840 – 1850 – Abolitionist leaders Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth began to speak out across the nation, the Underground Railroad began to make an impact, and the women's movement joined in



8.22 Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional republic.

8.22B Describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick DouglassSusan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND MILITARY LEADERS OF THE UNITED STATES

  • Frederick Douglass – leading African-American abolitionist, accomplished orator and writer

  • Susan B. Anthony – key spokesperson for the 19th century women’s suffrage movement

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton – leader of the 19th century women’s suffrage movement ,called for the first convention of women’s movement in Seneca Falls, New York…wrote the Declaration of Sentimentswhich was approved at the Seneca Falls Convention

8.23 Culture. The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

8.23E Identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.

POLITICAL, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN TO AMERICAN SOCIETY

  • Reform and Culture

    • Political – Began the fight for suffrage

    • Social – Allowed women to be success in other fields

    • Economic – Fought for worker's rights. Was able to get a 10 hour day

8.26 Culture. The student understands the relationship between the arts and the times during which they were created.

8.26A Describe developments in art, music, and literature that are unique to American culture such as the Hudson River School artists, John James Audubon, "Battle Hymn of the Republic," transcendentalism, and other cultural activities in the US

DEVELOPMENTS IN ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE THAT ARE UNIQUE TO AMERICAN CULTURE

  • Literature

    • Transcendentalisman American literary, political and philosophical movement in the early 19th C (ex. authors: Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau), they were critics of contemporary society for its unthinking conformity and urged individuals find their independent relation to the universe (particularly utilizing solitude in nature)

    • Emily Dickinson

    • Walt Whitman – “Leaves of Grass”

    • Nathaniel Hawthorne – “The Scarlet Letter”

    • Edgar Allan Poe

  • Art – Landscapes

    • John James Audubon- drew American wildlife

    • Hudson River School artists – their paintings depict the American landscape and reflect three themes of America in the 19th century: discovery, exploration and settlement

  • Music

    • Slave spirituals and gospel music

    • Battle Hymn of the Republic” – written at the beginning of the Civil War, used music from the abolitionist song “John Brown’s Body”, became a popular Civil War song of the Union Army and later a well-loved patriotic anthem

8.26B Identify examples of American art, music, and literature that reflect society in different eras.

EXAMPLES OF AMERICAN ART, MUSIC, AND LITERATURE THAT REFLECT SOCIETY IN DIFFERENT ERAS

  • Art (19th century )

    • Albert Bierstadt’sRiver Landscape”

  • Music (19th century)

    • Battle Hymn of the Republic” (lyrics by Julia Ward Howe)

    • Dixie” (lyrics by Daniel Decateur Emmett)

  • Literature (19th century)

  • Mark Twain’s,The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”

8.26C Analyze the relationship between fine arts and continuity and change in the American way of life.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FINE ARTS AND CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN THE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE


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