Unit 8: Great Depression Vocabulary Before, you learned

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Unit 8: Great Depression Vocabulary

Before, you learned: The Roaring Twenties was a time of great prosperity for many Americans.

Now you will learn: When the prosperity of the 1920’s collapsed, President Herbert Hoover struggled to address the country’s economic problems.

  1. Herbert Hoover: Republican president who failed to stop the Great Depression.

  2. Stock Market Crash of 1929: plunge in stock market prices that marked the beginning of the Great Depression.

  3. Credit: arrangement for delaying payment of a loan or purchase.

  4. Economic Depression: severe economic slump.

  5. Speculation: buying and selling risky items in the hope of making a quick profit.

  6. Great Depression: The serious and world-wide economic decline of the 1930’s.

  7. Public Works: government-funded projects to assist individuals, families, and communities in need.

  8. Hoovervilles/Shantytowns: homeless people. Built shacks.

  9. Bonus Army: World War I veterans who came to Washington seeking early payment of bonuses for wartime service.

  10. Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Four time elected Democratic president who created the New Deal to fix the effects of the Great Depression and give people jobs.

  11. Brain Trust: group of advisors to FDR that thought of New Deal programs.

  12. New Deal: program created by President Roosevelt to fight the depression.

  13. Fireside Chats: series of radio talks in which FDR explained his policies in a casual style.

  14. Hundred Days: First 100 days of FDR’s presidency. Many New Deal programs were passed.

  1. Social Security Act: Law creating fund for assisting retired workers and the unemployed.

  2. Deficit spending: economic system in which members of a society own businesses equally.

  3. Dust Bowl: region including parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico in which farms were damaged by dust storms.

  4. Bank Holiday: FDR closed all banks and only reopened good banks. Gave people trust in banks again.

  5. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO): labor union; included skilled and unskilled workers; open to women and minorities.

  6. American Federation of Labor (AFL): Largest labor union; more selective than CIO.

  7. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): Jobs for young men to plant trees and build parks.

  8. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA): paid farmers not to grow crops so that prices go up.

  9. Securities and Exchange Commission: regulated the stock market to prevent buying on margin.

  10. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: insured savings accounts in banks approved by the government.

  11. Tennessee Valley Authority: built dams to provide electricity to 7 southern states.

  12. Federal Emergency Relief Administration: gave relief (money) to unemployed and needy.

  13. Court Packing Scheme: FDR wanted to add 6 justices to the Supreme Court (9) so they could support the New Deal. This was not approved by Congress because it went against checks and balances.

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