Unit 6: Scientific & Economic Revolutions Notes Inventiveness can impact societies through time



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Unit 6: Scientific & Economic Revolutions Notes

  • Inventiveness can impact societies through time.
    —    How did scientific discoveries challenge people’s view of the universe?
    —    How did the Industrial Revolution encourage scientists and inventors?
    —   What were some practical applications of knowledge gained from important scientific discoveries of the 19th century?

  • Industrialization can both change and revolutionize economic growth
    —    How did agriculture contribute to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain?
    —    What political, economic, and social changes were introduced to Europe by the Industrial Revolution?
    —    How did the need for raw materials and the desire for new markets for manufactured goods lead to European Imperialism?

  • Economic systems evolve based on the needs and wants of societies.
    —    What are the historical origins and characteristics of the free enterprise system?
    —    What are the historical origins and characteristics of socialism?
    —    What are the historical origins and characteristics of communism?

ORIGINS AND IMPACT OF THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION (16th CENTURY EUROPE)

  • The scientific revolution originates with the Renaissance/ Reformation that used the resources and ideas of the Greco-Roman culture; enjoyed the freedom that came from a weaker church that controlled the intellectual / scientific    culture of the day.

  • As Europe became the centerpiece of a new, global world, its ideas, and technologies impacted every world it touched and was able to use ideas from other nations to expand knowledge.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS

  • Copernicus (1473-1543) – proposed the theory that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the solar system in 1507, and that the Earth was really insignificant in the context of the universe.

  • Galileo (1564-1642) – developed and applied scientific principles that significantly increased astronomical understanding. In 1613, he proved Copernicus’ theory that the Sun was the center of the solar system. Galileo also developed the modern experimental method. He proved that objects of different masses fall at the same velocity.

  • Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) – an English mathematician and physicist who devised principles to explain universal gravitation, that all matter attracts other matter. He adapted the ideas of Galileo Galilei into three laws of motion including “for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.” Instead of explaining natural occurrences as the actions of a powerful (and sometimes angry) God, Newton applied reason and rationality to the natural phenomenon and showed how all matter was part of a whole.

  • Robert Boyle (1627-1691) – English physicist and chemist who discovered the nature of elements and compounds, the basis of modern Chemistry

CONTRIBUTIONS OF SCIENTISTS AND INVENTORS

  • Marie Curie (1867-1934) – proved that radioactivity, when properly applied, was an effective treatment of some diseases.

  • Thomas Edison (1847-1931) – one of the greatest inventors of all time, received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, and improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone, and motion picture equipment

  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955) – one of the most well-known and visionary physicists in the history of science, published article on the Theory of Relativity, and his theories were critical to the development of the atomic bomb

  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) – French chemist discovered that heat could kill bacteria; he proved that the growth of bacteria resulted from germs in the air and not spontaneous generation. He applied the process of heating liquids to kill bacteria to other products including milk. The process is known as “pasteurization.”

  • James Watt (1736-1819) – a Scottish engineer, James Watt created a steam engine which worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines.

INFLUENCES OF WOMEN IN WORLD HISTORY

  • Queen Victoria (1819-1901) – Queen of Great Britain whose reign saw the British Empire reach its height of wealth and power

FACTORS THAT INITIATED AND ADVANCED THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • Textile Industry

    • New inventions in the textile industry – flying shuttle, spinning jenny, spinning mule, water frame – modernize the cotton and textile industry; quicker and cheaper production; demise of cottage industries

    • Cotton gin (Eli Whitney) – mechanized way to remove seeds from cotton; more labor could be dedicated to field work than to seeding cotton; greater agricultural output results and leads to growth of slavery in the United States

  • Steam Technology

    • Steam engine as a source of power – James Watt

    • Steamboat makes water transportation easier – Robert Fulton (American)

  • Factory system

    • Factory system used for the housing of large machinery

  • Transportation technology

    • Improvement of roads in England – turnpikes and tollgates for profit; macadam roads of crushed rock that make transportation easier

  • Railroads

    •  Inexpensive way to transport materials and finished products; creation of new jobs; boost to agriculture and fishing industries that could be transported to different areas; brought rural people to cities to find work

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF IMPORTANT TURNING POINTS IN WORLD HISTORY FROM 1750 TO 1914

  • Scientific Revolution

    • Challenges how people view the universe.  Scholars began to use observation, experimentation, and scientific reasoning to gather knowledge and draw conclusions about the physical world

    • Causes – New knowledge gained from translated works of Muslim scholars and classical manuscripts which were spread by the printing press, Age of Exploration and the emphasis on navigation lead to greater research in mathematics and science

  • Industrial Revolution and impact on modern economic systems

    • Capitalism

      • Laissez-faire economics – free market unregulated by the government. Free trade leads to prosperity.

      • Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations:  economic liberty leads to economic progress without need of government interference

      • Malthus and Ricardo:  believed that as population grew, most people would be poor. In a market system, there would be many workers and abundant resources that could be obtained cheaply. Wages forced down as population grew.

      • Laissez-faire thinkers opposed government efforts to help poor workers.  Creating minimum wage laws and better working conditions upsets the free market system lowers profits, and undermines the production of wealth.



    • Socialism

      • Governments should intervene so that the wealthy and the government should take action to improve people’s lives

      • Factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all (Fourier and Saint-Simon)

      • Belief in progress and concern for social justice

      • Government should actively plan the economy as to abolish poverty and promote equality

      • Unitarianism:  Jeremy Bentham – government should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people; John Stuart Mill:  policies that would lead to a more equal division of profits

      • Utopian movements:  improvement of working conditions; Robert Owen -  low-rent housing for workers, children under ten not allowed to work in his mills

      • Marxism:  bourgeoisie (“haves”) and proletariats (‘”have-nots”); conflict resulted because the wealthy controlled factors of production while workers did all the hard labor

        • Marx and Engels in The Communist Manifesto call for the workers to overthrow the owners

        • Capitalism would destroy itself after workers controlled the government and a classless society would develop (communism)

    • Communism – all factors of production would be owned by the people with no private property existing

  • Economic and Social Reforms

    • Union movement with collective bargaining and strikes

    • Reform Laws in Britain that addressed child labor and number of hours that could be worked

    • Abolition of slavery – William Wilberforce in Great Britain (1807); 13th Amendment in the U.S.

    • Women’s Rights movements develop in Great Britain and the United States

  • European imperialism

    • Causes

      • Political – Nationalism leads to a desire for overseas colonies.  The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 divides Africa between 14 European nations.

      • Economic – Industrial Revolution led for a search for new markets and raw materials; rubber, palm oil and cocoa become cash crops in European colonies; mining in diamonds, copper, gold, and tin provide Europeans with great wealth.

      • Social – Advancements in technology lead Europeans to develop racist attitudes as they see they are superior to others; Social Darwinism promotes the ideas that the fittest for survival enjoy wealth and success and superior to others; Christian missionaries wanted to “civilize” non-westerners.

    • Effects

      • Negative consequences

        • Native people lose control of their lands and independence

        • New diseases like smallpox reduce native populations

        • Resistance movements, famines resulting from shifts to cash crop production, and harsh working conditions also reduce native populations

        • Problems of identity as westerners contemptuously view native cultures

        • Areas stripped of natural resources (The Congo under Belgian rule)

        • Artificial boundaries either combine rival groups or divide kinship groups that continue to create political problems in former colonies

      • Positive consequences

        • European military presence reduces local warfare

        • Humanitarian efforts improve sanitation and education that leads to growth in life expectancy and literacy

        • Colonial lands equipped with infrastructure to aid in economic growth

        • Products from colonies valued in the international market

HOW 17th AND 18th CENTURY EUROPEAN SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS LED TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • Agricultural Revolution – enclosure system that allowed for cultivation of larger fields, Jethro Tull’s seed drill, crop rotation, new methods of breeding livestock – all lead to a population increase, less labor-intensive, and land displacement of smaller farmers who move to cities and begin working in factories

  • New inventions in the textile industry – flying shuttle, spinning jenny, spinning mule, water frame – modernize the cotton and textile industry

  • Development of iron-making industries

  • Increased use of refined coal

  • Factory system that is used for the housing of large machinery

  • Steam engine as a source of power – James Watt

  • Steamboat makes water transportation easier – Robert Fulton (American)

  • Improvement of roads in England – turnpikes and tollgates for profit; macadam roads of crushed rock that make transportation easier

  • Railroads

HOW THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION LED TO POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL CHANGES IN EUROPE

  • Political

    • New laws to reform industrialization

    • Extension of suffrage to larger number of people

    • Growth of nationalism in industrialized nations led to desires for expansion both through war and imperialism

    • Establishment of colonies in Africa and Asia to obtain sources of raw materials and markets for the sale of manufactured goods

  • Economic

    • Creation of the factory system that led to mass production of goods

    • Reduction of tariffs to promote trade (Corn Laws, etc.)

    • Spread of free enterprise, as well as responses to free enterprise through socialist and communist philosophies

  • Social

    • Increase in population and life expectancy due to improvements in food production and health care

    • Long work hours, low wages, and dangerous working conditions for industrial workers

    • Class tensions between the upper/middle classes and the working classes

    • Increase in child labor which later led to child labor reform laws

    • Poor housing conditions for workers that result in poor sanitary conditions and health epidemics

    • Urbanization of industrial areas in Europe and the United States

    • Destruction of factories and machinery by the Luddites in response to the demise of cottage industries

    • Beginnings of labor unions that result in better working and housing conditions for workers

MAJOR POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS THAT INFLUENCED EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

  • Political – nationalism leads to a desire for overseas colonies. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 divides Africa between 14 European nations.

  • Economic – Industrial Revolution led for a search for new markets and raw materials; rubber, palm oil, and cocoa become cash crops in European colonies; mining in diamonds, copper, gold, and tin provide Europeans with great wealth

  • Social – Social Darwinism promotes the ideas that the fittest for survival enjoy wealth and success and superior to others; Christian missionaries wanted to “civilize” non-westerners.

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPACT OF EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM

  • Characteristics

    • Forms of colonial control

      • Colony – governed internally by a foreign power

      • Protectorate – country with its own internal government, but controlled by an outside power

      • Sphere of influence – area claimed by an outside power for exclusive investment and trading

      • Economic Imperialism – independent countries controlled by private interests (e.g., the Dole Fruit Company in Hawaii)

  • Patterns of management

    • Indirect control – local government officials with limited self-rule; laws based both on European styles and local rules

    • Direct control – exclusive use of foreign officials with no self-rule; laws based only on European law; policies of assimilation to absorb local cultures into European culture

    • Resistance movements from native cultures, (e.g. Zulu Wars in South Africa, Algerian resistance movement, Sepoy Rebellion in India, Ho Chi Minh in French Indochina, Emilio Aguinaldo in the Philippines)

  • Impact

    • Negative consequences

      • Native people lose control of their lands and independence

      • New diseases like smallpox reduce native populations

      • Resistance movements, famines resulting from shifts to cash crop production, and harsh working conditions also reduce native populations

      • Problems of identity as westerners contemptuously view native cultures

      • Areas stripped of natural resources (the Congo under Belgian rule)

      • Artificial boundaries either combine rival groups or divide kinship groups that continue to create political problems in former colonies

    • Positive consequences

      • European military presence reduces local warfare

      • Humanitarian efforts improve sanitation and education that leads to growth in life expectancy and literacy

      • Colonial lands equipped with infrastructure to aid in economic growth

      • Products from colonies valued in the international market

EFFECTS OF FREE ENTERPRISE IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • Challenges to mercantilist theory by David Hume and Adam Smith that wealth does not remain constant and does not have to involve acquisition at another country’s expense

  • Merchant class replaced by industrialists as the dominant economic group in Britain and other industrial nations

  • Decline in traditional artisan skills by artisans, journeymen, and guilds

  • Increase in commercial agriculture leads to mechanization of agricultural production

  • Development of factory system with a complex division of labor and routine work tasks

  • Abandonment of protectionist policies that were part of mercantilism

    • Manchester School in Britain:  movement to lower tariffs

    • Repeal of Navigation Acts and Corn Laws in Britain (1840s) that less protectionism in the economy

    • Abandonment of quotas and tariffs to support Adam Smith and David Ricardo’s support of free trade

EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HUMAN GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS

  • Opening of the Suez Canal (1869):

    • Connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea to expand international trade between European countries and their colonies in Asia and Africa

    • Modernizes Egypt but expenses used to maintain communication networks and irrigation projects enable Britain to oversee the canal’s financial affairs and then occupy Egypt

    • Becomes Britain’s “Lifeline of the Empire” as it brings quicker access to its colonies in Africa and Asia

  • Opening of the Panama Canal (1914)

    • Creates a worldwide network of trade by connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

    • Latin America becomes a crossroads of world trade

    • Malaria and yellow fever are controlled

    • United States maintains a political and economic presence in Latin America by controlling the canal until 1977

IMPORTANT CHANGES CAUSED BY THE NEOLITHIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS

  • Industrial Revolution

    • New inventions, products, and methods of work

    • Cheaper prices for manufactured goods

    • Competition for trade

    • Growth of national pride

    • Beginnings of imperialism so that raw materials could be obtained from colonies and so that goods could be marketed to these colonies

    • Spread of industrialization from Great Britain to mainland Europe and the United States and then to other parts of the world

    • Illness and death from poor working conditions in factories

    • Poor worker conditions – low wages, child labor, lack of solidarity without unions, long work hours

    • Rapid urbanization as enclosure laws ruined smaller farmers who moved to cities for work

    • Illness and death from overcrowding in cities as working population grew

    • Growth of free enterprise through laissez-faire economic policies

    • New artistic movements that reacted differently to industrialization: Romanticism and Realism

    • Luddites reacted to changes by damaging and destroying factories and machinery

    • Development of socialism and communism as a reaction to capitalism brought by industrialization

    • Reforms for working, living, and political conditions including the extension of universal manhood suffrage in some industrialized nations

ROLE OF ECONOMICS IN POLITICAL CHANGES OF THE NEOLITHIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS

  • Industrial Revolution

    • Beginnings of universal manhood suffrage:  Great Britain – Reform Bill of 1832 enfranchised 20% of the male population (had been 6% before passage of the bill); also redistributes electoral districts to the city where most voters lived and weakens the power base of the rural aristocracy; greater freedoms to the middle class bosses but leaves working class discontented

    • Chartism movement in Great Britain (1838-1848):  political party that calls for universal suffrage, the vote by ballot, annual parliaments, equal electoral districts, and other radical reforms, as set forth in a document called the People's Charter. Working classes discontented with Reform Bill organize the London Workingman’s Association that drafts the People’s Charter.

  • Ideologies that grew from the Industrial Revolution result in the restructuring of the Whig and Tory parties in Great Britain to the Liberal (emphasis on individual rights) and Conservative (emphasis on general order and tradition) parties.

ROLES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, FAMILIES IN WORLD HISTORY

  • Role of children in Industrialization:

    • Children take on the role of bread-winner for families

    • Easier for them to find work due to their size (working in the coal pits) and reduced wages paid to children.

FACTORS THAT INITIATED AND ADVANCED IMPERIALISM (19th CENTURY)

  • Advances brought about by the Industrial Revolution allowed western nations to build empires

  • Military technology – made conquest of native people easier and faster

    • Ocean fleets

    • Modern rifles and rapid-fire artillery (Maxim guns)

  • Transportation technology – used to bring products to market and to transport people to areas that had been conquered both by land and sea

    • Steamboats and steamships – facilitated upriver travel and allowed settlement beyond coastal areas

    • Railroads

  • Communication technology – allowed wide communication within and beyond conquered areas

    • Telegraphs and cables

    • Wireless radio

  • Medical advancements – controlled and eliminated diseases that prevented conquest of specific areas

    • Quinine – controlled yellow fever and malaria in tropical environment

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

  • Free enterprise system – an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned. Competition is based on free enterprise. Supply, demand, and prices, not politics, determine the answers to the economic questions of how, what, and for whom to produce. Characteristics include: economic freedom, voluntary exchange, competition, private property, and the profit motive.

    • Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776 – free market economies are more productive and beneficial to their societies; preference to local/domestic industry instead of international trade; self-interest guided by an “invisible hand” (laissez-faire) to effectively use resources in a nation’s economy; public welfare is a byproduct and is ineffectual when promoted by state and personal efforts, only unbridled market efforts help social good

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMUNISM

  • Communism

    • Developed by Karl Marx as a more extreme form of socialism. He and Engels wrote Communist Manifesto in which they described a form of socialism in which there was no wage labor or private ownership of land or capital.

    • Communism as a classless society

    • Proletariat (working class) should replace the ruling bourgeoisie; class conflict and revolutionary struggle necessary for a proletarian victory and communist society

    • Decisions on what should be produced made on the best interests of collective society

ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIALISM

  • Socialism – an economic system in which government owns some factors of production and participates in answering the economic question of how, what, and to whom to produce. Politics play a role in the operation of the economy, and it is often less efficient.

    • French reformers Charles Fourier and Saint-Simon start an effort to offset the effects of industrialization and ownership of private property

    • Utopian socialists like Robert Owen – self-sustaining communes that seceded from capitalist societies

GENERALIZATIONS ON HOW ECONOMIC FREEDOM IMPROVED THE HUMAN CONDITION AS COMPARED TO COMMUNIST COMMAND ECONOMIES

  • Elimination of long lines for food and other products

  • Higher wages for workers

  • Greater control on decision-making and authority in former farming and manufacturing industries where central planning systems had been in place

  • Greater workers’ rights through legalization of unions (Solidarity in Poland)

  • Free election of candidates who supported economic reforms




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