Unit 6 Revolutions and Empires (1500-1914) Chapter 18

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Revolutions and Empires


Chapter 18

The Rise of Monarchies


Chapter 19



Chapter 20

A Changing World


The Battle of Valmy, a turning point in a campaign during the French Revolution, is depicted here in a painting.


Chapter 18

The Rise of Monarchies

Chapter Preview

In this chapter you will learn about the rise of strong monarchies in different parts of Europe. You will discover how rulers in Spain, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria increased their own power and that of their countries. You will also examine how conflict between rulers and Parliament in England further limited monarchy there.

Section 1

Spain's Growing Power

Section 2

France's Power Peaks

Section 3

Monarchies in Russia, Prussia, and Austria

Section 4

Limited Monarchy in England

Target Reading Skill

Reading Process In this chapter you will focus on the reading process. The first step in this process is previewing. Previewing helps you set a purpose for reading, make predictions, ask questions, and use prior knowledge to better understand what you read.

The Palace of Versailles was the official home of several French monarchs during the 1600s and 1700s.


MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Regions During the Middle Ages Europe was a collection of "estates" owned and ruled by Dukes, Barons, and Earls. Nations as states controlled by a central government with a common language were unknown. Read a Map Key Find the European nations ruled by kings in 1700. Draw Conclusions What was the dominant form of government in Europe by 1700?


Section 1

Spain's Growing Power

Prepare to Read


In this section you will

1. Understand why the Spanish empire grew in the 1500s.

2. Learn about the reign of King Philip II. 3. Discover why Spain's power began to decline in the late 1500s.

Taking Notes

As you read this section, look for information about the growth of Spain's power under Charles I and Philip II. Copy the graphic organizer below and record your findings in it.

Target Reading Skill

Preview and Use Prior Knowledge Prior knowledge is what you already know about a topic. Building on what you know can help you understand new information. Before reading a section, look at the headings and images. Think about what you already know about the topic. As you preview this section, for example, write down what you already know about Spain in the 1500s. Then, as you read, connect what you are learning with what you already know.

Key Terms

inherit (in HAYR it) v. to receive from a family member who has died

reign (RAYN) n. a period of rule

Inquisition (in kwuh ZIH shun) n. a Catholic organization that held trials for people accused of false beliefs

The Inquisition became well known for its harsh punishments. Here, officials carry out the orders of the Catholic Church to publicly execute people accused of having false beliefs.

The man had been found guilty of having false religious beliefs. In Spain in the mid-1500s, the punishment for such a crime was severe. First, the man would be tied to a stake. Then, wood placed at his feet would be set on fire. In this way, he would be burned to death.

Philip II of Spain did not invent this punishment. Under his rule, however, Spanish officials made use of it. Philip II once told a person who had been sentenced to burn at the stake, "If my own son were guilty like you, I should lead him with my own hands to the stake."

In Spain of the mid-1500s, Philip II ruled over a vast empire with a firm hand. His style of leadership made him one of the most powerful rulers of one of the world's most powerful empires. Yet Philip's uncompromising ways also led to problems for Spain. In time, Spain would lose its place among the world's great empires.


The Spanish Empire Grows

The late 1400s began a golden era of great power in Spain. As you have read, Isabella and Ferdinand defeated the Moors in 1492. Spanish explorers claimed territory for Spain around the world. Spanish ships carried home tons of treasure from conquests in the Americas. Spain's power continued to grow under the leadership of Charles I.

King Charles I In 1517, Charles I became king of Spain. Charles also inherited a European empire. To inherit means to receive from a family member who has died. This empire included the Netherlands and parts of Italy. In 1519, Charles I of Spain became Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He now ruled over a huge area of Europe. As you have learned, Spain had also made conquests in the Americas and the Philippines. It was said that the sun never set on the lands Charles ruled.

A Difficult Reign Spain prospered under Charles I. Yet his reign, or period of rule, was full of challenges. A strong Catholic, Charles fought (and failed) to put down Martin Luther and his followers in the Holy Roman Empire. Charles also helped lead the Catholic Reformation, which you read about in Chapter 15. Spain faced a long series of military conflicts with France while Charles was in power. He also overcame military threats from the Ottomans (AHT uh munz), who ruled a powerful empire based in what is Turkey today.

Reading Check By what two names was Charles known?

The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

Links Across the World

The Ottomans Suleyman (soo lay MAHN) the Magnificent was leader of the Ottoman Empire in the 1500s. The Ottomans were Muslims who controlled a large area of Europe, Asia, and North Africa. The capital of their empire was Istanbul. This city had once been the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. In the 1500s the Ottoman Empire was one of the world's great centers of learning, culture, and military strength. The Ottomans helped introduce Islam to eastern Europe, where it still exists today.


Preview and Use Prior Knowledge

What do you know about the Reformation that helps you understand Philip's actions against people who were not Catholic?

Trials of the Inquisition

This painting shows a trial held during the Inquisition. The Inquisition provided Philip with a way to drive out groups that did not want to unite under his absolute rule. Draw Conclusions How did the Inquisition help Philip work toward his goal of absolute rule?

The Reign of Philip II

In the 1550s, an exhausted Charles gave up his thrones. His brother, Ferdinand, took charge of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles's son, Philip II, became king of Spain. Spain under Philip II was perhaps the most powerful and wealthy country on earth. Philip himself soon emerged as a strong ruler.

Philip and Religion Philip was a firm believer in the Catholic Church. He also believed in absolute rule. He held all authority, or power, over the government and lives of the people. He used various means to rid his lands of people who were not Catholic. One way he did this was through the Inquisition. The inquisition was a Catholic organization that held trials for people accused of false beliefs. In some cases, people who refused to accept Catholic teachings were burned alive at the stake. Through the Inquisition, Philip was successful in driving Protestants, Jews, and Muslims out of Spain.

Philip Battles the Turks Philip II also faced continuing conflict with the Ottomans, who remained a threatening force to the east. In 1571, he organized a fleet that battled the Ottomans in the Mediterranean Sea. The Ottoman fleet was badly defeated in the Battle of Lepanto (BAT ul uv lih PAN toh).

Philip later turned to another enemy: England. In the late 1500s, England was ruled by the Protestant queen Elizabeth I. Philip had tried at one time to arrange a marriage to Elizabeth as a way of spreading the Catholic faith to England. When that plan failed, Philip II looked to conquer England.

Reading Check What threat did Philip II face to the east?


Spain's Power in Decline

Spain in 1588 was considered a great naval power. To defeat England, Philip II put together a huge fleet of warships. The fleet was called the Spanish Armada (SPAN ish ahr MAH duh). Spain believed the Armada was unbeatable. It was not, however. A combination of English warships and bad weather nearly destroyed the Armada.

The defeat of the Armada weakened Spain. It was only one factor in Spain's decline, however. Even before the Armada, Spain had suffered losses fighting Protestantism in the Netherlands. These lands had been part of Spain, and the people there had resisted Philip's efforts to stamp out Protestantism. In 1581 parts of the Netherlands declared independence from Spain.

Spain was also spending large amounts of money to run its far-flung empire. The Jewish and Muslim populations had filled important roles in the Spanish economy. Now they were gone. This contributed to wider economic problems in Spain.

These and other problems contributed to the decline of Spain. Philip died in 1598. His successors were not effective leaders. Soon, new countries would replace Spain as the major power of Europe.

Reading Check What happened to the Spanish Armada?

Citizen Heroes

Writer of the Times

Miguel de Cervantes ( mee GEL du sur VAN tee) was a Spanish writer who lived during the reign of Philip II. He was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto. In the late 1500s, he began writing what would be his most famous work, the novel Don Quixote (dahn kee HO tee). One of the great novels of all time, Don Quixote is a humorous story that makes fun of Spain's medieval past.

Section 1 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms listed at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.

Target Reading Skill

Tell how something you already knew about Spain in the 1500s helped you understand something new.

Comprehension and Critical Thinking


(a) Identify Who became king of Spain in 1517?

(b) Identify Cause and Effect How did this ruler help the Spanish empire grow in the 1500s?


(a) Recall Who became king of Spain in the 1550s?

(b) Summarize What part did religion play in this ruler's reign?


(a) Define What was the Spanish Armada?

(b) Identify Cause and Effect What factors caused Spain's power to decline in the late 1500s?

Writing Activity

You are a Spanish official in the mid-1500s. Philip II has just been named king, and many people are interested in what kind of person he is. Write a brief profile of King Philip II that describes his beliefs and style of leadership.


Skills for Life

Interpreting Diagrams and Illustrations

What kinds of ships were used during the late 1500s and the early1600s? What were they like inside? How did people live and work on these ships? The more you read about people in other places and times, the more questions you may have.

You can read to get information to answer your questions. You can also study diagrams and illustrations to learn more about people, places, and all kinds of things in the past. A cross-section diagram, for example, can give you a look inside a ship, such as the Mayflower. A cross-section is a drawing or image of something with a section cut away. Shortly after the English warships defeated the Spanish Armada, the Pilgrims sailed to the New World on the Mayflower, which you may recall from your reading in Chapter 17.

Learn the Skill

Use these steps to interpret a diagram or illustration.

1. Read the title or caption. A title will tell you what is shown. A caption often gives more details.

2. Look at the diagram or illustration to get a general idea of what it shows. Figure out what part of the object has been cut away in a cross-section diagram. Look beyond the parts of an illustration to get the whole picture.

3. Use the labels or key to interpret the diagram or illustration. A diagram or illustration may have labels that identify the parts of what is shown. If numbers or letters are used for the parts, a key explains what part is marked by each number or letter.

4. Draw conclusions based on the diagram or illustration. Information that you gather when you interpret a diagram or illustration can help you draw conclusions about people, places, and things. You might draw conclusions about how people lived or how something worked, for example.


Practice the Skill

Use a cross-section diagram to learn more about the Mayflower.

1. Make sure you understand what you are looking at. What part of the ship is cut away?

2. Use the labels to identify the parts of the ship. Match parts with labels, and labels with parts. What parts of the ship especially interest you?

3. Use the diagram to draw conclusions about the past. What do you think it was like to sail on the Mayflower?

Cross-Section of the Mayflower

The Pilgrims may have used this room, called the round house, to plan their voyage to the New World.

The Pilgrims may have used the capstan, a kind of winch, to lift heavy cargo.

The commander of the Mayflower lived in the great cabin.

The Pilgrims lived on the lower deck.

The cook may have used the forcastle to prepare the pilgrims' meals.

The Pilgrims stored cargo in the hold.

Apply the Skill

Now prepare a short oral report about the Mayflower. Use the diagram to describe how the Pilgrims lived and worked on board such a ship. Explain what parts of the Mayflower were used for living purposes and what parts were used for working purposes.


Section 2

France's Power Peaks

Prepare to Read


In this section you will

1. Understand developments in the 1500s and 1600s that led to the rise of a strong French monarchy.

2. Learn about France under King Louis XIV.

Taking Notes

As you read this section, look for information about the growth of France's power in the

1500s and 1600s. Copy the graphic organizer below, and record your findings in it.

Target Reading Skill

Preview and Set a Purpose When you set a purpose for reading, you give yourself a focus. Before reading a section, look at its headings and images to get an idea of what the section is about. Then set a purpose for reading the section. In this section, for example, your purpose might be to find out about developments in France before, during, and after the reign of Louis XIV. Then read to meet your purpose.

Key Terms

administration (ad min is TRAY shun) n. a group of people who work with and for a leader

divine right of kings (duh VYN ryt uv kingz) n. the theory that God decides who shall be king

Louis XIV and his court gather in the gardens at the Palace of Versailles.

An observer once said of France's King Louis XIV, "With a [calendar] and a watch, even at a [great] distance . . . you could say precisely what he was doing." The king's daily routine was legendary. It began at 8:30 with an elaborate ceremony in which 100 people helped him rise and get ready for the day. It continued with a carefully scheduled series of events that organized—each and every day.

Control and order were important to Louis XIV. Like Spain's Philip II, he was an absolute monarch. He controlled all features of life in France. His reign was also long. He held power in France for over half a century. During this time, Louis XIV helped France secure its place as one of the great powers of Europe. Louis XIV also became the model of the all-powerful monarch.


A Strong French Monarchy

France had suffered greatly during the troubled days of the Reformation. Violence was common between Catholics and Protestants, or Huguenots (HYOO guh nahtz) as they were known in France. The worst example was the 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, in which Catholics murdered thousands of Huguenots in Paris and other French cities.

Henry IV Henry was a Huguenot who became king of France in 1589. However, he chose to become a member of the Catholic Church in order to win the support of important parties in France. At the same time, he put in place important protections for Huguenots. Under Henry IV, France enjoyed a period of religious peace. Henry IV also expanded the use of royal power in many areas of French life. His policies helped the French economy thrive.

Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Henry IV died in 1610. He was followed by Louis XIII, who was only a young boy when he took the throne. A key figure in Louis XIII's administration was Cardinal Armand Richelieu (KAHRD un ul AHR round RISH loo). Administration is a term used to describe a group of people who work with and for a leader. Richelieu shaped many government policies during the reign A of Louis XIII. He sought to build relations with Protestant governments. At the same time, he greatly limited the growing power of Huguenots in France. The effect of his work was to strengthen the power of the French monarchy.

Reading Check Under which king did Cardinal Richelieu serve?

The Iron Cardinal

Cardinal Richelieu was granted a great deal of authority by Louis XIII. He became known as a forceful ruler, who was sometimes referred to as the "Iron Cardinal." Analyze Images In this picture, what aspects of Richelieu's appearance help identify him as a person of great power?

Preview and Set a Purpose

What have you learned in these paragraphs that meets your purpose of finding out about events in France before the reign of Louis XIV?


Links to Art

The Arts Blossom Louis XIV was a strong supporter of the arts. His reign was a time of great glory for French arts. The palace he built at Versailles (vur SY) is filled with magnificent paintings and sculptures. Louis XIV also supported celebrated writers such as Molicre (mohl YEHR) and Racine (ra SEEN) as well as various composers. Many architectural masterpieces were also built during his reign.

France Under Louis XIV

Louis XIV became king in 1643 when he was still a young boy. For this reason, he did not rule France directly until 1661. Between those years, France experienced a revolt known as the Fronde (frohnd). This uprising created great disorder in France and threatened the power of the king. Louis XIV decided that this should never happen again. At age 22, he finally took direct control of France. When he did so, he sought to rule as an absolute monarch.

The Sun King Louis XIV is famous for the remark, "I am the state." This statement reflected the idea that all government power flowed through him. Under Louis XIV, local officials, nobles, and others in France saw their power stripped away. Louis XIV, with the help of his advisors, ruled on all matters of French life. Indeed, he chose the sun—the center of the universe—as his symbol. Louis XIV is known as the Sun King.

MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Movement Louis XIV not only became the absolute monarch of France, he also took strong steps to make France a dominant power in Europe.

Read a Map Key How did France's borders change during the thirty-six years between 1661 and 1697?

Apply Information Look carefully at the geographical features of the map. Can you see a geographical reason that France expanded to the northeast instead of in other directions?


Divine Rule Louis XIV also believed in the theory of the divine right of kings. This theory holds that God decides who shall be king. It meant that to rebel against the king was the same as rebelling against God.

Huguenots suffered terribly under Louis XIV, who was Catholic. Many fled France including leading merchants and artisans. The loss of these skilled people hurt the French economy.

Military Affairs Louis XIV was quite willing to use French military power. During his reign, France endured several wars. These included conflicts with the Dutch and the Spanish over control of the Netherlands. France's frequent warfare placed a great strain on the country. Most disastrous was the War of the Spanish Succession in the early 1700s. This conflict developed from a dispute over whether Louis XIV's grandson should become king of Spain. The war left France weak and in debt.

French Power Declines France was still a major force in Europe when Louis XIV died in 1715. Its peak of power, however, had passed. As you have read, it would soon lose its colonies in North America. England, the great sea power, was rising to the rank of Europe's leading power.

Reading Check What was Louis XIV's religion, and how did that affect France?

French soldiers wore helmets such as these to protect their head, face, and neck during battle. The engravings on this helmet depict knights, horses, and scenes of battle.

Section 2 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms listed at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.

Target Reading Skill

What was your purpose for reading? Did you meet it? If not, what might have been a better purpose?

Comprehension and Critical Thinking


(a) Identify What was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre?

(b) Evaluate Why was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre significant?


(a) Explain Why did Louis XIV not hold power directly during the first years of his reign?

(b) Identify Cause and Effect How did the Fronde help shape Louis XIV's attitudes about government?


(a) Recall What was Louis XIV's policy toward Huguenots?

(b) Draw Conclusions How did French wars and the treatment of Huguenots combine to hurt France's economy?

Writing Activity

Suppose that you are a speechwriter for Louis XIV. Write a speech in which you explain your beliefs about the role of the king in French life. Be sure that your speech accurately reflects Louis XIV's ideas and attitudes.


Focus On

Gardens at Versailles

The palace of Versailles is one of the most elaborate structures in the world. Picture gold, mirrors, tapestries, and magnificent furniture and works of art, and you will have some idea of what its rooms look like. Construction took more than 50 years and involved more than 36,000 workers. Officially opened in 1682, it served as France's royal palace until 1793. Today it is restored, and parts are open to tourists.

The gardens of Versailles are as magnificent as the palace. Talented French designers created perfect formal French gardens there. Both the palace and the gardens, as well as the people who strolled there, reflected the wealth and luxury of the reign of Louis XIV.

The Fountain of Apollo

Among the many fountains and waterworks at Versailles, the Fountain of Apollo is one of the most magnificent.


Designer of the King's Gardens

AndrŽ le Notre was the architect and designer of the gardens at Versailles and one of the greatest garden and landscape designers in the world.

A Walk in the Gardens The Versailles gardens are vast. Close to the palace are flowerbeds that can be enjoyed from the upper floors. Beyond the palace, plantings are arranged in geometric patterns around fountains, pools, and statues. Every flowerbed, patch of grass, and path is precisely laid out. Trees and shrubs are trained and pruned into unusual shapes. Water pours, gushes, or bubbles from more than a thousand fountains. New, unexpected sights appear at every turn in the path.

The illustration to the left shows two members of Louis XIV's court strolling in the gardens. Their dress and even the way they stand and move mirrors the formality of the gardens. During the reign of Louis XIV, both men and women wore elaborate clothing decorated with tassels, lace, and embroidery. The clothing shown here was worn by the nobility around 1693. Notice that the man is carrying his hat. Even though his wig is too large to allow him to wear it, he carries his hat along as an important part of his costume. As he walks, his movements are like those used in ballet or fencing. They are graceful, Precise. and formal.


Describe Look closely at the illustration to the left. What details in the gardens and the people's dress do you notice?

Draw Conclusions How does the scene illustrate the wealth and the power of the king?


Section 3

Monarchies in Russia, Prussia, and Austria

Prepare to Read


In this section you will

1. Learn about the rise of the Russian monarchy.

2. Discover why strong monarchs came to power in other parts of Europe.

Taking Notes

As you read this section, look for information about how strong monarchies developed in the European nations of Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Copy the graphic organizer below, and record your findings in it.

Target Reading Skill

Preview and Predict Making predictions helps you set a purpose for reading. Before reading a section, look at its headings, images, and anything else that stands out. Then predict what the section might discuss. As you read, compare what you read with your prediction. If what you learn doesn't support your prediction, revise the prediction.

Key Terms

czar (zahr) n. the title given to the Russian monarch

heir (ehr) n. a person who inherits something from someone who has died

Peter I was the czar of Russia from 1689 to 1725. Czar was the title given to the Russian monarch. However, Peter I had a great love for the customs and manners of western Europe. In fact, he decided that the people of his native Russia should look and act like the people of western Europe. He ordered Russian men to shave off their beards. Those who did not would have to pay a tax—a beard tax! This was just one of the steps that Peter took to change the way Russians looked and acted.

You have read about the strong, all-powerful monarchies that developed in Spain and France around this time. Peter I— or Peter the Great as he became known—was a Russian example of a strong monarch. The trend toward a strong monarchy was taking place in many European nations, as you will learn.

This cartoon shows Peter I cutting the beard of a Russian boyar. Boyar was a title passed down among individuals from prominent families. These individuals formed a high-ranking class that helped govern Russia.


The Rise of the Russian Monarchy

Peter the Great did more than just change the way Russians looked and acted. He helped build Russia into one of the leading powers of Europe. Peter I built a great army. With this force he waged war on Sweden. His goal was to enlarge Russia and give it territory along the Baltic Sea. It was on this newly won territory that Peter built the city of St. Petersburg. It served as the capital of his all-powerful government.

The next great Russian leader was Catherine the Great. She led Russia from 1762 to 1796. She continued to expand Russia's territory. She also made major changes in the Russian economy and encouraged education. Her goal was to modernize farming and industry. She helped Russia keep and even expand its place among the great nations of Europe.

Reading Check Which two monarchs helped lead Russia to the front of European power?

Preview and Predict

Is your prediction on target, according to what you've read so far? If not, revise or change it now.

MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Place Russian territory expanded in the 1700s. Key gains included a warm-water port on the Black Sea.

Identify To which seas did the Russians gain access under the leadership of the Great and Catherine the Great?

Analyze Information Why might access to European seas help Russia gain power?


Frederick II of Prussia (top) and Maria Theresa of Austria

Other Strong European Monarchs

As you have read, monarchs in many European countries were exercising absolute rule in the 1600s and 1700s. This trend was also evident in the countries of Prussia and Austria.

Prussia Prussia rose to power in the late 1600s. Prussia's first ruler, Frederick William I, began building a powerful army that became the most important institution in Prussian life.

In 1740, Frederick II became king of Prussia. He used the army to expand Prussia. He also reformed Prussian education and the economy. For his role in building a strong and united Prussia, he is remembered as Frederick the Great.

Austria Frederick the Great fought for control of Austria, which was ruled by Maria Theresa. As a woman, she had not been raised to rule Austria. She came to the throne when her father, Charles VI, died without a male heir. An heir is a person who inherits something from someone who died.

Maria Theresa ruled with great authority. She built a strong army that fought effectively against Frederick the Great's army. She also created a fair justice system and a strong government. She united Austria and formed it into one of Europe's leading powers.

Reading Check What monarchs made Prussia and Austria strong and united in the 1700s?

Section 3 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms listed at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.

Target Reading Skill

What did you predict about this section? How did your prediction guide your reading?

Comprehension and Critical Thinking


(a) Identify What city did Peter the Great build?

(b) Analyze Aside from being Russia's capital, what was the significance of St. Petersburg and its location?


(a) Recall To what did Frederick the Great encourage Prussians to devote themselves?

(b) Draw Inferences How do you think Frederick the Great's emphasis on a powerful army helped increase Prussia's power?


(a) Explain Why was Maria Theresa not prepared to rule her country?

(b) Draw Inferences What can you infer from the statement "As a woman, she had not been raised to rule Austria"?

Writing Activity

Suppose that you are writing a brochure for a museum exhibit about the age of strong monarchs in Europe. Write an introductory paragraph for the brochure. In it, summarize the trend toward strong monarchies and describe some examples.


Section 4

Limited Monarchy in England

Prepare to Read


In this section you will

1. Learn about England's strong monarchs in the 1600s and their conflicts with Parliament.

2. Understand the events and outcome of the English Civil War.

3. Explore the significance of the Restoration and the Glorious Revolution,

Taking Notes

As you read this section, look for information about how the long conflict between the king and Parliament in England led to the development of a limited monarchy. Copy the graphic organizer below, and record your findings in it.

Target Reading Skill

Preview and Ask Questions Asking questions before you read is another way to set a purpose for reading. Before you read a section, preview its headings and images to discover what it is about. Write down any questions you have. Then read to find answers to your questions.

Key Terms

civil war (SIV ul wawr) n. a war among different parts of the same group or country

treason (TREE zun) n. a betrayal of one's country

Charles I, the king of England, dressed with care. He wanted to be sure he was warm enough to avoid shivering. He did not want to appear frightened as he stood before his subjects, awaiting his execution.

In fact, Charles I did not appear frightened. He faced the crowd with dignity later that day. Although equipment was on hand to force him into place if he resisted, Charles did not put up a fight! He even instructed the executioner to wait for his signal to act. Then, he placed his head on the chopping block. A few moments later, he gave the agreed-upon signal with his hand. Seconds later, the deed was done. The people of England had executed their own king.

The execution of Charles I showed that absolute monarchs did not rule in all of Europe. England continued its long tradition of limiting the power of its monarchy.

Charles I being led to his execution


When Charles I tried to force the Protestant Scots to make changes in their religious practices, they rebelled. This rebellion forced Charles I to turn to Parliament for help. He called Parliament together in 1640.

Links to Language Arts

Cavalier, Past and Present

The supporters of King Charles I were known as Cavaliers (kav uh LIHRS). Originally, this word referred to an armed horseman. Today, the word also has a different meaning. It is used as an adjective to describe someone who is overly proud or not concerned about the feelings of others.

England's Monarchs in the Early 1600s

You have read about the Magna Carta. That important document helped establish the ideas that English people had certain rights and that their monarch must obey the laws. These ideas became a strong tradition in English life. England's Parliament played a major role in helping the monarch govern.

The Reign of James I In 1603, Elizabeth I died without an heir. James I became king of England. He had already ruled as king of Scotland for 36 years. Now he saw himself as king of the area that would later be known as Great Britain.

James I described himself to the English Parliament as "an old and experienced king." He had some different ideas about leading England. He believed in the divine right of kings. He often acted as though he wanted to rule England by himself, without Parliament's input. These actions angered Parliament.

Charles I Follows Charles I followed his father James I to the throne in 1625. The new king was even more hostile toward Parliament than James I had been. In 1628, Charles I actually ordered an end to the meeting of Parliament. He did not allow another meeting until 1640.

Relations between Charles I and Parliament grew worse in the 1640s. Eventually, the king's enemies in Parliament formed an army. This army went to battle against forces loyal to the king. Civil war broke out in England. A civil war is a war among different parts of the same group or country.

Reading Check How did James I and Charles I view Parliament?


English Civil War

The parliamentary force opposed to the king was known as the Roundheads. This term referred to its members' habit of wearing short hair. Their first major battle with the king's forces took place at Edgehill in 1642. The king's troops fought to save the monarchy. Charles 1 encouraged them during the battle with these words:

"Your king is both your cause, your quarrel, and your captain."

The battle was a draw. In the years ahead, however, the Roundheads and their allies took control. By 1646 the king's armies had been defeated, and Charles I found himself a captive.

Charles I Executed The king's enemies were hardly a united force. They were soon fighting among themselves. A group led by Oliver Cromwell (AHL uh vur KRAHM wet) won this struggle. This group wanted to uphold people's rights against the absolute power of the king. Under Cromwell's leadership, Parliament put Charles I on trial. He was found guilty of treason, which is a betrayal of one's country. Charles was sentenced to death. This sentence was carried out in 1649.

Cromwell In Charge Without a king, England was now led by Oliver Cromwell and Parliament. However, Cromwell quickly discovered the difficulty in working with Parliament. By 1653 he had had enough. "I say you are no Parliament," he declared. "I will put an end to your sitting." Parliament was closed. Cromwell was now absolute ruler of England. He ruled not as king, but as lord protector.

Reading Check Of what crime was Charles I found guilty?

Preview and Ask Questions

Ask and answer a question about Cromwell and the English Civil War.

Siege at Basing House

During the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell joined a lengthy siege on Basing House, the residence of a wealthy English citizen who remained loyal to Charles I. Analyze Images Based on this picture, why would Basing House have proven difficult to capture?


The crowning of William III and Mary II as king and queen of England is shown in this painting. They agreed to accept the crown as joint leaders of the country.

The Restoration and Glorious Revolution

During Cromwell's rule, many people wanted a return of the monarchy. They even asked Cromwell to become king, but he refused. In 1658 Cromwell died. His son, Richard, took power.

Restoring the Monarchy In 1660, Charles I's son arrived in England with a small army. Charles II had escaped to France when his father was executed. The English people quickly supported him. Richard Cromwell was forced from power. Charles II became king of England, restoring the monarchy. Yet arguments with Parliament continued. Charles asked for money and troops from King Louis XIV of France to rule without Parliament.

Power Changes Hands When Charles' brother, James II, took power, conflict with Parliament grew. In 1688 Parliament asked Holland's ruler, William of Orange, to take power in England. James fled England. In 1689 William III and Mary II became England's king and queen. This change of power, called the Glorious Revolution, came about peacefully. The new monarchs agreed to a document known as the English Bill of Rights that made Parliament more powerful than the monarchy and protected English citizens.

Reading Check Who followed James II as rulers of England?

Section 4 Assessment

Key Terms

Review the key terms listed at the beginning of this section. Use each term in a sentence that explains its meaning.

Target Reading Skill

What questions did you ask that helped you learn something from this section?

Comprehension and Critical Thinking


(a) Identify Who was king when the English Civil War started?

(b) Drawing Conclusions What can you conclude from the fact that Charles I turned to Parliament for help in 1640?


(a) Identify Who led the Roundheads during the English Civil War?

(b) Draw Inferences Why might people of England have asked Cromwell to be king?


(a) Explain What was the English Bill of Rights?

(b) Predict How would limiting the power of the monarchy change relations between the monarch and Parliament in the future?

Writing Activity

The year is 1689. You are a newspaper reporter in England. Write a "news brief" summary of the major events involving Parliament and the monarchy in the past century.


Chapter 18 Review and Assessment

Chapter Summary

Section 1: Spain's Growing Power

• Spain emerged as an important power in Europe in the 1500s.

• King Philip II sought to rule Spain as an absolute ruler.

• Spain's power began to decline in the late 1500s.

The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

Section 2: France's Power Peaks

• French kings sought to build a more powerful monarchy in the late 1500s and early 1600s.

• King Louis XIV became the model for the all- powerful European monarch.

• French power began to decline in the 1700s as a result of its various wars.

Louis XIV

Section 3: Monarchies in Russia, Prussia, and Austria

• Peter the Great and Catherine the Great were strong monarchs who helped make Russia a major European power.

• Frederick the Great helped build Prussia into a strong European power in the 1700s.

• Austria became another leading European power under Maria Theresa.

Section 4: Limited Monarchy in England

• Conflict between the monarchy and Parliament led to the English Civil War in the 1640s.

• England welcomed back the monarchy in 1660.

• Continuing conflict between Parliament and the monarchy led to the Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights.

Charles I

Key Terms

Each of the statements below contains a key term from the chapter. If the statement is true, write true. If it is false, rewrite the statement to make it true.

1. In Europe, to become the monarch a person usually had to inherit the throne.

2. A monarch's reign is the period in his or her life before he or she takes power.

3. A monarch's administration is made up of people who help him or her run the government.

4. The divine right of kings is the idea that kings should answer directly to their subjects.

5. The Russian monarch received advice from an official known as the czar.

6. Civil war is an armed conflict between two countries over territory.


Comprehension and Critical Thinking


(a) Recall What was the Inquisition?

(b) Identify Cause and Effect How did the Inquisition affect people who were not Catholic?

(c) Analyze Information How did the Inquisition hurt Spain in the 1600s?


(a) Define What is absolute rule?

(b) Analyze What made Louis XIV the model of an absolute ruler?

(c) Draw Inferences Why did Louis XIV believe that the sun was a fitting image for his reign?


(a) Recall What was Peter the Great's attitude toward European culture?

(b) Synthesize Information Explain how Peter the Great's military activities supported his interest in European life and culture.


(a) Identify Which English king was executed in the 1640s?

(b) Identify Point of View Why do you think this ruler was tried for the crime of treason?


(a) Define What term is used to describe the event that brought about the reign of William III and Mary II?

(b) Draw Inferences What can you infer from the fact that William III and Mary II agreed to the English Bill of Rights?

Skills Practice

Interpreting Diagrams and Illustrations In the skills activity in this chapter, you learned how to interpret diagrams, such as a cross-section.

Review the steps you followed to learn this skill. Then use the diagram and illustration on pages 510-511 to answer the following questions.

1. In what part of the Mayflower did the commander live?

2. What was the capstan used for?

Writing Activity: Science

Philip II hoped to conquer England with the help of the Spanish Armada. This huge fleet of warships was thought to be unbeatable. Do some research to discover how design and construction made the ships in the Spanish Armada strong. Write a brief report about your findings.

MAPMASTER Skills Activity

Place Location For each place listed below, write the letter from the map that shows its location.

1. Austria

2. France

3. Prussia

4. Russia

5. Paris

6. Vienna


Standardized Test Prep

Test-Taking Tips

Some questions on standardized tests ask you to analyze a graphic organizer. Study the concept web below. Then follow the tips to answer the sample question.

TIP As you review a chart or concept web, notice the kind of information included in each part.

Pick the letter that best answers the question. Which title should go in the center of the web?

TIP Try to find the BEST answer, because more than one answer choice sometimes seems possible.

A Spanish Kings

B European Monarchs

C James II

D Britain's Parliament

Think it Through The question asks you to choose a title for the center of the web; in other words, an idea that covers the information in all of the outer circles. You can rule out A and D because none of the people on the web were Spanish or British. That leaves B or C. Since C is too specific, the answer must be B; they were all European monarchs.

Practice Questions

Use the graphic organizer above to answer Question 1. Choose the letter of the best answer to the question.

1. Which of the following would best fit the blank circle on the outside of the concept web?

A European monarchs

B Louis XIV

C Philip II

D Oliver Cromwell

Use the tips above and other tips in this book to help you answer the following questions.

2. Which of the following bests summarizes the significance of the Spanish Armada?

A It was a great victory at the peak of the French power.

B Its defeat led to the decline of Spanish power.

C It improved Russian access to the Baltic Sea.

D It helped make England a Catholic state.

3. Louis XIV is known for which of the following? A the palace of Versailles

B the Inquisition

C the English Bill of Rights

D the founding of St. Petersburg

4. Which of the following figures are connected with the English Civil War?

A William III and Mary II

B James

C Oliver Cromwell

D Cardinal Armand Richelieu


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