Unit 5: Study Notes Era in History: Mexican National Nationalism



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Unit 5: Study Notes
Era in History: Mexican National
Nationalism—Representation is important to a democratic government
Immigration—There are many reasons people immigrate to other countries.
Leadership—leaders have many responsibilities.

Vocabulary
Constitution—a written statement outlining the basic laws or principles by which a country or organization is governed.
Empresario—an agent who makes all arrangements to bring settlers to a colony.
Filibuster—an adventurer who engages in a private rebellious activity in a foreign country.
Immigration—the act of people moving to another country to settle.
Representative government—a representative government is one that allows its citizens to elect other citizens to make decisions for a large group of citizens. This allows the business of government to get done.
Tejano—a person of Mexican descent living in Texas
Defining Characteristics of the Mexican National Era


  • Mexican Constitution of 1824—Constitution written after Mexico’s independence from Spain; the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic with Catholicism as the official religion; it created the state of Coahuila y Tejas, merging the two provinces.




  • Old Three Hundred—Original 300 families allowed to move to Texas under Austin’s grant from Spain.




  • Moses Austin—first American to work with the Spanish government to settle Americans in Texas.




  • Stephen F. Austin—first American to recruit and settle Americans in Texas/Mexico. He settled 300 families and was known as an empresario. This led to the colonization of other American settlers in Texas/Mexico.

  • Erasmo Seguin Sr.—helped Moses Austin obtain approval from Spanish officials to settle American colonists in Texas.




  • Martin DeLeon—a Mexican empresario who settled 200 Mexican families in South Texas (between the Lavaca and Guadalupe River). He and his wife founded the town of Victoria in 1824.




  • Empresarios— an agent who makes all arrangements to bring settlers to a colony.




  • Agriculture— the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock; a large-scale farming enterprise; the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy); created in 1862




  • San Felipe de Austin-- San Felipe de Austin, on the west bank of the Brazos River, was founded in 1824 by Stephen F. Austin as the unofficial capital of his colony; it became the first urban center in the Austin colony.




Important Dates During the Mexican National Era


  • 1820—Moses Austin gets permission from Spanish authorities to colonize Texas with Americans but dies before he completes his plans




  • 1821—Mexico independent from Spain—important date to know.




  • 1821—Stephen F. Austin continues his father’s dream by settling 300 families from the United States. They are known as the “Old Three Hundred.” There were three requirements for settlement (must convert to Catholicism; must become a Spanish/Mexican citizen; must be of good, moral character)




  • 1823-1825—National Colonization Laws




  • 1824—Mexican Constitution of 1824




  • 1825-1830—30 Empresario Contracts granted


Individuals, Issues, Events Related to Mexico Becoming an Independent Nation and Impact on Texas


  • Texas involvement in the fight for independence

  • Philip Nolan—a filibuster from the United States that was sent to Texas with Spanish approval, but Spain was suspicious of the U.S. taking control of Texas

  • Gutierrez-Magee Expedition—Jose Bernardo Gutierrez (follower of Father Hidalgo) and Augustus Magee (former U.S. soldier) organized the Republic of the North and proclaimed Texas independent of Spain, but were defeated. It encouraged others to free Texas and Mexico from Spanish rule.

  • Galveston Pirates—Jean Lafitte and other pirates attacked Spanish ships

  • Long Expedition—Dr. James Long led a group from Mississippi to Nacogdoches where he declared Texas independent from Spain. While looking for military support, he was captured, taken to Mexico city, and shot.




  • Jose Gutierrez de Lara

  • Leader of the Mexican Republican Army of the North and opposed Spanish Rule

  • Joined Agustus Magee and his men, which became known as the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition

  • Supported several filibuster expeditions

  • First Governor of Mexican Texas




  • Battle of Medina

  • Fought August 18, 1813, along the Medina River south of San Antonio between the republic forces of the Gutierrez-Magee expedition and the Spanish royalist army;

  • The Republic army lost miserably, but it encouraged others to participate in the revolution.




  • Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824

  • Constitution written after Mexico’s independence from Spain;

  • the Republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic with Catholicism as the official religion;

  • it created the state of Coahuila y Tejas, merging the two provinces.



  • Merger stated in the Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824

  • Texas was not organized as a separate state because of its small population



  • State Colonization Law of 1825

  • Law that set up guidelines to the colonization of Coahuila y Tejas

  • Allowed Stephen F. Austin and other empresarios to receive land grants in Texas



  • Slavery

  • 1821—colonists could bring slaves to Texas and buy land depending on the number of slaves brought.

  • Mexico offered full citizenship to free blacks, including land ownership and other privileges.

  • 1823—the sale or purchase of slaves was forbidden in Texas, and required that the children of slaves be freed when they reached age fourteen.

  • 1827—the legislature of Coahuila y Tejas outlawed the introduction of additional slaves and granted freedom at birth to all children born to a slave.

  • 1829—Mexico abolished slavery, but it granted an exception to Texas.

  • 1830—importation of slaves was illegal in Texas.

Contributions of Significant Individuals During the Mexican Settlement of Texas

  • Moses Austin (1820)—first American to work with the Spanish government to settle Americans in Texas

  • Stephen F. Auston (1821)—first American to recruit and settle Americans in Texas/Mexico. He settled 300 families and was known as an empresario. This led to the colonization of other American settlers in Texas/Mexico; known as the Father of Texas

  • Erasmo Sequin—helped Moses Austin obtain approval from Spanish officials to settle American colonists in Texas

  • Martin De Leon—a Mexican empresario who settled 200 Mexican families in South Texas (between the Lavaca and Guadalupe River). He and his wife founded the town of Victoria in 1824

  • Green DeWitt (1831)—an important American empresario who settled 166 familes in the area near present-day Gonzales

Purposes for the Methods of Settlement in Texas

  • Spanish

  • Mexican

  • Economic opportunities—large ranches and small businesses

  • Civil Settlements and empresarios grants

  • Anglo

  • Economic opportunities—large farms to grow cash crops and small businesses

  • New start

  • Escape debt

  • Empresarios grants



Spanish Settlement

Mexican Settlement

Anglo Settlement

Purpose:

  • Secure Spanish control in New World

  • Gold, Silver, and resources




Purpose:

  • Increase population in northern Mexico




Purpose:

Method:

  • A colony of Spain

  • Resettled other Spanish colonist (e.g., Canary Islanders)

Method:

  • Empresario grants

  • Supporting towns already in the area

  • Large ranches

Method:

  • Allowed because of the National Colonization Law

  • Empresario grants

  • Settled in northern Texas

  • Farming/agriculture


Map: Mexican National Period

  • Empresario Grants

  • Settlements in Texas by 1821

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Geographic Distribution and Patterns in Texas During the 19th, 20th, and 21st Centuries

  • Suggested question for the Mexican National Period

  • What do you think will be the impact of the Texas colonist settling so far from Mexico City?

  • What happened with Mexico being so far away from Spain?

How people from racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture:

  • Maintained food, music, traditions, language, and religion over many generations

  • Celebrations practiced in new world

Example Questions:

What are 3 characteristics of the Mexican National Era? (Students are given a multiple choice question with 4 answer choices. Students are asked to identify which characteristic out of the 4 choices given is NOT a characteristic of the Mexican National Era.)

Use the information in the box and your knowledge of social studies to answer the following question.




    • He is the second most successful empresario.

    • He established the town of Gonzales

    • His colony became prosperous in farming and ranching.


Who is described above?

  1. Green DeWitt

  2. Stephen F. Austin

  3. James Long

  4. Philip Nolan

These tests are not easy tests. These test require the students to apply the information learned in class within different critical thinking scenarios. It is not a basic matching/fill in the blank style test.


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