Unit 4 Study Guide



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Unit 4 Study Guide


  1. What are push and pull factors?

Push factor: a negative aspect or condition that motivates one to leave, esp. in one's country, region, organization, religion, etc. examples” drought, war, bad healthcare, poor education

Pull factor: a positive aspect or conditions that motivates one to come into a country or region. Examples: jobs, medical, good education



  1. What city fell that caused Europeans to search for new trade routes to Asia? Constantinople

  2. What were the reasons for European Exploration? To find a new trade rate to Asia and Africa.

  3. What are the 3 Gs? God, Glory, and Gold

  4. Which group of Europeans was the first to arrive in the New World? Vikings

  5. What is a caravel? Sails system used on ships

  6. What is an astrolabe? Device that allowed sailors to determine their positions on the globe by using the stars and the horizon.

  7. Who was Prince Henry “The Navigator”? A Portuguese nobleman who created a school for sailing

  8. Which country was the leader in early exploration? Portugal or Spain? Portugal

  9. Who was Vasco da Gama and what did he do? A Portuguese explorer who established a trade route around Africa to India.

  10. What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? Agreement between Portugal and Spain to divide the land in the new world.

  11. Who wrote the treaty of Tordesillas? Pope Alexander 6

  12. What lands did Spain get and what lands did Portugal get after the Line of Demarcation was drawn?

Portugal-Brazil

Spain- Rest of the new world



  1. Who was Christopher Columbus? Spanish explorer who landed in the Bahamas and started Spanish exploration into the new world

  2. Who did he convince to fund his voyage? Queen Isabella of Spain

  3. What nation did he sail for? Spain

  4. Where was Columbus try to sail to? Where did he end up? Trying to sail westward and land in Asia, landed in the Bahamas

  5. What did he call the natives when he arrived and why did he call them that? Indian, he thought he was in India.

  6. How many voyages did Columbus make to the new world? 4

  7. What European nation was the dominate force in Asia? British or the Dutch (Netherlands)?

  8. Who was Ferdinand Magellan and what did he do? Portuguese explorer who circumnavigated the world

  9. What is circumnavigation? Sail around the world

  10. Who was Hernando Cortes and what did he do? Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in 1521.

  11. Who was Francisco Pizarro and what did he do? Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas

  12. What is a conquistador? Spanish solider/conqueror

  13. What is encomienda? A system in which the Spanish forced the natives to work the farms, ranches, and mines

  14. Who was Zheng He? Chinese explorer that opened trade for China throughout Asia.

  15. What is Triangular Trade? Trade of raw material, goods, and slaves between the new world, Africa and Europe

  16. What was the middle passage? Stage of the triangular trade that transported millions of slaves from Africa to the new world

  17. What was transported during the middle passage? Slaves

  18. Where did most slaves end up? Latin America (south and central America) especially Brazil

  19. What nation dominated the Trans-Atlantic slave trade? British

  20. What is mercantilism? the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.

  21. What was the Columbian Exchange? Trade of goods, food, ideas, and animals between the new world and old world

  22. Name three item brought to the Americas?

  23. Name three items brought from the Americas to Europe and the rest of the world?

  24. What did Europeans bring with them that helped over power the natives in the Americas? Better weapons such as guns and swords and Diseases such as small pox and measles



Short Answer 10 points:

Choose ONE of the follow to answer.


  • Using your knowledge of Christopher Columbus, should the United States celebrate Columbus day

  • Briefly explain the push and pull factors that contributed to European Exploration

  • Briefly describe the voyages of Vasco da Gama, Ferdinand Magellan, and Hernando Cortes

  • Explain triangular trade and explain how it gave rise to the system of mercantilism


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