|Unit 4: Personality, Psychological Disorders, and Treatment
Learning Objective 1 (pp. 131-132): Personality, The Trait Approach
1. How do psychologists generally view personality?
2. What is the focus of personality research?
3. What are personality traits?
4. Describe the three basic assumptions made by the trait approach to personality.
Learning Objective 2 (pp. 132-134): The Five-Factor Personality Model, Evaluating the Trait Approach
1. What are traits?
2. What does factor analysis reveal about personality factors or dimensions?
3. What are the five components of the five-factor personality model? Provide an example of behavior representing each factor.
4. What is the importance of the five factor personality model?
5. What are the problems or weakness associated with the trait approach?
Learning Objective 3 (pp. 134-137): Psychological Disorders, Defining Psychological Disorders, What Is Abnormal?, Deviance, Distress, Dysfunction, Behavior in Context: A Practical Approach
1. What is the definition of psychopathology?
2. Roughly what percentage of adults in the U.S. display some form of mental disorder?
3. List the criteria for judging whether people’s thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are abnormal.
4. What criteria do psychologists consider when describing deviance?
5. What are social norms and norm violations?
6. What is distress? What role does distress play in identifying abnormality?
7. What is dysfunction? What are some examples of dysfunction?
Learning Objective 4 (pp. 137-140): Explaining Psychological Disorders, The Biopsychosocial Approach, Biological Factors, Psychological Processes, Sociocultural Context
1. What is the biopsychosocial approach to mental disorders?
2. What are examples of biological factors that may be considered in the biopsychosocial approach?
3. How does the medical model, or neurobiological model, explain the nature of abnormality?
4. What are some psychological factors considered in the biopsychosocial approach?
5. How do the psychodynamic and social-cognitive approaches explain psychological disorder?
6. What specific sociocultural factors need to be considered to understand the sociocultural context? Give examples of how they may be important to understanding psychological disorders.
Learning Objective 5 (pp. 140-143): Classifying Psychological Disorders, A Classification System: DSM-IV-TR, Evaluating the Diagnostic System
1. Why is diagnosing psychological disorders important?
2. What is the DSM? How is it used to diagnose mental disorders?
3. What are the five axes of the diagnostic classification system? Provide an example of information that could be included on each axis.
4. What are some of the difficulties involved in applying diagnostic labels from the DSM?
Learning Objective 6 (pp. 143-145): Psychological Diagnoses, Anxiety Disorders, Types of Anxiety Disorders, Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder
1. How are anxiety disorders defined?
2. What is a phobia? What are the phobia subtypes?
3. What is a specific phobia? Give some examples of specific phobias.
4. What is a social phobia? Give some examples of social phobias.
5. What is agoraphobia? What is its relationship to panic attacks?
6. What is generalized anxiety disorder? What are the typical symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder?
Learning Objective 7 (pp. 145-146): Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
1. What is panic disorder?
2. What are the symptoms of panic attacks?
3. Within obsessive-compulsive disorder, what are obsessions? Identify some examples.
4. Within obsessive-compulsive disorder, what are compulsions? Identify some examples.
5. What is posttraumatic stress disorder? What are symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder?
Learning Objective 8 (pp. 147-148): Causes of Anxiety Disorders, Biological Factors, Psychological and Environmental Factors
1. What evidence indicates a biological influence on the development of anxiety disorders?
2. What are some examples of environmental stressors that may impact the development of anxiety disorders?
3. How may expectations impact the development of anxiety disorders?
4. How may learning impact the development of anxiety disorders?
Learning Objective 9 (pp. 148-150): Affective Disorders, Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder
1. What are affective disorders? What are the two extremes of mood?
2. What are symptoms of major depressive disorder?
3. What is bipolar disorder?
4. What is mania?
Learning Objective 10 (pp. 150-152): Causes of Affective Disorders, Biological Factors, Psychological and Social Factors
1. What evidence supports the role of genetics in affective disorders? What other biological factors may contribute to affective disorders?
2. What is seasonal affective disorder? How is it commonly treated?
3. How do psychological and social factors influence the development of affective disorders?
4. What is learned helplessness and how does it help explain depression?
5. What are other social-cognitive explanations of depression?
Learning Objective 11 (pp. 152-154): Schizophrenia, Symptoms of Schizophrenia, Positive and Negative Symptoms
1. What is schizophrenia?
2. Describe schizophrenic thought and language.
3. What are delusions?
4. What are hallucinations?
5. What are positive symptoms of schizophrenia? What are some examples of positive symptoms?
6. What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia? What are some examples of negative symptoms?
Learning Objective 12 (pp. 154-156): Causes of Schizophrenia, Biological Factors, Psychological and Sociocultural Factors, Vulnerability Theory
1. How are genetic factors related to schizophrenia?
2. What abnormalities in brain structure are associated with schizophrenia?
3. How is dopamine related to schizophrenia?
4. What are neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and how might they influence the development of schizophrenia?
5. What is expressed emotion? How is it related to schizophrenia?
6. What is vulnerability theory, and how does it account for schizophrenia?
Learning Objective 13 (pp. 156-157): Personality Disorders
1. What are personality disorders?
2. What is antisocial personality disorder? What are characteristics of people with antisocial personality disorder?
Learning Objective 14 (pp. 158-159): A Sampling of Other Psychological Disorders, Psychological Disorders of Childhood
1. What are symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
2. What factors may play causal roles in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
3. What are symptoms of pervasive developmental disorders? What is another name for pervasive developmental disorders?
4. What are symptoms of autistic disorder?
5. What are symptoms of Asperger’s disorder?
6. What are biological and neurodevelopmental roots of autistic disorder?
Learning Objective 15 (pp. 159-161): Substance-Related Disorders, Somatoform Disorders
1. What are substance-related disorders?
2. How are addiction, drug tolerance, psychological dependence , and substance abuse defined?
3. What are somatoform disorders?
4. What is conversion disorder? How does it differ from true physical disability?
5. What is hypochondriasis?
Learning Objective 16 (pp. 161-163): Treatment of Psychological Disorders, Basic Features of Treatment
1. For which psychological problems do adults most commonly seek treatment?
2. What are the basic features of treatment?
3. What are the different types of professionals who provide treatment?
4. What is the general goal of treatment?
5. How do different therapists work to reach this goal? What is an eclectic approach?
Learning Objective 17 (pp. 163-164): Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis
1. What assumption is central to the psychodynamic approach to treatment?
2. What is free association?
3. What are the aims of psychoanalytic treatment?
4. What is the difference between manifest content and latent content of dreams?
5. What is transference?
Learning Objective 18 (pp. 165-167): Humanistic Psychotherapy, Client-Centered Therapy, Unconditional Positive Regard, Empathy, Congruence
1. How do humanistic psychologists see people?
2. What four assumptions do humanistic psychologists make about treatment?
3. What is unconditional positive regard and what is its role in treatment?
4. What is empathy? How does a therapist convey empathy?
5. How is active listening, or reflection, used by a therapist? What are examples?
6. What is congruence? And why is it important in client-centered therapy?
Learning Objective 19 (pp. 167-172): Behavior Therapy, Techniques for Modifying Behavior, Systematic Desensitization Therapy, Modeling, Positive Reinforcement, Cognitive Behavior Therapy
1. What to behavior therapists see as the causes of psychological problems, and how do they approach treating them?
2. What are the most notable features of behavior treatment?
3. What is systematic desensitization therapy? What is a desensitization hierarchy, and how is it used in systematic desensitization therapy?
4. What is in vivo desensitization?
5. How is modeling used in treatment?
6. How is social skills training used? How is assertiveness training taught?
7. How is positive reinforcement used in treatment?
8. What is a cognitive behavior therapist’s approach to treatment?
Learning Objective 20 (pp. 173-176): Biological Treatments, Psychosurgery, Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy, Psychoactive Drugs, Antipsychotic Drugs, Antidepressant Drugs, Lithium, Antianxiety Drugs, Evaluating Psychoactive Drug Treatments
1. What is psychosurgery? Identify examples.
2. Why is electroconvulsive shock therapy used?
3. What symptoms do antipsychotic drugs treat?
4. What are the most popular antidepressant medications? What neurotransmitter is targeted?
5. What is lithium? Why is it called a mood stabilizer?
6. What are antianxiety drugs? What symptoms do antianxiety drugs treat?