|Unit 4 LT 1 HOMEWORK Essential Question:
During European colonization, how did the French, English and Spanish view the Native Americans and how did their interaction differ? What effects did their interaction have on colonization?
QUESTION 1: Explain what ideas/actions these European nations had in common regarding colonizing the New World.
Interactions among Europeans and Native Americans varied from place to place, and members of each nation forged relationships with Indians in very different ways, depending on a variety of economic, social and political factors. While we should be mindful of this diversity, we can still make certain generalizations. Few Europeans considered Native Americans their equals, because of differences in religion, agricultural practice, housing, dress, and other characteristics that—to Europeans—indicated Native American inferiority. However, the French, Spanish, and English sought profit through trade and exploitation of New World resources, and they knew that the native people would be important to their success. Europeans also wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity. Therefore, economic gain and religion were the two factors that most affected the dynamics of European and indigenous American relationships.
QUESTION 2: Summarize how the Spanish encomienda system worked and the long-term result of it.
Spain, the most powerful monarchy in Europe and the Americas, wished to enrich themselves with the New World’s natural resources. After enslaving indigenous peoples in the Caribbean and the southern parts of the Americas to grow crops and mine for gold, silver, and other valuables, the Spanish moved into North America where they concentrated their efforts in the southwestern part of what is now United States. They also had a settlement in Florida; Spain established a military post at San Augustín, (today called St. Augustine) but only a small number of Spaniards settled there. Catholic missionaries labored to convert the Indians to Christianity. But even the most cooperative Indians continued to maintain their own religious and cultural traditions, and many priests concluded that the Indians were inferior and incapable of understanding Christianity.
The encomienda system was created by the Spanish to control and regulate American Indian labor and behavior during the colonization of the Americas. Under the encomienda system, conquistadors and other leaders (encomenderos) received grants of a number of Indians, from whom they could exact “tribute” in the form of gold or labor. What the encomendero was supposed to do for the Indians in return for this was to provide them with protection and instruction in the Christian faith. They also promised to defend the area and to pay a tax to the Crown .
The encomienda system was deeply entrenched in the history and the culture of Spanish America. It is considered by many historians as one of the most damaging institutions that the Spanish colonists implemented in the New World. The system would come to symbolize oppression and exploitation. Being that the first purposes of the system were meant for good, the end results of the system were nothing but catastrophic for the Indians.
QUESTION 3: Explain how the relationship between the French and Natives differed from that of the Spanish and Natives.
Like the Spanish colonies in North America, New France did not attract many French settlers. Instead of enslaving Native Americans in farming and mining operations, the French exploited existing inter-tribal alliances and rivalries to establish trade relationships with the Huron, Montagnais, and Algonquins along the St. Lawrence River and further inland toward the Great Lakes. These Native Americans competed for exclusive status as intermediaries between other Indian traders and the French. Although Native Americans did most of the work, tracking, trapping, and skinning the animals and transporting the pelts to French traders, they drove hard bargains for their furs. French traders exchanged textiles, weapons, and metal goods for the furs of animals such as beavers, bears, and wolves. The trade strengthened traditional clan leaders' positions by allowing them to distribute these trade goods to their clan members as they saw fit. Jesuit (Catholic) missionaries managed to convert considerable numbers of Huron because the priests learned the local languages and exhibited bravery in the face of danger. French officials offered additional incentive for conversion by allowing Christian Hurons to purchase French muskets. In the eighteenth century, the Dutch and English competed with the French for trade and territory, which gave local Indians continued economic, diplomatic, and military leverage as Europeans competed for their trade and military alliances through the seventeenth century.
QUESTION 4: Explain how England’s economic system led to conflict with the Natives.
The Spanish conquistadors are generally believed to have treated Native Americans more cruelly than any other nation’s colonists. England’s colonists were also sometimes hostile toward the natives they encountered. The success of England’s colonies depended on the exploitation of Native Americans who were forced off their lands. Religion was often used to justify the poor treatment of the natives. Both England’s economic system and religion led to Native American oppression.
Under English law, discoveries were made in the name of the sovereign and all lands belonged to the monarch, to be disposed of at the will of the crown. Joint stock companies received charters from the crown and parceled out land. Royal favorites also received territories to be parceled out as they saw fit. However, these lands that had been "discovered" and distributed by the English had been occupied for centuries by various Indian nations. In time, the Indians and the Europeans discovered that each had quite different ideas about land ownership—a cultural difference that had a profound effect on the history of the United States.
In the Virginia colony, the Powhatans became hostile as soon as they thought that the English had come, in the words of their leader, "not for trade but to invade my people and possess my country." To the Indians, open land was a source of food and materials to be shared by all. The idea of individual ownership of land was foreign to them. To the English, however, the land of Virginia, seemingly unoccupied apart from the Indian villages themselves, was there for the taking. Once tobacco proved profitable, increasingly they took it.
QUESTION 5: How did Natives influence the way that these empires related with one another?
Highlight all of the conflicts listed below.
Warfare between Europeans and Indians was common in the seventeenth century. In 1622, the Powhatan Confederacy nearly wiped out the struggling Jamestown colony. Frustrated at the continuing conflicts, Nathaniel Bacon and a group of vigilantes destroyed the Pamunkey Indians before leading an unsuccessful revolt against colonial authorities in 1676. Intermittent warfare also plagued early Dutch colonies in New York. In New England, Puritan forces annihilated the Pequots in 1636-1637, a campaign whose intensity seemed to foreshadow the future. Subsequent attacks inspired by Metacom (King Philip) against English settlements sparked a concerted response from the New England Confederation. Employing Indian auxiliaries and a scorched-earth policy, the colonists nearly exterminated the Narragansetts, Wampanoags, and Nipmucks in 1675-1676. A major Pueblo revolt also threatened Spanish-held New Mexico in 1680.
Indians were also a key factor in the imperial rivalries among France, Spain, and England. In King William’s (1689-1697), Queen Anne’s (1702-1713), and King George’s (1744-1748) wars, the French sponsored Abnaki and Mohawk raids against the more numerous English. Meanwhile, the English and their trading partners, the Chickasaws and often the Cherokees, battled the French and associated tribes for control of the lower Mississippi River valley and the Spanish in western Florida.