Unit 2 the west in transition concept Outline and Learning Objectives by Topic for Unit 2



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UNIT 2

THE WEST IN TRANSITION








Concept Outline and Learning Objectives by Topic for Unit 2

Take PRIDE notes on these concepts.




Topic

Concept Outline

Illustrative examples

Learning Objective

Renaissance

Key Concept 1.1

The world view of European intellectuals shifted from one based on ecclesiastical and classical authority to one based primarily on inquiry and observation of the natural world.

1. Revival of classical texts led to new scholarships and new values in society and religion

“Analyze how religious reform in the 16th and 17th centuries, the expansion of printing, and the emergence of civic venues and coffeehouses challenged the control of the church over the creation and dissemination of knowledge.” (1.1 – I – new methods of scholarship/new values, 1.1 – II – invention of printing)
“Analyze how the development of Renaissance humanism, the printing press, and the scientific method contributed to the emergence of a new theory of knowledge and conception of the universe.” (1.1 – revival of classical texts, new methods of scholarship, 1.1- II printing culture)
“Explain how and why religion increasingly shifted from a matter of public concern to use of private belief over the course of European history.” (1.1-I – humanist secular models for individual and pol behavior)
“Analyze the means by which individualism, subjectivity, and emotion came to be considered a valid source of knowledge.” (1.1 – I – Humanists valued the individual)
“Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individuals.” (1.1-I – Civic humanism and secular theories)
“Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individuals.” (1.1-III –art in service of the state)

* Italian humanists promoted a revival in classical literature

* New philosophical approaches to ancient texts

* Some humanists furthered values of secularism and individualism


* Petrarch

* Lorenzo Valla

* Marsilio Ficino

*Pico della Mirandola


* Revival of Greek and Roman texts spread by printing press challenged institutional power of universities and the Catholic Church and shifted focus of education away from theology toward to the study of classical texts

* Leonardo Bruni

* Leon Battista Alberti

* Niccolo Machiavelli


* Admiration for Greek and Roman political institutions supported a revival of civic humanist culture in Italian city-states

* Admiration of classical institutions produced secular models for individual and political behavior



* Niccole Machiavelli

* Jean Bodin

* Baldassare Castiglione

* Francesco Guicciardini

2. Invention of printing promoted

the dissemination of new ideas

“Trace the ways in which new technologies, from the printing press to the Internet, have shaped the development of civil society and enhanced the role of public opinion.” (1.1-II – Printing press)
“Evaluate the role of technology, from the printing press to modern transportation and telecommunications, in forming and transforming society.” (1.1 – II – Printing press – Ren/Ref)
“Analyze how the development of Renaissance humanism, the printing press, and the scientific method contributed to the emergence of a new theory of knowledge and conception of the universe.” (1.1 – III – visual arts)
“Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individuals.” (1.1-III –art in service of the state)


* Invention of printing press in 1450s aided in spreading the Renaissance beyond Italy

* Invention of printing press encouraged the growth of vernacular literature

* Vernacular literature eventually contributed to the development of national cultures





3. The visual arts incorporated the new ideas of the Renaissance and were used

to promote personal, political and religious goals

* Princes and popes, concerned with enhancing their prestige, commissioned paintings and architectural works

* These works were based on classical styles

* These works often employed newly invented techniques of geometric perspective


* Michelangelo

* Donatello

* Raphael

* Andrea Palladio

* Leon Battista Alberti

* Filipo Brunelleschi


* Human-centered naturalism considered individuals and everyday life appropriate objects of artistic representations

* Creation of these artistic representations was encouraged through the patronage of both princes and commercial elites



* Raphael

* Leonardo da Vinci

* Jan Van Eyck

* Pieter Bruegel the Elder

* Rembrandt


* Mannerist and Baroque artists employed distortion, drama, and illusion in works commissioned by monarchies, city-states, and the church for public building to promote their stature and power

* El Greco

* Artemisia Gentileschi

* Gian Bernini

* Peter Paul Rubens

Key Concept 1.2

The struggle for sovereignty within and among states

resulted in varying degrees of political centralization.

I. The new concept of the sovereign state and secular systems of law played a central role in the creation of new political institutions

“Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individuals.” (1.1-I – Civic humanism and secular theories)
“Explain the emergence of civic humanism and new conceptions of political authority during the Renaissance as well as subsequent theories and practices that stressed the political importance and rights of the individuals.” (1.1-III –art in service of the state)

* Across Europe, commercial and professional groups gained in power and played a greater role in political affairs

* Merchants and financiers in Renaissance Italy and northern Europe

* Secular political theories, such as those espoused in Machiavelli’s The Prince, provided a new concept to the state

* Jean Bodin

* Hugo Grotius


Key Concept 1.5

European society and the experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by commercial and agricultural capitalism, notwithstanding the persistence of medieval social and economic structures.

IV. The family remained the primary social and economic institution of early modern Europe and took several forms, including the nuclear family.

“Explain how a worldview based on science and reason challenged and preserved social order and roles, especially the role of women.” (1.5 – IV – Renaissance debate)
“Evaluate the causes and consequences of persistent tensions between women’s role and status in the private versus public sphere.” (1.5 – IV – Renaissance debates on women)
“Assess the extent to which women participated in and benefitted from the shifting values of European society from the 15th century onward.” (1.5 – Renaissance)

The Renaissance raised debates about female roles in the family, society, and the church


* Women’s intellect and education

* Women as preachers

* La Querelle de Femmes




Reformation

Key Concept 1.1

The world view of European intellectuals shifted from one based on ecclesiastical and classical authority to one based primarily on inquiry and observation of the natural world.

II. Invention of printing promoted

the dissemination of new ideas

“Analyze how religious reform in the 16th and 17th centuries, the expansion of printing, and the emergence of civic venues and coffeehouses the control of the church over the creation and dissemination of knowledge.” (1.1 – I – new methods of scholarship/new values, 1.1 – II – invention of printing)
“Evaluate the role of technology, from the printing press to modern transportation and telecommunications, in forming and transforming society.” (1.1 – II – Printing press – Ren/Ref)
“Explain how and why religion increasingly shifted from a matter of public concern to use of private belief over the course of European history.” (1.3-I –new interpretations of Christian doctrine and practice, 1.3-III – religious pluralism)

* Protestant reformers used the press to disseminate their ideas, which spurred religious reform and helped it become widely established




Key Concept 1.3

Religious pluralism challenged the concept of a unified Europe.

1. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations fundamentally changed theology, religious institutions, and culture

"Analyze how religious reform in the 16th and 17th centuries, the

expansion of printing, and the emergence of civic venues such as salons and coffeehouses challenged the control of the church over the creation and dissemination of knowledge."


"Explain how and why religion increasingly shifted from a matter of

public concern to one of private belief over the course of European history."


“Trace the changing relationship between states and ecclesiastical authority and the emergence of the principle of religious toleration.” (1.3-III- Reformation and religious conflict)



* Christian humanism, embodied in the writings of Erasmus, employed Renaissance learning in the service of religious reform

* Sir Thomas More

* Juan Luis Vives


* Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin, as well as religious radicals such as the Anabaptists, criticized Catholic abuses and established new interpretations of Christian doctrines and practice

* Indulgences

* Nepotism

* Simony

* Pluralism

* Absenteeism


* The Catholic Reformation, exemplified by the Jesuit Order and the Council of Trent, revived the church but cemented the division within Christianity.

*St. Teresa of Avila

* Ursulines

* Roman Inquisition

* Index of Forbidden Books


2. Religious reform both increased state control of religious institutions and provided justifications for challenging state authority.

* Monarchs and princes, such as English rulers Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, initiated religious reform from the top down (magisterial) in an effort to exercise greater control over religious life and morality (state actions)

* Spanish Inquisition

* Concordant of Bologna (1516)

* Book of Common Prayer

* Peace of Augsburg


* Some Protestants, including Calvin and Anabaptists, refused to recognize the subordination of the church to the state




“Analyze how religious and secular institutions and groups attempted to limit monarchial power by articulating theories of resistance to absolutism and by taking political action.” (1.3-II – religious minorities)
“Analyze how cities and states have attempted to address the problems brought about by economic modernization, such as poverty and famine, through regulating morals, policing marginal populations, and improving public health.” (1.5 – III – government regulation of public morals/Calvin’s Geneva)

* Religious conflicts became a basis for challenging the monarchs’ control of religious institutions

* Huguenots

* Puritans

* Nobles in Poland


3. Conflicts among religious groups overlapped with political and economic competition within and among states.

"Analyze how religious reform in the 16th and 17th centuries, the

expansion of printing, and the emergence of civic venues such as salons and coffeehouses challenged the control of the church over the creation and dissemination of knowledge."




* The efforts of Habsburg rulers failed to restore Catholic unity across Europe.

* Charles I/V

* Philip II

* Philip III

* Philip IV

* States exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests.

* Catholic Spain and Protestant England

* France, Sweden, and Denmark in the Thirty Years’ War

“Analyze how religious and secular institutions and groups attempted to limit monarchial power by articulating theories of resistance to absolutism and by taking political action.” (1.3-II – religious minorities)
“Trace the changing relationship between states and ecclesiastical authority and the emergence of the principle of religious toleration.” (1.3-III-religious warfare)

Key Concept 1.5

European society and the experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by commercial and agricultural capitalism, notwithstanding the persistence of medieval social and economic structures.

IV. The family remained the primary social and economic institution of early modern Europe and took several forms, including the nuclear family.

“Explain how a worldview based on science and reason challenged and preserved social order and roles, especially the role of women.” (1.5 – IV – Reformation debate)
“Evaluate the causes and consequences of persistent tensions between women’s role and status in the private versus public sphere.” (1.5 – IV – Reformation debates on women)
“Assess the extent to which women participated in and benefitted from the shifting values of European society from the 15th century onward.” (1.5 – Reformation)

* The Renaissance raised debates about female roles in the family, society, and the church

* Women’s intellect and education

* Women as preachers

* La Querelle de Femmes



Exploration and Colonization

Key Concept 1.4

Europeans explored and settled overseas territories,

encountering and interacting with indigenous populations.

1. European nations were driven by commercial and religious motives to explore

overseas territories and establish colonies

“Explain how European expansion and colonization brought non-European societies into global economic, diplomatic, military, and cultural networks.” (1.4 – I - motives)
“Assess the relative influence of economic, religious, and political motives in prompting exploration and colonization” (1.4 – I, II)
“Analyze the cultural beliefs that justified European conquest of overseas territories and how they changed over time.” (1.4 – I)
“Assess the role of colonization, the Industrial Revolution, total warfare, and economic depressions in altering the government’s relationship to the economy, both in overseeing economic activity and in addressing its social impact.” (1.4-I – colonization and mercantilism)
“Explain how European exploration and colonization was facilitated by the development of the scientific method and led to a re-examination of cultural norms.” (1.4 – II – navigation, cartography, mil tech, 2.3 – II – representations of peoples outside Europe)

* European states sought direct access to gold and spices and luxury goods as a means to enhance personal wealth and state power




* Rise of mercantilism gave the state a new role in promoting commercial development and the acquisition of colonies overseas




* Christianity served as a stimulus for exploration as governments and religious authorities sought to spread the faith and counter Islam




*Christianity served as a justification for the physical and cultural subjugation of indigenous cultures




2. Advances in navigation, cartography,

and military technology allowed Europeans

to establish overseas colonies and empires

“Evaluate how the emergence of new weapons, tactics, and methods of military organization changed the scale and cost of warfare, required centralization of power, and shifted the balance of power.” (1.4-II – exploration and colonization)
“Evaluate the role of technology, from the printing press to modern transportation and telecommunications, in forming and transforming society.” (1.4 – II – Exploration and colonization)
“Analyze how scientific and intellectual advances – resulting in more effective navigational, cartographic, and military technology – facilitated European interaction with other parts of the world.” (1.4 – II)
“Analyze how European states established and administered overseas commercial and territorial empires.” (1.4 – II – technological advantages, commercial networks)
“Assess the role of overseas trade, labor, and technology in making Europe part of a global economic network and encouraging the development of new economic theories and state policies.” (1.4 – I – access to gold, spices, luxury goods, mercantilism), 1.4 – III – trade networks, I.4 – IV – Columbian Exchange)




Navigation tech:

* Compass

* Stern-post rudder

* Portolani

* Quadrant and astrolabe

* Lateen rig
Military tech:

* Horses

* Guns and gunpowder

3. Europeans established overseas empires and trade networks through coercion and negotiation

“Explain the extent of and causes for non-Europeans’ adoption of or resistance to European cultural, political, or economic values and institutions, and explain the causes of their reactions.” (1.4 – III – empires, I.V – IV – slave trade and new goods)
“Explain how European expansion and colonization brought non-European societies into global economic, diplomatic, military, and cultural networks.” (1.4 – III – empire)
“Assess the impact of war, diplomacy, and overseas exploration and colonization on European diplomacy and balance of power until 1789.” (1.4 – III – Colonial Empires)


* Portuguese established a commercial network along the African coast, in South and East Asia, and in South America




* The Spanish established colonies across the Americas, the Caribbean, and the Pacific, which made Spain a dominant state in Europe




* The Atlantic nations of France, England, and the Netherlands followed by establishing their own colonies and trading networks




* They established these colonies and networks to compete with Spanish and Portuguese dominance




4. Europe’s colonial expansion led to a global exchange of goods, flora, fauna, cultural practices, and diseases, resulting in the destruction of some indigenous civilizations, a shift toward European dominance, and the expansion of the slave trade

“Evaluate the impact of the Columbian Exchange – the global exchange of goods, plants, animals, and microbes – on Europe’s economy, society, and culture.” (1.4 – IV – shift of power to Atlantic states)
“Assess the role of overseas trade, labor, and technology in making Europe part of a global economic network and encouraging the development of new economic theories and state policies.” (1.4 – I – access to gold, spices, luxury goods, mercantilism), 1.4 – III – trade networks, I.4 – IV – Columbian Exchange)
“Assess the role of European contact on overseas territories through the introduction of disease, participation in the slave trade and slavery, effects on agricultural and manufacturing patterns, and global conflict.” (1.4 – IV – Columbia Exchange)
“Analyze how non-European peoples increased European social and cultural diversity and affected attitudes toward race.” (1.4 – IV – expansion of slave trade)
“Evaluate how identities such as ethnicity, race, and class have defined the individual in relationship to society.” (1.4 – IV – Slave trade, 1.5 – I – new economic elites and hierarchy)
“Explain how European expansion and colonization brought non-European societies into global economic, diplomatic, military, and cultural networks.” (1.4 – IV – slave trade and new goods, 1.5 – 1 – money economy)
“Explain the extent of and causes for non-Europeans’ adoption of or resistance to European cultural, political, or economic values and institutions, and explain the causes of their reactions.” (1.4 – III – empires, I.V – IV – slave trade and new goods)
“Analyze how and why Europeans have marginalized certain populations (defined as “other”) over the course of their history.” (1.4 – I –Colonial Conquest)

* Exchange of goods shifted to the center of economic power in Europe from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic states and brought the Atlantic states into an expanding world economy




* The exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases – The Columbian Exchange – facilitated European subjugation and destruction of indigenous peoples, particularly in the Americas


From Europe to Americas:

* Wheat

* Cattle

* Horses

* Pigs

* Sheep

* Smallpox

* Measles
From Americas to Europe:

* Tomatoes

* Potatoes

* Squash

* Corn

* Tobacco

* Turkeys

* Syphilis

* Europeans expanded the African slave trade in response to the establishment of a plantation economy in the Americas and demographic catastrophes among indigenous peoples





Chapter 2—Renaissance and Discovery
Key Concepts
The Emergence of Nation-States

Led by New Monarchs, the unified states such as France, Spain, and England that were emerging in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries had various things in common that are ingredients of the modern state: a centralized bureaucracy of civil servants dependent upon the king for their positions and thus generally loyal (contrast this with clerical administrators upon which earlier kings often had to depend), standing armies (instead of feudal levies), and increased taxation of the peasantry to support these requirements. In addition, major benefits of a centralized state include a postal service and expanded trade and industry. Italy and Germany were the two most important examples of areas that failed to unify due to intense local rivalries.



The Renaissance

Renaissance is a French term meaning “rebirth” that describes the dawning of a new era that took its inspiration from classical antiquity. The revival of learning and emphasis upon man and his unique abilities and beauty contrasts with the medieval emphasis upon the glory of God and the sinfulness of man. The “rebirth” of Western civilization implies that the Middle Ages were years of decline and sterility. Although true in some ways, medieval civilization can certainly be viewed as progressive and even exceptional with its establishment of trade routes, commerce and technology. The Late Middle Ages was a period of “creative breakup.”



Revival of classicism

Greco-Roman culture permeates the many aspects of the Renaissance. This glorification of the classical world will be reinvented a few centuries later during the time of revolutions at the end of the 18th century. This Neo-Classical period will not only look back to ancient civilizations, but as well to this renaissance.



Humanism

The growth of humanism during this period will influence many great philosophical movements of the future. Although this humanism is linked to the Church in many ways, it is different than previous Western European Christian thought in that it will encourage individuality as God’s gift, rather than the community as being God’s will.



Impact of the Printing Press

As the world moved into the 21st century, many surveys were taken dealing with “the most” or “the best” of the past millennium. As historians and writers looked for the most influential person of the last 1,000 years, Johannes Gutenberg was the number one choice in more than one survey. The impact of the printing press not only involved books at its creation, but as well information storage and dissemination through our time.



The Cultural and Economic Impact of Exploration and Discovery

In the fifteenth century, Portuguese and Spanish explorers opened up great opportunities for trade in gold and spices from the New World. With this expanded trade came the increase in international slave trade. New wealth permitted research and expansion in a number of industries and led to the development of capitalist institutions and practices. There was great aggravation of the traditional social divisions as people envisioned ways of living that offered greater freedom and increased opportunity for a better life. This period of imperialism involved different factors than that which you will come to know as “New Imperialism” of the late 19th century. It is important that you know the basics of exploration and colonization of the 15th and 16th centuries, including goals, nations, and levels of control so that you will have a springboard for later comparison.



Chapter Summary
This chapter focuses on the political, social, and economic developments of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Topics include the revival of monarchy and the development of the nation-state, the Renaissance Movement of classical learning, art and Humanism in Italy, the Northern Renaissance, voyages of discovery, and the economic foundations of mercantilism. Because of the Hundred Years’ War and the Schism in the church, the nobility and the clergy were in a decline in the Late Middle Ages. The bonds of feudal society were finally broken and sovereign states arose. Monarchies began to create bureaucracies that administered the realm and collected taxes that were increased to support the new standing armies. The chapter then details the rise of France under Louis XI, the unification of Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella, the conflict in England with the “War of the Roses,” and the establishment of the Tudor monarchy in 1485 under Henry VII. In Germany, an agreement known as the Golden Bull established a seven-member electoral college in 1356 that also functioned as a transregional administrative body. But Germany remained the most disunited of late medieval countries.

Renaissance society took distinctive shape within the cities of Italy. There were five major states: Milan, Florence, Venice, the Papal States, and the Kingdom of Naples. These states had various types of government, but most evolved into despotisms after near-anarchic social conflict. All of them possessed great wealth, the main requirement for patronage of the arts and letters.

Humanism was the scholarly study of the Greek and Latin classics and the ancient Church Fathers, both for their own sake and in hope of a rebirth of ancient values. Humanists believed that much of traditional education was useless: education should promote individual virtue and public service. The chapter then details intellectual development such as the neo-Platonism of Ficino and the famous oration of Pico della Mirandola. The art of the period is also discussed with special emphasis on the realism of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, and Giotto.

The prevalence of slavery in Renaissance Italy is noted briefly. Household/domestic slavery as well as collective plantation slavery developed in the eastern Mediterranean during the High Middle Ages. The decline of available labor after the Black Death contributed to the rise of slavery.

The internal cooperation of Italy’s city-states, which had been maintained during the fifteenth century, broke down in 1490. Threatened by attack from Naples, Florence, and the Papal States, the Milanese despot Ludovico asked for French help. A series of three French invasions ensued that resulted in Spanish intervention as well. Italy was left a shambles. Machiavelli became convinced that Italian political unity and independence were ends worth any means. He wrote The Prince in 1513 to encourage the emergence of a strong ruler from the Medici family. Italy, however, remained divided.

After 1450, the emergence of truly sovereign rulers set in motion a shift from divided feudal monarchy to unified national monarchies. Towns began to ally themselves with kings. This alliance made possible the rise of sovereign states. Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain, Louis XI in France, and Henry VII in England all were able to exploit this opportunity to establish strong monarchies. They used this power to raise royal armies, and they paid for these armies by levying various taxes on the people. Germany and Italy stood as exceptions to centralized monarchy. In Germany, territorial rulers resisted unity. This disunity later aided the religious dissent of the Protestant Reformation. Another key factor setting the stage for the tensions surrounding the Reformation was the invention of the printing press. Religious texts and pamphlets could be printed, read, and debated like never before.

Northern Humanist culture was largely imported from the south, but northern Humanists tended to be more socially diversified and religious. Erasmus, for example, supported a simple ethical piety in contrast to the abstract and ceremonial religion of the later Middle Ages. The Reuchlin affair united German Humanists who supported Reuchlin in the name of academic freedom. The best known of the early English Humanists was Thomas More (Utopia). France also had an active Humanist circle, out of which came John Calvin. In Germany, England, and France, then, Humanism prepared the way for Protestant reforms and entered the service of the Catholic Church in Spain, where Jiménez de Cisneros was a key figure.

In the fifteenth century, commercial supremacy was transferred from the Mediterranean and the Baltic to the Atlantic seaboard. Portuguese and Spanish explorers opened up great opportunities for trade in gold and spices. Attention is paid to the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas—and especially their economic exploitation of the New World. African slaves became another item of trade. The new wealth permitted research and expansion in a number of industries and led to the development of capitalist institutions and practices. There was great aggravation of the traditional social divisions.


ID’s


People

Countries/Land

Time Periods/Events

Terms

Alighieri, Dante

Boccaccio, Giovanni

Buonarroti, Michelangelo

Castiglione, Baldassare

de Montaigne, Michel

de Pisan, Christine

de Valla, Lorenzo

de’ Medici, Cosimo

de’ Medici, Lorenzo

della Mirandola, Pico

Dührer, Albrecht

Erasmus, Desiderius

Ferdinand of Aragon

Florentine Academy



Giotto

Gutenberg, Johann

Henry the Navigator

Henry Tudor/Henry VII

Isabella of Castile

Leonardo da Vinci

Lorenzo the Magnificent

Louis XI


Machiavelli, Niccolò

More, Sir Thomas

New Monarchs

Petrarch, Francesco

Pope Julius II

Raphael


Savonarola, Girolamo




Black Death

Italian Renaissance

Northern Renaissance


Humanism

Scholasticism




Focus Questions
1. What was Jacob Burckhardt’s interpretation of the Renaissance? What criticisms have been leveled against it? What did the term mean in the context of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Italy?

2. How would you define Renaissance humanism? In what ways was the Renaissance a break with the Middle Ages, and in what ways did it owe its existence to medieval civilization?

3. Who were some of the famous literary and artistic figures of the Italian Renaissance? What did they have in common that might be described as “the spirit of the Renaissance”?

4. Why did the French invade Italy in 1494? How did this event trigger Italy’s political decline? How did the actions of Pope Julius II and the ideas of Niccolò Machiavelli signify a new era in Italian civilization?

5. A common assumption is that creative work proceeds best in periods of calm and peace. Given the combination of political instability and cultural productivity in Renaissance Italy, do you think this assumption is valid?

6. How did the Renaissance in the north differ from the Italian Renaissance? In what ways was Erasmus the embodiment of the Northern Renaissance?

7. What factors led to the voyages of discovery? Why were the Portuguese interested in finding a route to the East? Why did Columbus sail west across the Atlantic in 1492?

Chapter 3—The Age of Reformation


Key Concepts
The Reforms of Martin Luther

Luther focused his initial protest to Catholic doctrine on two related issues: 1) the sale of indulgences to remit temporal penalties for confessed sins and even time in purgatory, since it seemed to make salvation something that could be bought and sold; 2) salvation could be achieved, not by religious works and ceremonies, but by faith in Jesus Christ alone.



The English Reformation

The Reformation in England did not stem from religious principles as it did in Germany, but from political expediency. Henry VIII was driven by the need for a male heir, which he evidently could not obtain from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Henry’s subsequent efforts to rid himself of Catherine exemplify the subversion of religion to the political needs of state.



Doctrinal differences among Protestant faiths

It is easy to confuse the many facets of the Protestant faiths during the Reformation. Today’s Christian line of separation is generally drawn between Catholicism and Protestantism, with all of the Reformation faiths on one side and Catholicism on the other. It might help students to see this issue in a distance analogy, rather than a line of separation. During the Reformation, if the Catholic Church were on the goal line at one end of a football field, then Lutheranism would be on the 5-yard line at the same end with Calvinism, Anabaptism, and other Protestant faiths down at the other goal line. Indeed, looking at the Peace of Augsburg, this “linking” of Catholicism and Lutheranism, and the non-recognition of the more radical faiths is borne out.



The Social Significance of the Reformation

The Reformation brought about basic and lasting changes in education and the image and role of women in society. The Reformation implemented the educational ideas of Humanism which emphasized the study of primary sources in the original languages. This was a much more effective tool for the defense of Protestant doctrine than was Scholastic dialectic. The Protestant reformers also approved clerical marriages and challenged the medieval tendency to degrade women as temptresses. Women were praised particularly in their biblical vocation as mother and housewife. The reformers encouraged the education of girls and, in so doing, gave some women a role in the Reformation as independent authors.

Although from the modern paradigm the role of women during the Reformation appears to be repressive, it is important to look at historical issues from their own paradigms. Women during the Middle Ages although repressed politically, had certain economic and personal freedoms under the feudal system. During the Renaissance, women were even more limited as they were “elevated” to a protected position. From this background, the expanding legal power and family responsibility of women during the Reformation should be explored.
Chapter Summary

This chapter discusses the political, social and particularly religious developments of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The chapter focuses primarily on the independent lay and clerical efforts to reform religious practice. It also delves into the various ideas of Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Henry VIII, and other religious and political reformers. The Catholic Reformation is discussed as well. Finally, the chapter assesses the effect of the Reformation on society, religion, and education.

The late medieval church was a failing institution that was beset with political troubles (“Babylonian Captivity,” Great Schism, conciliar movement and Renaissance papacy), and had ceased to provide an example of religious piety. Lay criticism of the church increased and became more organized. One constructive lay movement was the Modern Devotion, or the Brothers of the Common Life, which stressed individual piety and an active common life.

Unlike France and England, late medieval Germany lacked the political unity to enforce national religious reforms. An unorganized opposition to Rome had formed, however, and by 1517 it was strong enough to provide a solid foundation for Martin Luther’s reforms. The chapter continues with Luther’s dramatic career and emphasizes his opposition to indulgences (95 Theses), his doctrine of “justification by faith alone,” and his challenge to papal infallibility. In its first decade, however, the Protestant movement suffered more from internal division than from imperial interference.

Ulrich Zwingli led the Swiss Reformation on the simple guideline that whatever lacked literal support in Scripture was to be neither believed nor practiced. The unity of the Protestant movement suffered because of the theological disagreements between Zwingli and Luther and the threat of more radical groups such as the Anabaptists (who insisted upon adult baptism), Spiritualists, and Anti-Trinitarians.

After discussing the efforts of Charles V to unify the church by formal decree (Diet of Augsburg) and the Protestant reaction and consolidation, the chapter relates the spread of Calvinism. John Calvin went to Geneva in 1536 after a political revolution against a local prince-bishop had paved the way for political reform. Calvin proposed strict measures to govern Geneva’s moral life, which created opposition. After a short exile, he returned to enforce the strictest moral discipline. After 1555, Geneva became a refuge for thousands of Protestants who had been driven out of France, England, and Scotland.

The key precondition of the English Reformation was the “king’s affair.” Henry VIII wanted a papal annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. When this was refused by the pope, the “Reformation Parliament” (1529–1536) passed legislation that made the king supreme in English spiritual affairs. But despite his political break with Rome, Henry remained decidedly conservative in his religious beliefs, and Catholic teaching remained prominent. During the reign of his son Edward, England fully enacted the Protestant Reformation—only to have Catholicism restored by his successor, Mary. Not until the reign of Elizabeth (1558–1603) was there a lasting religious settlement achieved in England.

The Protestant Reformation did not take the medieval church completely by surprise. There were many efforts at internal reform before there was a Counter-Reformation. But these reform initiatives did not come from the papal court, but from religious orders, especially the Jesuits. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, who founded the Society of Jesus, preached self-discipline and submission to authority. The success of the Protestant Reformation led to the Council of Trent (1545–1563) which was strictly under papal control and made important reforms concerning internal church discipline; but not a single doctrinal concession was made to the Protestants.

The Protestant reformers perhaps never contemplated a reform outside or against their societies. Nevertheless, the Reformation brought about lasting changes in religious life, education, and the image and role of women.

The next section of the chapter focuses on family life in Early Modern Europe (1500–1800). It is noted that late marriages became more frequent and were arranged, but not forced on children by parents. On the average, the family consisted of a husband, wife, and two to four children who survived into adulthood. Birth control was practiced but was not acceptable to the church and rather ineffective in any event. Wet-nursing was also condemned by the church and aristocracy. Indeed, to some it was evidence of an unloving family relationship; but love and affection are relative to time and culture.

Finally, the chapter surveys the literary careers of two of the Renaissance’s greatest literary figures: Cervantes and Shakespeare.

Focus Questions
1. What problems in the church contributed to the Protestant Reformation? Why was the church unable to suppress dissent as it had earlier?

2. What were the basic similarities and differences between the ideas of Luther and Zwingli? Between Luther and Calvin? How did the differences tend to affect the success of the Protestant movement?

3. Why did the Reformation begin in Germany? What political factors contributed to its success there as opposed to France, Spain, or Italy?

4. What was the Catholic Counter-Reformation? What reforms did the Council of Trent introduce? Was the Protestant Reformation healthy for the Catholic Church?

5. Why did Henry VIII break with Rome? Was the “new” church he established really Protestant? How did the English church change under his successors?

6. How did the Reformation affect women in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? How did relations between men and women, family size, and child care change during this period?


ID’s


People

Countries/Land

Time Periods/Events

Terms

Anabaptists

Anglican Church

Boleyn, Anne

Calvin, John

Catherine of Aragon

Charles I of Spain/Emperor

Charles V

English Calvinists

(Puritans/Pilgrims/ Separatists)

Frederick the Wise of Saxony

Henry VIII (1509-1547)

Huguenots

Huss, John

Ignatius Loyola

Jesuits

Laity


Luther, Martin

Presbyterians

Schmalkaldic League

Tetzel, Johann

Weber, Max

Wycliffe, John

Zwingli, Ulrich


Holy Roman Empire


Babylonian Captivity/Avignon Papacy

Catholic/Counter Reformation

Council of Trent

Diet of Worms (1521)

German Peasants’ Revolt

Great Schism




95 Theses

Act of Succession

Act of Supremacy

Egalitarian

Elect

Excommunication



Index of Prohibited Books

Indulgences

Justification by faith

Papal bull

Peace of Augsburg

Predestination

Priesthood of believers

Purgatory



Transubstantiation






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