Unit 12: foreign affairs in the new nation I introduction a design of Currency



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UNIT 12: FOREIGN AFFAIRS IN THE NEW NATION

I Introduction

A) Design of Currency

1) began designing the same day as the Dec. of Indp. (7/4/1776)

2) 1782, Congress approved the design we see on our currency today

3) symbolizes the nation’s principles

4) eagle symbolizes U. S.

aa) two circles = showing the Great Seal of the U.S.

bb) unfinished pyramid on one side of the seal = strength and endurance

cc) one claw = eagle holds an olive branch = a symbol of peace

dd) eagle = holds arrows to symbolize war

ee) olive branch and arrows of war = United States will pursue peace = but will also protect itself

ff) the eagle faces peace
II Washington’s Legacy (No party)

A) Foreign Policy

1) defined U.S. foreign policy (how we deal with other nations AND Native Americans)

2) wanted us to remain neutral with other countries’ issues UNLESS it specifically involved us

3) said we could be actively involved in world affairs, risking war OR avoid involvement in other nations’

conflicts in the hope of staying at peace



III President Washington Creates a Foreign Policy

A) Army

1) disbanded after Rev. War and not replaced for two reasons

aa) not enough money to keep it active

bb) Americans knew a standing army could be used to take away ppl’s civil liberties

2) thought local militias could defend the country

B) Threats

1) surrounded by unfriendly powers

aa) GB in north = controlled Canada

  1. didn’t abandon their forts in the ORV even though supposed to after Rev. War

2) Spain = south and west = FL and Louisiana, all of Central Am, and S. Am.

3) European threats affected U.S., too

aa) 1789 = French people rose up agst their king and declared France a republic = French Revolution

bb) 1793 = declared war against Great Britain

cc) Washington decided NOT to choose sides

C) Treaty of Alliance with France

1) 1788

2) alliance: agreements made with other nations to aid and support each other

3) United States originally promised to aid France in time of war

4) many Americans were eager to honor that pledge

5) even if it meant going to war with GB

6) Washington knew the United States was not prepared for war

7) announced a policy of neutrality: policy of not choosing sides in a dispute or war between other countries

aa) United States would do nothing to aid either France or Great Britain in their war

8) before leaving office: Washington summed up his foreign policy in a farewell address to the nation

aa) said U. s. would gain nothing by becoming involved in other nations’ affairs

bb) became known as isolationism = a policy of avoiding political or military agreements with other countries

cc) for the next century = isolationism = foundation of U.S. foreign policy

IV President Adams’ Dilemma (Federalist)

A) Adams and France

1) isolationism = sounded good in theory

2) hard to stay out of other countries’ conflicts

3) Adams tried to follow Washington’s policy of neutrality

4) proved to be difficult
B) Jay’s Treaty

1) French leaders = hoped GB’s refusal to leave the ORV would lead to war between GB and the US

2) Washington sent John Jay (chief justice of the Supreme Court) to London to settle things with GB

3) 1794 = treaty signed = Jay’s Treaty

4) British = finally agreed to pull their troops from the ORV

5) France = still at war with GB

6) France: viewed the Jay Treaty as a violation of its own treaty with the United States (made back in 1778)

7) July 1796 = French navy = began attacking U.S. merchant ships bound for GB

8) 316 American ships = seized over the next year
C) The XYZ Affair

1) President Adams = sent three envoys, or representatives, to France

2) had to ask the French to end the attacks

3) Talleyrand: French foreign minister = refused to speak to the Americans

4) met by secret agents

aa) later identified these men only as X, Y, and Z

bb) agents said = no peace talks unless Talleyrand received a large sum of money as a tribute (money

given to someone in exchange for that person’s protection)

cc) American envoys refused
5) XYZ Affair = outraged Americans

aa) President Adams’s requested Congress vote to recruit an army of 10,000 men

bb) also voted to build 12 new ships for the nation’s tiny navy

cc) slogan = “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!”

dd) heard everywhere as Americans prepared for war

ee) Congress = authorized U.S. warships and privateers (privately owned ships) = to launch a “half war”

on the seas



ff) undeclared war

gg) American ships captured more than 80 armed French vessels

hh) war fever mounted

ii) Adams = now even more unpopular

  1. but =Federalist Party gained support in all parts of the country

  2. Adams: wanted to know = is waging an undeclared war on France the best thing for the country?


V Adams Pursues Peace

A) Federalists

1) wanted war

2) Adams: knew it would not be good for the country

3) Federalist leaders were furious

4) 1799 = Adams announced = sending a group of men to France to work for peace

5) Feds: pleaded with the president to change his mind

6) Adam = NO
B) Napolean Bonaparte

1) peace mission reached France

2) French military leader (Napolean Bonaparte) = had taken over the French govt

aa) eager to make peace with both GB and the US

bb) had already ordered the navy to stop seizing American ships

cc) told his men to release captured American sailors
3) 1800 Treaty

aa) between US and France

bb) Napoleon agreed to end France’s 1788 alliance w/the US

cc) Americans agreed not to ask France to pay for all the ships it had seized

dd) meant = US govt. would have to pay American ship owners for their lost property

ee) Adams said: a small price to pay for peace with France

(1) this “olive branch” cost Adams political popularity

(2) his pursuit of peace with France created strong disagreements within the Federalist Party

(3) Adams lost presidential election = 1800

(4) Federalist Party lost much of its support

(5) over the next few years = Federalist Party slowly faded away
VI President Jefferson’s Dilemma (DR)

A) France

1) peace John Adams achieved did not last long

2) 1803 = France and GB = again at war

3) conflict heated up

4) both nations = began seizing American ships that were trading with their enemy

5) President Thomas Jefferson = complained bitterly that “England has become a den of pirates and France

has become a den of thieves.”



6) Jefferson = tried to follow a policy of neutrality

B) Impressment

1) remaining neutral when ships were being seized = hard

2) GB = began impressing American sailors —kidnapping them and forcing them to serve in the British navy

3) said the men they impressed were British deserters

4) thousands of unlucky Americans = impressed

5) 1807: this peaked

aa) British warship, the Leopard, stopped a U.S. warship to search for deserters

bb) Chesapeake’s captain refused to allow a search

cc) Leopard opened fire

dd) 21 American sailors killed/wounded

ee) attack triggered another case of war fever = agst GB
C) Piracy

1) piracy = robbery at sea

2) threat from the Barbary States of North Africa

3) pirates from Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli

4) preyed on merchant ships entering the Mediterranean Sea

5) seized the ships and held their crews for ransom

6) Presidents Washington and Adams = both paid tribute to Barbary State rulers in exchange for the safety

of American ships



7) “millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” = cheered during the XYZ Affair

8) BUT: US = quietly sending money to the Barbary States

9) by Jefferson’s term: US had already paid the Barbary States almost $2 million

10) they demanded more

aa) ruler of Tripoli = demanded still more

bb) declared war on the United States

cc) Jefferson hated war / hated paying tribute / which is worse?
In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the Mediterranean Sea was filled with pirates who attacked U.S. merchant ships. The United States paid tribute to leaders of the Barbary States to prevent these attacks.



VII Jefferson Solved the Problem

A) 1802

1) Jefferson sent a small fleet of warships to the Med. Sea to protect American shipping interests

2) war with Tripoli = went on until 1804

3) American ships began bombarding Tripoli with their cannons

4) Philadelphia, ran aground on a hidden reef in the harbor

5) captain and crew = captured and held for ransom

6) raiding party sent in to heavily guarded Tripoli harbor and set the ship afire

7) attacks and blockade lasted a year

8) 1805 = Tripoli signed a peace treaty with US

aa) agreed to stop demanding tribute payments

bb) U.S. paid $60,000 ransom for the crew of the Philadelphia

cc) bargain compared to the $3 million first demanded

9) Tripoli raids continued for 10 more yrs

10) 1815 = U.S. and European naval forces finally destroyed the pirate bases

B) France and GB

1) Jefferson = tried desperately to convince both France and GB to leave American ships alone

2) failed

3) 1803 – 1807 = GB seized at least a thousand American ships / France = about half that many
C) Embargo Act

1) diplomacy failed

2) Jefferson proposed an embargo = a govt order that forbids trade with another country / a complete halt in

trade with other nations

3) 1807

4) passed by Congress

aa) no foreign ships could enter U.S. ports

bb) no American ships could leave – except to trade at other U.S. ports

5) Jefferson hoped = stopping trade would prove so painful to France and GB that they would agree to

leave American ships alone



6) proved far more painful to Americans than to anyone in Europe

aa) some 55,000 sailors lost their jobs

7) Congress repealed the unpopular Embargo Act in 1809

aa) American ships returned to the seas

bb) French and British warships continued to attack them
VIII President Madison’s Dilemma (DR)

A) 1809: President James Madison took office

1) new approach to protecting Americans at sea

2) offered France and Great Britain a deal…

aa) cease (to stop doing something) your attacks on American ships

bb) US will stop trading with your enemy

3) France/Napolean agreed

aa) BUT = gave his navy secret orders to continue seizing American ships headed for British ports

bb) Madison = cut off all trade with Great Britain
4) GB:

aa) continued seizing ships and impressing American sailors

5) Madison’s Solution…

aa) saw only one way to force GB to respect American rights

bb) abandon George Washington’s policy of isolationism

cc) go to war with GB
6) Most Feds: opposed going to war

aa) merchants in NE

  1. war will mean a blockade (a closing off of an area to keep people or supplies from going in or out) of their ports by the British navy

  2. preferred to take their chances with the troubles at sea


bb) merchants in the South

  1. supported going to war

  2. resented GB’s policy of impressing U.S. sailors

  3. accused Brits of stirring up trouble among Native Ams in states & territories to the NW


B) Trouble with the American Indians

1) as settlers moved into the Ohio and Mississippi valleys == pushed Indians off their lands

2) two Shawnee Indians

aa) Chief Tecumseh

bb) Prophet (his brother)

cc) tried

dd) to fight back by uniting Indians along the Mississippi River into one great Indian nation
3) Battle of Tippecanoe at Tippecanoe Creek

aa) November 7, 1811

bb) Shawnee warriors fought against a militia force (led by Indiana governor William Henry Harrison)

cc) Harrison defeated the Indian forces

dd) afterward: Harrison’s men discovered = Indians = armed with British guns

ee) Americans were outraged

ff) many young congress men = eager for war with GB

  1. nicknamed: War Hawks

  2. Southern and Western

  3. Henry Clay of KY

  4. John C. Calhoun of SC

  5. said US needed to drive the Brits out of Canada = to make northwestern frontier safe

  6. Canada could become part of the US

  7. Reasons for War:

(aaa) losses at sea

(bbb) national pride

(ccc) desire to make frontier safe for settlers
IX What Happened… the War of 1812

A) Beginning of war

  1. Madison chose to abandon isolationism

  2. Congress agreed to declare war on GB

  3. July 17, 1812

  4. VERY BOLD STEP

  5. Poorly trained men

  6. 16 ship navy

  7. War Hawks: ecstatic


B) Battles on Land and Sea

1) War Hawks: thought about conquering Canada = marching there and taking it

2) NOT

3) 1812, ’13, & ’14 = U.S. forces crossed into Canada

4) turned back by Brits each time

5) battles were harder than expected

6) Chief Tecumseh – fought for Brits – killed during battles

7) Ams. driven back across the Canadian border

C) Brits Get Revenge on US

1) 1814 = Napoleon defeated in Europe

2) GB sent 15,000 troops to Canada

3) Ams realize they can’t win

4) British ALSO invade Washington, D.C.

5) burn several public buildings

aa) Capitol

bb)White House

cc) Madison had to flee for his life

dd) Dolly Madison, his wife, saved GW’s painting and some other famous Whitehouse materials before

she fled
6) Brits attack Baltimore, Maryland



aa) Francis Scott Key (American lawyer)

bb) watched as the British bombarded Fort McHenry (which guarded the city’s harbor)

cc) bombardment went on all night

dd)dawn broke

ee) Key was thrilled to see that the American flag still waved over the fort = it had not been captured

ff) expressed his feelings in a poem

gg) later put to music (the same tune as an old drinking song: “To Anacreon in Heaven” http://youtu.be/2MVYl8iy2Ic )

hh) “The Star-Spangled Banner” = became our national anthem
D) The Battle of New Orleans

1) 2 days before battle at Baltimore = Brits surrendered to US forces

2) took news time to travel

3) So = British commanders in US launched another invasion

4) targeted New Orleans = defended by General Andrew Jackson

5) ragtag army of 7,000 militia, free African Americans, Indians, and pirates

6) January 8, 1815

7) more than 7,500 British troops marched into battle



8) Jackson’s troops met them with deadly fire

9) 2,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded

10) 20 Americans

11) GREATEST U.S. VICOTRY OF THE WAR OF 1812

12) totally unnecessary

13) diplomats met in Ghent (GHENT), Belgium

aa) signed a peace treaty to end the war

bb) news did not reach New Orleans until after the battle was fought
E) Results of the War

1) both sides claimed victory

2) neither Great Britain nor the United States really won

3) Treaty of Ghent = settled none of the issues that had led to the fighting

4) problems of impressment and ship seizures faded away as peace settled over Europe

5) Still = the war had important effects

aa) Tecumseh died

  1. Indian resistance in the NW Territory weakened

  2. most Nat Ams who fought w/him eventually were run out of the ORV


bb) national pride in the United States surged

(1) many Americans = considered the War of 1812 “the second war of independence”

cc) US = sovereign nation (supreme nation)

6) Two War Heroes

aa) William Henry Harrison (Will become our 9th President of the U.S.)

bb) Andrew Jackson (Will become our 7th President of the U.S.)

cc) later became Presidents of the US
X President Monroe’s Dilemma (DR) (fifth President of the U.S.)

A) James Monroe became president in 1817

1) returned nation to its policy of isolationism

2) Americans began to turn their attention away from Europe

3) NOW: directed attention to events happening in Latin America

4) From Mexico to the tip of South America = Latin Americans = rising up in revolt against Spain

B) Latin America’s Revolutions

1) Mexico = revolt against Spanish rule

aa) inspired by a Catholic priest = Miguel Hidalgo

bb) spoke to a crowd of poor Indians

cc) death to bad government

dd) take land back from horrible Spaniards who took it in the 1400s

ee) revolution lasted 10 yrs

ff) 1821: Mexico finally won its independence from Spain
2) South America

aa) two other leaders liberated (freed) South America

bb) Simón Bolívar

cc) José de San Martín

dd) end of 1825 = last Spanish troops had been driven out of South America
C) New Latin American Nations

1) many Americans = excited by independence movements in Latin America

2) British also supported the revolutions

3) Spain = had not allowed other nations to trade with its colonies

4) once freed from Spanish rule = new Latin American nations were able to open their doors to foreign

trade = including Great Britain



5) other European leaders = not so pleased

6) some began discussing helping Spain recover lost colonies

7) 1823: GB asks US = join in sending messages to leaders to leave Lat. Am ALONE

8) President James Monroe = asked former presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison for advice

XI What Happened: The Monroe Doctrine

A) Warning to Nations of Europe

1) 1st: US will not get involved in any more of their problems (isolationism)

2) 2nd: US will not get involved in any more issues in ANY Americas – unless directly involved (neutrality)

3) John Quincy Adams

aa) Monroe’s secretary of state

bb) John Adams’ son

cc) agreed with Jefferson

dd) US should speak boldly for itself

4) Monroe made a speech to Congress

5) announced a policy that became known as the Monroe Doctrine

aa) President James Monroe’s declaration

bb) 1823

cc) the Western Hemisphere was no longer open to European colonization

dd) said:

  1. the nations of North and South America were “free and independent”

  2. “not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers”

  3. view efforts by Europeans to take over “any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety”

6) French newspaper: Did the United States presume to tell the other nations of the world what they could

do in North and South America?



7) Americans: cheered Monroe

aa) made them proud to see the United States stand up for the freedom-loving people of Latin

America


  1. Monroe Doctrine joined isolationism as a basic principle of U.S. foreign policy

  2. doctrine asserted that the United States would not accept European interference in American affairs

10) contained another, hidden message

aa) told the world that the United States was no longer a weak collection of quarreling states

bb) US = Now a strong and confident nation—a nation to be respected by the world

XII SUMMARY

In this chapter, you learned about the development of foreign policy in the United States under the nation’s first five presidents.

President Washington Creates a Foreign Policy The first U.S. president knew that the young nation was unprepared for war. George Washington established a policy of isolationism to avoid alliances with other countries, which could draw the country into wars abroad.

President Adams’s Dilemma During the presidency of John Adams, France attacked U.S. ships. Adams followed Washington’s policy of isolationism and kept the United States at peace by securing a treaty with France.

President Jefferson’s Dilemma President Thomas Jefferson also faced threats at sea. When peace talks failed, he passed the Embargo Act of 1807. It, too, was unsuccessful.

President Madison’s Dilemma President James Madison offered a trade deal to both France and Great Britain, but the attacks at sea continued. He finally abandoned isolationism and declared war on Great Britain. The War of 1812 ended in a peace treaty with Great Britain.

President Monroe’s Dilemma President James Monroe, in support of the new Latin American states, issued a policy called the Monroe Doctrine. In it, he warned European nations to respect the newly independent colonies. The Monroe Doctrine established the United States as a strong nation, willing to stand up for its own freedom and that of its neighbors.


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