|UNIT 10. THE HABSBURGH DINASTY.
The Habsburg did not rule their empire as a single country. Instead, each kingdom had its own laws and system of government. The first two Habsburg kings, Charles and Philip believed that their most important tasks were:
Protecting the empire against other countries.
Defending the Catholic Faith against Protestants and Muslims.
Protecting the empire was very expensive. Charles and Philip went into debt, bankers gave them loans and they even spent the silver and gold from America. Philip went to bankruptcy several times.
10.1. CHARLES I (1517-1556).
His mother was Joan of Castile, daughter of the Catholic Monarchs and Philip the Handsome, duke of Burgundy. When he beacame king of Spain he hardly spoke Spanish. The inheritance of Charles included:
From his mother's side: Castile, Aragon (Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Sicily and Naples), Navarre, territories explored in America and north African cities conquered by the Catholic Monarchs.
From his father's side: Flanders and when his grandfather died he also inherited territories in Germany and Austria and rights to the title of Emperor.
The Comunero Rebellion.
In 1520 many towns in Castile rebelled against Charles because:
They had to pay more taxes because Charles wanted to be appointed as German Emperor, so he needed extra money to bribe the electors.
Charles appointed foreigners for the most importants jobs in his government. Flemish and not Castilian formed Charles government.
At first the rebels were successful and even they asked for support to Queen Joan the Mad, but finally Charles defeated them with the help of the Castilian nobles. Castilian nobles feared a peasant revolt that could threat their land possessions. The leaders of the rebellion were executed but Charles reformed the government and replaced his foreigners advisors with people from Castile.
Protecting the Empire.
Against France: French King Francis I attacked several times Spanish possessions in Italy. He was defeated several times by Charles and even captured in 1527. Francis I wanted to become German Emperor too but Charles spent more money bribing the electors.
Against the Ottomans: Turks threatened Habsburg possessions around Vienna.
Against the Protestants: some german princes supportant Luther reformation. After several wars Charles accepted to sign a peace treaty with the protestants: protestants princes were allowed to reform their territories.
In 1556 Charles abdicated. He split the empire in two parts:
10.2. PHILIP II (1556-1598).
Philip continued his father's fight against Protestants. He used the Inquisition to persecute people suspected of not being true Catholics. Many books were prohibited and spanish students were not allowed to study abroad. Philip stablished Madrid as a capital city.
Philip II's repression of Muslim converts in the kingdom of Granada led to a revolt in the Alpujarras in 1568. The rebellion was ended by his half brother John of Austria in 1571. With the expansion of the Ottomans in Eastern Europe and northern Africa many feared the Moriscos would join the Turks.
Protecting the Empire.
Philip inherit the same principles of his father Charles: protecting the empire and defending the Catholicism:
War against France: they still fighting during the whole reign. During the French Religion Wars, Spain intervened supporting the Catholic.
War against the protestants in The Netherlands: northern provinces of Flanders revolted because of the high taxes and the religious conflict.
War against the Turks: the Ottomans expanded their empire in South-Eastern Europe and North Africa threatening Spanish possessions in the Mediterranean Sea. In 1571 Spain joined Venice and the Pope and defeated the Turks in Lepanto.
War against England: Queen Elizabeth supported the protestant rebels in The Netherlands and threatened the spanish commerce from America. In 1588 Philip sent a great army to invade England. The Spanish fought the English but then bad weather destroyed many of the Spanish ships.
In 1578 the king Sebastian of Portugal died while fighting a crusade in Morocco. Philip ordered the Duke of Alba to invade Portugal and declared himself King of Portugal in 1580. The marriage policy stablished by the Catholic Monarchs gave Philip rights to the throne of Portugal.
1. True or false, change false sentences into true.
1. Under the Habsburg every kingdom had their laws, currency and system of government.
2. Ottomans bankers gave some loans to Charles and Philip.
3. Silver and Gold from America were spent in developing an industry in Spain.
4. As a result of the wars Philip declared bankruptcy several times.
5. Charles's mother was Joan the Mad and Sebastian of Portugal.
6. From his mother side Charles inherit some islands in the Mediterranean Sea.
7. From his father's side Charles inherit the title of Emperor of Rome.
8. Philip stablished Madrid as a capital city.
9. King Sebastian of Portugal died while fighting the Protestants in Germany.
10. The Duke of Soto invaded Portugal and Philip declared himself king of Portugal.
11. Inquisition persecuted people suspected of not being true protestants.
12.King Francis I of France was captured in a battle by Philip II.
13. After the Comuneros Revolt Charles appointed Flemish advisers to rule the country.
14. Comuneros asked for support to Queen Isabella.
15. During the revolt of the Alpujarras's moriscos most people feared they could join the Protestants.
16.Spain and the Pope defeated the Turks at Lepanto.
17. Queen Elizabeth of England supported the German Protestant.
2. Answer the following questions:
1. What territories Charles inherited from his mother's side?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. What territories Charles inherited from his father's side?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. What were Charles and Philip's most importants tasks?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. In 1520 some Castilian cities rebelled against Charles, Why?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. How the Comunero Rebellion ended?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. In 1556 Charles abdicated and split the Empire in two parts:
Philip got ____________________________________________________________
Ferdinand got ________________________________________________________
7. Why did the Protestants in Flanders revolted against Philip?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Why did Philip attack the Ottoman Turks? What happened at Lepanto?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. Why did Philip want to invade England? How ended the invasion?. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10.3. PHILIP III (1598-1621).
10.4. PHILIP IV (1621-1665).
10.5. CHARLES II (1665-1700).