Ethnic Conflicts – Dispute between two or more ethnic groups/peoples.
Eurasia – the combined continents of Europe and Asia are called “Eurasia”
Glasnost – Russian policy of “openness” which permitted the Soviet people to criticize their government without punishment. This was unusual for people to be allowed to do this. In the US we sometimes take for granted that we can do this!
Nomads – Person who moves from place to place with herds of animals.
Russian Revolution- the revolt of 1917, in which the Russian Communist party led by Vladimir Lenin, took control of the government from the czars. Russian citizens blamed the country’s leader (Czar) for food shortages and starvation. Political leaders, soldiers, and factory workers forced their leader Czar Nicholas II to give up the throne.
Serfs - An agricultural laborer common in 18th- and 19th-century Russia and Eastern Europe.
Siberia- the region of central and eastern Russia, stretching from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, known for its mineral resources and for being a place of political exile.
Trans-Siberian Railroad- A famous railroad that runs across the entire country of Russia and connects Moscow in the west with the city of Vladivoctok on Russia’s Pacific (east) coast.
United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/Soviet Union) - After the Russian Revolution (1917), communist leaders set up the communist country of the USSR in 1922.
(Some) Important leaders in Russian History to know:
Tsar (or Czar) Nicolas of Russia - Last King of Russia. Murdered by the Bolsheviks (Communists) in a bloody revolution that put the communists in control.
Vladimir Lenin – 1st Head of the Soviet Socialist Republic after the Bolshevik revolution which overthrew the Czar (King) of Russia. Under Lenin religion was discouraged, government took over farms from the wealthy and divided them out among everyone equally.
Joseph Stalin – Communist leader of Russia after Vladimir Lenin. Wanted to modernize Russia, stressed importance of a command economy.
Mikhail Gorbachev – Introduced a series of reforms that helped move the USSR from a communist country to a democracy.