Unit 10 notes Racism (437)



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Unit 10 notes

  • Racism (437)

    • After 1848 a flood of Chinese immigrant arrived in America

      • 1880, more than 200,000 Chinese came to the US

        • Mostly in California

        • They were a tenth of the pop.

      • For a time, they were being seen as hard working people

        • Very quickly white opinion became hostile

          • Chinese were very industrious and successful

    • Early 1850s many Chinese worked in gold mines

      • Some enjoyed success

      • 1852 California legislature tried to remove Chinese from working the gold mines

        • Foreign miner’s tax

      • 1850, series of other laws were designed to limit Chinese immigration

  • Building the transcontinental railroad (438)

    • As mining declined, railroad employment grew

    • Beginning in 1865 over 12,000 found work in railroad

      • Chinese workers formed 90 percent of the labor force

      • Responsible for construction of the western part of the new road

        • Chinese were preferred more than white men

          • Worked hard, little demand, life was accepted low wages

    • 1866 5,000 Chinese railroad workers went on strike for more wage and shorter work days

      • Company isolated them

      • Surrounded them with strikebreakers

      • Starved them into submission

        • Strike failed

    • 1869 the railroad was finished

      • Thousands of Chinese were out of work

        • Some hired themselves out on vast drainage and irrigation projects

        • Some became agricultural laborers

        • Some became tenant farmers

  • Establishment of Chinatown (439)

    • Largest single Chinese community was in san Fran.

      • Community life was revolved around powerful organizations

        • Led by prominent merchants

        • Organized elaborate festivals and celebrations that was an important lifestyle in Chinatown

      • Other Chinese organizations were secret societies

        • Known as tongs

          • Some were violent criminal organizations

    • Life was hard for urban Chinese

      • The Chinese usually occupied the lower rungs of the employment ladder

      • Some established their own small businesses

  • Anti-Coolie club

    • As Chinese communities grew larger anti-Chinese sentiment among white residents became strong

      • Anti coolie clubs emerged in the 1860s and 1870s

        • Wanted a ban on employing Chinese

          • Organized boycotts of products made with Chinese laborers

          • Attacked Chinese workers and set fires to factories

    • Soon the democratic party took up the call

    • And the workingmen’s party of California

      • Soon gained a lot of political power in the states

      • By the mid-1880s agitation towards the Chinese spread

  • Chinese exclusion act (440)

    • 1882 congress passed the Chinese exclusion act

      • The exclusion act banned Chinese from coming into the US and denied citizenship to Chinese in the US

        • Growing fear of unemployment

          • Believed that by excluding Chinese immigrants this would protect American workers

            • Help reduce class conflict

              • Renewed the law in 1892

              • Made it permanent in 1902

            • Chinese population declined by 40 percent

  • Chinese resistance

    • Chinese felt insulted that they put them together with AM and Indians

    • Letting in everyone but the Chinese

      • Believed that Chinese are clean, educated, industrious

  • Homestead act

    • Homestead act of 1862: permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee. If they occupied the land for five years and improved, it

      • Intended as a progressive measure

      • Give a small farm to any American who won’t one

    • Homestead act rested on a number of misperceptions

      • Framers of the law thought that land can sustain a family

      • Did not recognize the increasing mechanization of agriculture and cost of running a farm

      • 160 acres of land was too small for grain farming

      • Many people abandoned their land before 5 years

  • Government assistance

    • Westerners looked towards the government to help

      • Congress increased the homestead allotments

      • Timber culture act gave 160 acres of additional land to the one that they originally owned if they planted 40 acres of trees on them

      • The desert land act provided that claimants could buy 640 acres of land at $1.25 but they have to irrigate part of their holdings within 3 years

      • Stone act: applied to nonarable land. Authorized sales at $2.50 an acre

        • These laws made it so that people can buy a lot of land for very little price

        • Fraud ran rampant in the administration of the acts

          • Companies employed dummy registrants and using other illegal devices, seized millions of acres of land

    • After the admission of Kansas 1861 Wash, New Mexico, Utah, Nebr, were divided into smaller units

      • Easier to organize

      • By the 1860s territorial gov. were in the new provinces of Nevada, Col, Dak, Ari, Idaho, Mon, and Wyoming

  • Mexican origins (444)

    • Wester cattle industry was Mexican and Texan by ancestry

      • Mexican ranchers created techniques and equipment’s that cowboys use

        • Roundups, roping, and gear of the herders

          • Americans in Texas learned these methods and carried it to the northernmost ranges of the cattle kingdom

        • animals were descended from imported Spanish stocks

    • At the end of the civil were 5 mill cattle roamed Texas

      • Eastern markets wanted to buy these cattle

        • Challenge was getting the animals from the range to the railroad centers

        • Early in 1866 some began driving their combined herds

          • Only a fraction of the animals arrived to Sedalia due to bumps along the road

            • Proved that cattle could be driven to the market

            • The drive started an explosion of the creation of the cattle kingdom

  • Chisholm Trail (445)

    • Next step was finding an easier route

      • Through accessible countries

      • Market facilities grew up at Abilene Kansas

      • By mid 1870s agriculture in western Kansas was taking the open range lands

        • Cattlemen had to develop other trail and other market outlets

  • Competition with farmers (446)

    • As settlement of plains increase new forms of competition arose

      • Sheep breeders from California and Oregon compete for grass

      • Farmers in the east threw fences around their claims

      • Series of range wars between sheep men and cattlemen, between ranchers and farmers rose in tension

    • Great profit was in the cattle business

      • Increasingly, the cattle economy became corporated

      • Problem was that there was not enough grass to support the drive

        • Two sever winter in 1885-1886 and 1886-1887 with hot summer killed a lot of cattle

  • Political gains for women (447)

    • Women won vote earlier in west than any other nation

      • Utah: Mormons granted women suffrage to repel criticism of their practice of polygamy

      • Some state women persuaded men by telling men that they could bring a moral voice into religion and strengthen sense of community in west



  • Rocky mountain school

    • Allure of the west was due to the diversity of the landscapes

    • Best known painter from RMS were Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran

    • The paintings inspired tourism

      • Hotels began to appear near beautiful landscapes

        • Easterners began staying longer

  • Myth of the cow boys

    • Many people thought of the west as a rugged, free spirited lifestyle

      • Many people started romanticizing about the figure of the cowboy

        • Transformed him from low wage into powerful mythical figure

    • Admiring Americans thought of the dismal life of a cowboy

    • In novels they tend to romanticize about their freedom from social constraints

      • Cowboy was the most widely admired popular hero in America

        • And powerful and enduring symbol of the important American ideal of the natural man

  • Romantic image of the west

    • Many Americans thought it was the last frontier

      • With all the land being taken the image exercised a stronger pull

    • Mark twain, an American writer

      • He gave voice to the romantic vision of the frontier in books

        • Created characters that rebel against the constraints of society

  • Turner’s frontier thesis (452)

    • One of the most influential and clearest statements were from Frederick Jackson turner

      • 1893 turned paper to a meeting of the American historical society

        • Argued that the end of the frontier meant ending the most important democratizing forces in American life

    • Turner’s assessments were inaccurate and premature

      • He thought the frontier was an empty uncivilized land awaiting settlement

        • But white migrants had already established societies and culture

      • Unoccupied land remained in the west for many years

        • Much of the best farming and grazing land was now taken

  • Psychological loss

    • Most Americans knew that it was the end of their most cherished myths

      • As long as they believed that the west was an empty open land, it was possible to opportunity in American life

        • Now there was a vague and ominous sense of opportunity

      • Psychological loss was more intense because of Henry Nash smith

        • Called it the virgin land

          • West had the potential to be a virtual garden of Edan

            • A place where life can begin anew

            • Ideals of democracy could be restored

  • “Concentration” policy (453)

    • By the early 1850s the idea of creating one big community where all the tribes lived together got destroyed

      • By white demand for Indian territory

      • Created new reservation policies known as the concentration

        • 1851 each tribe were assigned its own defined reservation, confirmed with separate treaties

        • Treaties were often illegitimately negotiated with unauthorized representatives chosen by whites

        • Had many benefits for whites and not a lot for Indians

          • Easier to control

          • Force tribes into scattered locations

          • Took over the most desirable lands

    • 1867 in a series of bloody conflicts, congress created the Indian peace commission

      • Recommended a new and presumably permanent Indian policy

      • Wanted to remove the concentration policy and move the Indians into one big land

  • Poorly administered reservation

    • This solution worked better than other one

      • White management of Indian matters was entrusted to the bureau of Indian affair

        • Responsible for distributing land, making payments, and supervising the shipment of supplies

        • Record was horrible

        • Agents were bad at their job

    • Economic warfare by whites: slaughtered buffalo herds that supported the tribes

      • Even in the 1850 whites had been killing buffalo for food and supplies for migrants

      • After civil war buffalo hide was really popular

        • Prof. hunter came to the plains to shoot the buffalo

  • Decimation of the buffalo (454)

    • The disappearance of plains due to migrants decimated the buffalo population

      • Southern herd was exterminated by 1875

      • Within a year the northern fate also disappeared

      • By destroying buffalos, it was destroying the Indians’ source of food and supplies

  • Indian resistance

    • A lot of fighting between whites and Indians between the 1850s to 1880s

      • Indians go in groups of 30-40 men and attacked wagon trains, stagecoaches, and isolated ranches

        • US army became more deeply involved

        • The tribes focus more of their attacks on soldiers

    • Small scale fighting sometimes led to a war

      • During civil war, the eastern Sioux in Minnesota, there were corrupt agents and inadequate reservation

  • Sand creek massacre

    • Fighting also started in eastern Colorado

      • Indians were coming into conflict with white miners

      • Bands of Indians attacked stagecoach lines and settlement to regain lost lands

        • Whites called up a large militia

        • Governor urged all friendly Indians to congregate at army posts

        • Colonel Chivington led a volunteered militia to the camp and killed 133 people

  • “Indian hunting” (455)

    • White vigilante also threatened the tribes

      • Was known as Indian hunting

        • Tracking down and killing Indians

          • Some thought it was a sport

        • Some offered rewards to those who killed Indians

          • Brought back skulls as proof

        • Sometimes the killing was in response to Indian raids

      • Lots of whites believed in the literal elimination of Indians

        • Believed in the inhumanity of Indians and impossibility of whites coexisting with Indians

    • Indians eventually fought back

  • Little bighorn

    • Three army columns set out to round them up and force them back onto the reservation

      • Little bighorn: most famous conflict between the Indians and the whites

        • Tribal warriors surprised Custer and the members of his regiment

        • Surrounded them and killed every man

      • Chiefs had gathered 2,500 warriors

        • One of the largest Indian armies ever assembled

    • Indians did not have the pol. Organization or supplies to keep their troops united.

      • Warriors soon drifted off in bands

      • The power of the Sioux was soon broken

        • Crazy horse and sitting bull accepted defeat

  • Chief joseph

    • Persuaded his followers to flee from retribution

      • American troops pursued and attacked them

      • Joseph moved with 200 men and 350 women, children, and elders

        • Effort to reach Canada

      • Indians covered 1321 miles in 75 days

      • Finally caught just off the Canadian boarder

        • Finally gave up

        • He surrendered in exchange for a promise that his band could return to nez Perce

        • Gov. refused to honor the promise

    • Last Indians to organize resistance was the Chiricahua apaches

      • Fought from 1860 to 1880

        • Led by mangas colorados and cochis

          • Mangas was murdered in the civil war

        • In 1872 cochis agreed to peace in exchange for a reservation that included traditional land

          • Died in 1874

        • Geronimo refused to give up

  • Ghost dances (456)

    • The current prophet was Wovoka, a Paiute

      • Inspired an ecstatic spiritual awakening

      • New revival emphasized the coming of a messiah

      • Most conspicuous feature was a mass, emotional Ghost dance

        • Believed that the white people will retreat and the buffalo will come back

  • Wounded knee

    • In 1890 the seventh cavalry tried to round up 350 could and hungry Sioux at wounded knee

      • Fighting broke out

        • 200 Indians died

      • Indian made the first shot but it was a massacre

        • Turned new machine guns at them

  • Assimilation (457)

    • The Dawes severalty act of 1887 provided fir the gradual elimination of tribal ownership land

      • Gave them to individual families

        • Could not gain full title to their property for 25 years

        • Acts applied to most of the western tribes

      • The dawes act promoted the idea of assimilation from the bureau of Indian affairs

        • Took Indian children away from their families and sent them to boarding schools run by whites

          • Believed that the young can abandoned the tribal ways

        • Spread to stop Indian religion rituals

          • Encouraged Christianity

  • Key role of the railroad (458)

    • Railroad companies promoted settlement

      • Provide customers

      • Increase the value of their vast landholdings

        • Set rates so low that anyone can afford the trip west

        • Sold land at very low price

    • Temporary change in the climate of the great plains also helped the great surge

      • Beginning in 1870, rainfall in plains was above avg

      • Whites now rejected the idea that the region was a desert

        • Some believed that cultivation of plains encouraged rainfall

  • Barbed wire (459)

    • Farming on plains presented problems

      • Problem of fencing

        • Had to protect away from herds of open range cattlemen

        • Wood and stone are too expensive

        • 1873, joseph H. Glidden and Isaac L. Ellwood created barbed wires

      • Second problem was water

        • Much of the land had very little rain

          • Some were desert

        • Depended heavily on irrigation

          • water was diverted from rivers and streams and into farmlands

          • some drilled wells

  • Drought

    • After 1887 a series of dry seasons began

      • Lands that had been fertile turned into desert

        • Some used deep wells to deal with this problem pumped by steel windmills

        • Planting drought resistant crops

        • Large scale irrigation could save endangered farms

  • Hard times for farmers

    • Most of the people who moved had been farmers elsewhere

      • During the late 1880s the crop prices dropped

      • Production was becoming more expensive

      • Many farmers couldn’t pay debts and had to leave their farm

      • Most moved back into the east

  • Commercial agriculture

    • Sturdy, independent farmers were being replaced by commercial farmers

      • Attempting to do what industrialists have done in the manufacturing economy

    • Commercial farmers were not self sufficient

      • Specialized in cash crops

      • Sold in national or world markets

      • Bought household supplies and food

        • Raised living standards when it was successful

        • Made them dependent on bankers and interest rates, railroads, and freight rates

  • Consequences of overproduction

    • Beginning in the 1880s worldwide overproduction led to a price drop for most agricultural goods

      • Led to great economic distress for more than 6 mill people

        • 1890s, 27 percent of the farms were mortgaged

          • 1910, 33 percent

        • 1880, 25 percent of all farms had been operated by tenants

          • 1910, 37 percent

  • Farmer’s grievances

    • Farmers resented banks, loan companies, and insurance corporations

      • Farmers had to take loan on whatever terms they could get

        • Due to few credits in the west and south

        • Interest rates ranging from 10 to 25 percent

    • Third grievance was prices for products and prices they paid for goods

      • Farmers sold their products in a competitive world market

        • Had no control

        • Had no advanced knowledge

      • Prices could drop in matter of moments

        • Farmer’s fortune is unpredictable

  • Isolation

    • These economic difficulties produced a series of social and cultural resentment

      • Farm families in some parts of the world were virtually cut off from the outside world and human companionship

      • Many farmers lacked access to basically anything that might give them a sense of being members of a community

Crash course 25

  • 1890, farm prices made a comeback

    • Many people went to the west

    • More than a million filed land claims on the homestead act

    • Many people moved to the west because agriculture was increasing due to the growth of cities

  • In 20 years America became one of the biggest industrial countries

    • Turned from rural to urban

    • products spread

    • New York had over 6 mill

    • Reversed the flow of the Chicago river

  • Much of the growth was due to immigration

    • Much more diversity

  • Irish tended to stay in cities in America

    • Tended to be low waged unskilled laborers

    • Over time they had more varied jobs

  • Most German speakers became farmers

    • Many went to the Midwest

      • Some became brewers

  • By 1890s half of the immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe

    • They were mostly Jewish and catholic

    • Faced scientific theory

  • Immigration constriction league was formed in 1894

  • Discriminated the Chinese

    • Came since the 1850s

    • 105,000 Chinese before 1882

      • San Fran refused to educate Chinese

    • Asian immigration face discrimination from vigilantes

    • 13 million immigrants came to America

  • Mary antin stated that immigrants came to the US for opportunity

    • Industrialization meant that there were jobs in America

Crash Course 29

  • Strong Nat. gov. was seen as an alt to people’s lives being controlled by provincial city and state gov.

    • Roosevelt was the model of the 20th century

    • Roosevelt felt it was the fed gov’s responsibility to break up large gov.

    • Leg. And executive managed to work together and congress passed the Hepburn act of 1906

      • Gave the interstate commerce commission the power to regulate railroad rates

  • Roos. Was the conservationists

    • Preserve the environment from economic exploitation

  • Taft was a hard core trust buster

    • Ordered prosecution that broke up standard oil in 1911

    • Supported the 16th amendment

      • Income tax

      • Led to 18th amendment

  • Teddy Roosevelt founded the bull moose party so that he could run again

    • 1912 there were four candidates

      • Roosevelt, Taft, Debs and Wilson

  • Debs did not support abolishing capitalism

    • Public ownership of railroads

  • Wilson’s program: new freedom was supposed to reinvigorate democracy by restoring market competition

  • Roosevelt created new nationalism

    • Included heavy taxes on personal and corporate fortune

    • Greater federal regulation of industry

  • Bull moose believed in women’s suffrage, federal regulation, labor and health legislation, 8 hr. days and living wage, social insurance,

    • Roosevelt thought his platform was one of the most important document in the history of mankind

    • He lost

    • Taft and Roosevelt split the votes

  • Wilson won the presidency

    • new freedom won out

    • congress passed gradual income tax on the richest 5% of Americans

    • others included the clayton act

      • exempted union from antitrust laws and made it easier for them to strike

    • Keating Owen act

      • outlawed child labor in manufacturing

    • Adamson act

      • mandated an 8 hr. workday for railroad workers

    • Wilson’s new freedom ended up similar to new nationalism




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