Unit 1 Test Bank Thru January 2007 Geography

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Unit 1 Test Bank Thru January 2007


1) In the United States, regional differences in economic development are primarily due to

(1) settlement patterns of immigrant groups

(2) pressure from various religious groups

(3) state and federal election laws

(4) geographic factors in various parts of the nation

2) The best source of information for identifying the location of the major mountain ranges in the

United States is

(1) an encyclopedia (3) an atlas

(2) an almanac (4) a dictionary

3) Which type of map shows the most detailed information about Earth’s natural features, such

as rivers, lakes, and mountain ranges?

(1) political (3) weather

(2) demographic (4) physical

4) Which region of the United States is correctly paired with an industry that is dominant in that


(1) Southwest — timber

(2) Pacific Northwest — citrus crops

(3) Great Plains — grain crops

(4) Atlantic Coastal Plain — iron mining

5) Which geographic feature is primarily responsible for the lowest population density in

the area shown on the map?

(1) Columbia River (3) Rocky Mountains

(2) Pacific Ocean (4) Mississippi River Valley
6) Because of fertile land and a long growing season, plantations in the thirteen colonies developed in

(1) New England

(2) the Middle Atlantic region

(3) the South

(4) the upper Mississippi River valley
7) Which geographic factor had the greatest influence on early patterns of industrialization in the United States?

(1) scarcity of flat land on which to build factories

(2) shortages of timber and coal

(3) desire of workers to live in mild climates

(4) availability of waterpower to operate machines

8) A conclusion supported by the information on the map is that slavery in the American colonies was

(1) declining by the start of the Revolutionary War

(2) concentrated in areas suitable for large plantations

(3) becoming illegal in the northern colonies

(4) growing fastest in the New England colonies
9) According to the 1990 census, which two areas of the United States include the most densely populated parts of the nation?

(1) the Great Plains and Texas

(2) the Northeast and southern California

(3) the South and the Rocky Mountain states

(4) the Appalachian states and the Midwest

Base your answers to questions 10 and 11 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies. Each letter on the map represents a specific geographic feature.

10) Which geographic feature most limited the westward movement of American colonists before 1750?

(1) H (3) C

(2) I (4) F

11) At the end of the Revolutionary War, which geographic feature became the western boundary of the United States?

(1) A (3) E

(2) B (4) G
12) Which geographic factor most helped the United States maintain its foreign policy of neutrality during much of the 1800s?

(1) climate of the Great Plains

(2) oceans on its east and west coasts

(3) large network of navigable rivers

(4) mountain ranges near the Atlantic and Pacific coasts

13. The states with the largest percentage of land used for agriculture are located in areas


(1) relatively flat terrain (3) easy access to the West Coast

(2) the warmest year-round climate (4) ocean ports


1) 4 2) 3 3) 4 4) 3 5) 3 6) 3 7) 4 8) 2 9) 2 10) 1 11) 3 12) 2 13)1

Fundamental Terminology:

1) Which feature must a nation have to be considered a democracy?

(1) a strong president

(2) citizen participation in government

(3) elected judges to conduct trials

(4) a set of laws

2) A republican form of government is described as one in which

(1) there is a two-party system

(2) representatives are elected by the people

(3) elected officials have limited terms

(4) government power is limited by checks and balances
3) Which concept from the European Enlightenment was included in the United States


(1) absolutism

(2) despotism

(3) limited monarchy

(4) consent of the governed

4) Which statement describes a characteristic of democracy that is provided for in the United

States Constitution?

(1) Political power in Congress is held by the ranking political party.

(2) All bills passed by Congress are reviewed by the Supreme Court.

(3) Citizens choose their Congressional representatives.

(4) The president can require Congress to submit legislation for the cabinet’s approval.

5) Which group had the most influence on the ideas stated in the Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution?

(1) political leaders of Spain and Portugal

(2) religious leaders of the medieval period

(3) writers of the Renaissance

(4) philosophers of the Enlightenment
6) Which information on the writing of the Constitution is considered a primary source?

(1) a newspaper editorial written in 1887

(2) an encyclopedia article on the Constitution

(3) the book, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, by Charles Beard

(4) notes from the Constitutional Convention taken by James Madison
7) Which concept found in the United States Constitution was a belief held by the social contract

philosophers of the Enlightenment period?

(1) presidential cabinet

(2) judicial review

(3) limited monarchy

(4) sovereignty of the people

8) French Enlightenment philosopher Baron De Montesquieu praised the British political system

because it divided the power of government between the monarch and the two houses of


Which principle included in the United States Constitution shows that the framers agreed with Montesquieu?

(1) separation of powers

(2) federal supremacy

(3) implied powers

(4) due process


1) 2 2) 2 3) 4 4) 3 5) 4 6) 4 7) 4

8) 1
Early Colonial Questions:

1) The following early colonial settlements were similar in that each was located

• Jamestown, founded in 1607

• Plymouth colony, founded in 1620

• New Amsterdam, founded in 1625

(1) at the base of a mountain range

(2) near the coastline

(3) in an arid climate

(4) on offshore islands
2) The Mayflower Compact, House of Burgesses, and Fundamental Orders of Connecticut are all examples of the efforts of colonial Americans to

(1) use democratic practices in government

(2) protest British land policies

(3) establish religious freedom

(4) overthrow British royal governors
3) The Mayflower Compact and the House of Burgesses were important to the development of

democracy in colonial America because they

(1) expanded freedom of religion

(2) promoted self-government

(3) protected private ownership of property

(4) granted voting rights to all white males

4) The Mayflower Compact is important to the concept of a democratic society because it represents

(1) an effort by the colonists to use force to resist the King

(2) a clear step toward self-government

(3) an early attempt to establish universal suffrage

(4) an attempt by the colonists to establish freedom of religion
5) The Mayflower Compact of 1620 is considered an important step in the development of democracy in America because it

(1) expressed the importance of self-government

(2) established freedom of religion

(3) created the first colonial judiciary

(4) granted all males the right to vote
6) The Mayflower Compact and the Virginia House of Burgesses are examples of

(1) equal opportunities for women during the colonial period

(2) steps toward representative government

(3) economic agreements between the colonists and Native American Indians

(4) limitations placed on colonial Americans by the British government

7) Many colonies objected to the Albany Plan of Union (1754) mainly because

(1) the colonies had just been given representation in Parliament

(2) the plan gave too much power to Native American Indians

(3) threats to colonial safety had ended

(4) colonial assemblies did not want to give up their individual power

8) The Virginia House of Burgesses was important to the development of democracy in the thirteen colonies because it

(1) provided an example of a representative form of government

(2) created the first written constitution in America

(3) provided for direct election of senators

(4) began the practice of legislative override of executive vetoes
9) During the early to mid-1700s, the British policy of salutary neglect toward the American colonies contributed to

(1) a decline in colonial manufacturing

(2) the decline of slavery in the northern colonies

(3) a decrease in French and Spanish influence in North America

(4) the development of independent colonial trade practices
10) In its economic relationship with its North American colonies, Great Britain followed the

principles of 18th-century mercantilism by

(1) outlawing the African slave trade

(2) limiting the colonies’ trade with other nations

(3) encouraging the development of manufacturing in the colonies

(4) establishing laws against business monopolies

11) During the colonial period, the British Parliament used the policy of mercantilism to

(1) limit manufacturing in America

(2) prevent criticism of royal policies

(3) deny representation to the colonists

(4) force colonists to worship in the Anglican Church

12) What would be the best title for this map?

(1) British Domination of the Americas

(2) Colonial Trade Routes

(3) Spanish Colonies in the New World

(4) The United States in 1750

13) Which heading best completes the partial outline below?

I. ____________________________________

A. Committees of Correspondence

B. Nonimportation Agreements

C. Boston Tea Party

D. First Continental Congress

(1) Protests Against Slavery in the American Colonies

(2) British Parliamentary Actions to Punish Colonial Americans

(3) Colonial Responses to British Mercantile Policies

(4) Colonial Attempts to End the British Policy of Salutary Neglect

14) The British system of mercantilism was opposed by many American colonists because it

(1) placed quotas on immigration

(2) discouraged the export of raw materials to England

(3) placed restrictions on trading

(4) encouraged colonial manufacturing

Base your answer to question 15 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies.

15) Which title is most accurate for this time line?

(1) Forms of Colonial Protest

(2) Effects of British Navigation Laws

(3) Causes of the American Revolution

(4) Abuse of Power by Colonial Legislatures
16) The Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 are considered achievements under the Articles of Confederation because they

(1) established processes for settling and governing the western territories

(2) settled boundary disputes with Great Britain and Spain

(3) provided the basic methods of collecting taxes and coining money

(4) created a system of state and federal court
17) Before 1763, the British policy of salutary neglect toward its American colonies was based on the desire of Great Britain to

(1) treat all English people, including colonists, on an equal basis

(2) benefit from the economic prosperity of the American colonies

(3) encourage manufacturing in the American colonies

(4) ensure that all mercantile regulations were strictly followed
18) According to the theory of mercantilism, the principal purpose of the thirteen original colonies was to provide Great Britain with

(1) naval bases

(2) raw materials and markets

(3) workers and manufactured goods

(4) military recruits


1) 2 2) 1 3) 2 4) 2 5) 1 6) 2 7) 4 8) 1 9) 4 10) 2 11) 1 12) 2

13) 3 14) 3 15) 3 16) 1 17) 4 18)2

American Revolution:

1) Which statement is most accurate about the movement for independence in the thirteen colonies?

(1) The independence movement began soon after the founding of the Plymouth Colony.

(2) Protests against British colonial policies gradually led to demands for independence.

(3) The King of England required the colonists to become economically self-sufficient.

(4) The movement for independence was equally strong in all of the colonies.

2) Thomas Paine’s publication Common Sense was most influential in persuading American colonists to support

(1) additional British taxes on the colonies

(2) colonial independence

(3) the Whiskey Rebellion

(4) continued ties with Great Britain
Base your answer to question 3 on the quotation below and on your knowledge of social studies.

“. . . I challenge the warmest advocate [supporter] for reconciliation, to shew [show], a single

advantage that this continent can reap [gain], by being connected with Great Britain. I repeat the

challenge, not a single advantage is derived [acquired]. Our corn will fetch its price in any

market in Europe, and our imported goods must be paid for, buy them where we will. . . .”

Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776

3) This speaker is most likely opposed to

(1) mercantilism

(2) capitalism

(3) direct democracy

(4) representative government
4) The pamphlet Common Sense, by Thomas Paine, aided the American cause in the Revolutionary War because it

(1) convinced France to join in the fight against England

(2) led to the repeal of the Stamp Act

(3) created a new system of government for the United States

(4) persuaded individuals who were undecided to support independence
5) During the Revolutionary War period, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense was important because it

(1) described a military plan for the defeat of England

(2) convinced many Americans who had been undecided to support independence

(3) contained a detailed outline for a new form of government

(4) argued for the addition of a bill of rights to the Constitution

6) Which conclusion about the American Revolutionary War is most clearly supported by

information in this chart?

(1) England had few advantages in a war with her American colonies.

(2) The thirteen colonies had more advantages than disadvantages upon entering the


(3) England did not believe that the thirteen colonies were worth the expense of a war.

(4) The thirteen colonies had few, but important advantages in the war with England.
7) Which important reason for the American victory in the Revolutionary War is missing

from the chart?

(1) naval superiority of the thirteen colonies

(2) aid from foreign nations

(3) control of railroads and canals

(4) greater number of Indian allies

8) The colonists’ slogan, “No taxation without representation,” expresses a belief in

(1) free trade

(2) economic interdependence

(3) the supremacy of Parliament

(4) the consent of the governed

. . . I challenge the warmest advocate for

reconciliation, to shew [show], a single advantage

that this continent can reap, by being connected

with Great Britain. I repeat the challenge, not a

single advantage is derived. Our corn will fetch

its price in any market in Europe, and our

imported goods must be paid for, buy them

where we will. . . .

— Thomas Paine, 1776

9) In this statement, Thomas Paine suggested that the American colonies should

(1) negotiate an end to the conflict with England

(2) form an alliance with England

(3) declare independence from England

(4) boycott goods from England

10) In the pamphlet Common Sense, Thomas Paine urged the American colonists to

(1) oppose the French colonization of North America

(2) compromise with the British

(3) reaffirm their loyalty to King George III

(4) declare their independence from Great Britain


1) 2 2) 2 3) 1 4) 4 5) 2 6) 4 7) 2 8)4 9)3 10)4

American Revolution – The Declaration of Independence:

1) The Declaration of Independence was based on the ideas of the

(1) Enlightenment (3) Renaissance

(2) Romantic Era (4) Age of Exploration

2) One of the principles stated in the Declaration of Independence is that government should

(1) guarantee economic equality among citizens

(2) have unlimited power to rule the people

(3) be based upon the consent of the governed

(4) be led by educated citizens

3) Which document included John Locke’s idea that people have the right to overthrow an oppressive government?

(1) Mayflower Compact

(2) Northwest Ordinance

(3) Declaration of Independence

(4) Bill of Rights

4) John Locke’s theory of natural rights, as reflected in the Declaration of Independence, states that

(1) government is the source of all individual rights

(2) power should be concentrated in the monarchy

(3) power to govern belongs to the people

(4) individual liberties are best protected by a strong government
5) In the Declaration of Independence, the argument for freedom from British rule is based

primarily on the

(1) theory of divine right expressed by James I

(2) economic principles set forth by Adam Smith

(3) social contract theory of government developed by John Locke

(4) belief in a strong central government expressed by Alexander Hamilton

6) According to the Declaration of Independence, governments are established to

(1) protect the nation from invasion

(2) provide a system of checks and balances

(3) protect the natural rights of citizens

(4) guarantee voting rights for all citizens
7) In writing the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson was influenced most by John

Locke’s idea of

(1) due process of law

(2) natural rights

(3) the rights of the accused

(4) the right to privacy

8) The principles of government that Thomas Jefferson included in the Declaration of

Independence were most influenced by

(1) John Locke’s social contract theory

(2) Adam Smith’s ideas of free enterprise

(3) Louis XIV’s belief in divine right

(4) William Penn’s views on religious toleration
9) According to the Declaration of Independence, the fundamental purpose of government is to

(1) protect people’s natural rights

(2) equalize opportunities for all citizens

(3) provide for the defense of the nation

(4) establish a system of free public education
10) A major argument for American independence found in the Declaration of Independence was

that the British

(1) stopped participating in the slave trade

(2) refused to sell products to Americans

(3) deprived Americans of their natural rights

(4) censored American representatives in Parliament

11) The primary purpose of the Declaration of Independence was to

(1) establish a basic set of laws for the United States

(2) strengthen colonial ties with England

(3) state the reasons for the American Revolution

(4) demand freedom of speech and of the press
12) The Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights are similar in that both

(1) support a federal system of government

(2) maintain the importance of a strong chief executive

(3) provide for a system of checks and balances

(4) support limitations on governmental power
13) One similarity between the Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights is that both


(1) provide for a government with three separate branches

(2) discuss colonial grievances against the monarchy

(3) stress the importance of individual liberty

(4) criticize the practice of slavery


1) 1 2) 3 3) 3 4) 3 5) 3 6) 3 7) 2 8) 1 9) 1 10) 3 11) 3 12) 4 13) 3

Articles of Confederation:

1) Which statement describes a characteristic of the government established by the Articles of


(1) A Supreme Court had the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.

(2) The national government controlled interstate commerce.

(3) The president maintained exclusive control over foreign policy.

(4) A system was created where the states held the most power.
2) The Articles of Confederation and the theory of nullification were both attempts to

(1) strengthen the national government

(2) form new political parties

(3) protect states’ rights

(4) strengthen the presidency
3) Which statement best describes governmental power under the Articles of Confederation?

(1) Power was shared equally by the central government and the states.

(2) A balance of power existed between the three branches of the central government.

(3) A strong chief executive headed a unified central government.

(4) The states had much greater power than the central government.
4) The government created by the Articles of Confederation was unsuccessful at solving many

major problems because

(1) unlimited power was given to the Supreme Court

(2) most power remained with the state governments

(3) members of Congress were elected according to each state’s population

(4) political parties prevented the passage of legislation

5) A major weakness of government under the Articles of Confederation was that

(1) the large states received more votes in Congress than the small states did

(2) the national government could not enforce its laws

(3) too much power was given to the president

(4) state governments could not coin money
6) The lack of a national executive and judiciary under the Articles of Confederation suggests that the founders of the American republic

(1) risked tyranny for the sake of effective national government

(2) copied the British constitution

(3) prized national unity above the sovereignty of the states

(4) feared a strong central government
7) The main criticism of the Articles of Confederation was that they failed to

(1) allow for the admission of new states

(2) limit the powers of the president

(3) provide adequate powers for the central government

(4) prevent the development of military rule
8) What was an important accomplishment of the central government under the Articles of


(1) elimination of debts from the Revolutionary War

(2) removal of all British troops from North America

(3) formation of a national policy relating to Native American Indians

(4) development of guidelines for the admission of new states into the Union

9) The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set a precedent for other western territories by

(1) allowing slavery

(2) including voting rights for women

(3) providing a method for the creation of new states

(4) setting aside land for churches

10) The system shown in the diagram was developed under the Articles of Confederation

in order to

(1) divide lands seized from the Loyalists

(2) provide an orderly system of development for the Northwest Territory

(3) remove Native American Indians to areas west of the Appalachian Mountains

(4) extend slavery as the nation grew

11) The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was important because it

(1) ensured universal suffrage for all males

(2) extended slavery north of the Ohio River

(3) provided a process for admission of new states to the Union

(4) established reservations for Native American Indians
12) A major criticism of the Articles of Confederation was that too much power had been given to the

(1) British monarchy

(2) House of Burgesses

(3) state governments

(4) national government


1) 4 2) 3 3) 4 4) 2 5) 2 6) 4 7) 3 8) 4 9) 3 10) 2 11) 3 12) 3

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