Unit 1 Review What was the Columbian Exchange?



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Unit 1 Review


  1. What was the Columbian Exchange?

  2. Identity the routes of any TWO of these following European explorers: da Gama, Columbus, Magellan, or Champlain

  3. Name two locations in America where the Spanish created colonies:

  4. Give one characteristic of each for the Spanish colonies in America: (a) Government, (b) Economy, (c) Interactions with Native Americans

  5. Why did the Spanish colonies have a large population of “mestizos”?

  6. Name two locations in America where the French created colonies:

  7. Give one characteristic of each for the French colonies in America: (a) Government, (b) Economy, (c) Interactions with Native Americans

  8. Where did the Dutch create colonies in North America?

  9. Name one way the colonial governments of the British colonies were different from the colonial governments of the French colonies:

  10. What is “Salutary Neglect”?

  11. Why were the royal governors in the British colonies weaker than those in the Spanish and French colonies?

  12. Two part question: (a) Why was Jamestown, Virginia founded? (b) What was the typical Jamestown colonist like?

  13. Jamestown, Virginia was settled by the Virginia Company which was a collection of investors looking to make a profit in the New World. What kind of company was this?



  1. Jamestown struggled to survive in its early years. Who was the Jamestown colonist who forced everyone to work together (“He who shall not work, shall not eat.”)?

  2. Two part question: (a) What “saved” Jamestown by allowing the colonists to make huge sums of money? (b) Who is credited with introducing this to Jamestown?

  3. Who were the Powhatans?

  4. The Virginia colony relied heavily on plantation agriculture. What were the two groups that were most commonly used to work these plantations?

  5. What was the name of the Virginia law that gave 50 acres of land to anyone who could travel to Virginia? (This law allowed wealthy landowners to gain extra land for each indentured servant they brought to the colony).

  6. The Virginia colony created the first colonial assembly in American history. What was it called?

  7. What caused Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia?

  8. Name three colonies in New England.

  9. What is one thing Pilgrims and Puritans have in common?

  10. What is the difference between a Puritan and a Pilgrim (Separatists)?

  11. Two part question: (a) Where did the Pilgrims settle in America? (b) Where did the Puritans settle?

  12. Pilgrims are important because they created the first example of self-government in American history. What was the name of this agreement?

  13. The New England colonial region gave America the first example of a written constitution. What was the name of the first colonial constitution (Hint: it was in Connecticut).

  14. Two part question: (a) Why was Massachusetts founded? (b) What was the typical colonist like?

  15. John Winthrop is a famous Puritan from Massachusetts for three major reasons. Name one reason Winthrop is famous.

  16. Name 2 differences between the Massachusetts and Virginia colonies.

  17. What type of governments existed in New England?

  18. What do Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson have in common?

  19. What made Rhode Island different from other New England colonies?

  20. What was the name of the Indian attack, led by Metacomet, on New England that led to the deaths of over 1,000 people?

  21. By the 1660s, church membership declined in New England towns. In an attempt to get people back into the church, the Massachusetts assembly offered the ability to vote and church membership to colonists even if they did not have a “conversion experience.” What was this law called?

  22. In which New England town, did the witchcraft hysteria occur?

  23. Name two “middle” colonies in British North America.

  24. The term “diverse” best describes the religious, economic, and ethnic make-up of which colonial region: Southern, Middle, or New England colonies?

  25. Two part question: (a) Which European nation controlled “New York” before it was taken by the British? (b) What was the name of this colony before it became New York?

  26. Two part question: (a) Which British colony was known for the “holy experiment”? and (b) Who founded this religiously tolerant middle colony?

  27. Why was the Georgia colony founded?

  28. Two part question: (a) What is Salutary Neglect and (b) What effect did this policy have on the British colonies?

  29. Two part question: What were the roles of (a) the British king and (b) the royal governors in the British colonies?

  30. In the Virginia colony, colonists were ruled by the House of Burgesses, but what type of colonial assemblies were in charge in the New England colonies, like Massachusetts and Connecticut?

  31. What was the Middle Passage?

  32. What is mercantilism?

  33. What impact did the Navigations Acts have on the British colonists?

  34. Name two differences between the “Southern” and “Northern” colonies?

  35. Which region of colonial America did German, Scots-Irish, and freed indentured servants typically move into?

  36. Two part question: (a) What was the name of the massive slave rebellion in South Carolina during the colonial era? and (b) What was the most important way slaves maintained their African culture in the American?

  37. Two part question: (a) What was the name of the religious revivalism in America in the 1730s that challenged people to re-examine that eternal destiny? and (b) Name one effect of this religious movement.

Unit 1 Review—THE ANSWERS


  1. The flow of crops, livestock, technology, and diseases between Europe an d the American Indians after the European discovery of America.

  2. Any two will do: (1) da Gama sailed from Europe around Africa to India; (2) Columbus sailed west from Europe and “discovered” America; (3) Magellan was the first to “circumnavigate” the globe; (4) Champlain failed to find a northwest passage through Canada but founded Quebec for France

  3. Any two will do: the Caribbean, St. Augustine/Florida, Central America/Mexico, South America, the Southwest (Texas to California)

  4. Spanish Colonies (One example for each of the following is necessary)

    1. Government—strictly controlled by the king, ruled by a royal governor (viceroy), The Spanish were not allowed to create their own self-gov’t.

    2. Economy—Mined gold and silver, created encomiendas (cash-crop plantations), desired wealth

    3. Interactions with Indians—tried to convert Indians to Catholicism, were willing to inter-marry with Indian women, conquered Indians to gain gold or silver, forced Indians to work as slaves on their encomiendas

  5. Mestizos are mixed-race people of Spanish and Native American parents. This was caused because the Spanish were willing to inter-marry with Indians

  6. Any two will do: Quebec, “Canada,” along the Mississippi River, New Orleans

  7. French Colonies (One example for each of the following is necessary)

    1. Government—strictly controlled by the king, ruled by a royal governor, French colonists were not allowed to create their own self-government.

    2. Economy—Fur trade and small-scale farming

    3. Interactions with Indians—tried to convert Indians to Catholicism, were allied with the Indians in order to gain control of the fur trade (the French had the best relationship with Indians of any European country)

  8. In New Netherland (its biggest city was New Amsterdam so this answer is OK); “New York” is OK because this Dutch colony will be renamed by the British

  9. The British colonists were able to create self-government in the form of colonial assemblies; French colonies were strictly controlled by the king of France and his royal governors.

  10. Means “beneficial ignoring”; this meant that the British king allowed the colonists to create their own colonial assemblies and did not strictly control them

  11. The British colonists (in their colonial assemblies) controlled the governors’ salaries which made the governors weak. In the Spanish colonies, the governors were loyal to the king, not the colonists.

  12. (a) The colony was settled to make a profit; a desire for wealth (at first, colonists were looking for gold, but they eventually discovered tobacco); (b) Single, young men settled Jamestown; Few women; Men looking for wealth; Lots of indentured servants

  13. Joint-stock company

  14. Captain John Smith

  15. (a) Tobacco, (b) John Rolfe (who learned about tobacco from local Indians, including his wife Pocahontas)

  16. The Indian tribe that attacked Jamestown because the colony was expanding quickly into their territory.

  17. White indentured servants from England and African slaves

  18. The Headright System

  19. The House of Burgesses.

  20. Poor western Virginia farmers (former indentured servants) were angry that the governor would not protect them from Indian attacks.

  21. Any three will do: Plymouth, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, New Haven

  22. Both settled in New England (Pilgrims in Plymouth and Puritans in Massachusetts), both came to America for religious freedom, both were devoutly religious, both wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church of all Catholic rituals, both believed in pre-destination and religious “elect” leaders.

  23. Pilgrims are Puritans, but they are “radical” Puritans who were not willing to try to fix the Church of England (Anglican Church) of all Catholic rituals. Both went to New England for religious reasons, but Pilgrims settled in Plymouth while Puritans came to Massachusetts

  24. (a) Pilgrims settled in Plymouth; (b) Puritans came to Massachusetts

  25. Mayflower Compact

  26. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  27. (a) As a colony for Puritans looking for religious freedom from England (b) Typical colonists were religiously devout (Puritan) came as families, were not looking for wealth

  28. Any one will do: Winthrop was the earliest leader of the Puritans when they settled in Boston, the idea of a “city on a hill” was his, and he led 16,000 Puritans to America during the Great Migration from 1730-1740.

  29. Any two will do: (a) Massachusetts (MA) was settled by religious Puritans with their families; Virginia (VA) was settled by young, single men looking to make money; (b) MA was relatively healthy, marriage was possible, and colonists lived a long time, but VA was deadly place to live and there were few women; (c) In MA, people worked together, created churches, schools, town meetings, and towns, but in VA, people did not work together, plantations were used, the rich took advantage of the poor; (d) in MA slavery and indentured servants were used, but not nearly as much as in VA.

  30. New England used town meetings

  31. Both were banished (kicked out) from Massachusetts for challenging religious leaders and being “dissenters.” Both ended up in Rhode Island (which Roger Williams founded).

  32. This colony was founded by people (Roger Williams) who were banished from other colonies so there was a lot of religious toleration and diversity there.

  33. King Philip’s War

  34. Half-Way Covenant

  35. Salem, Massachusetts

  36. Any two will do: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey

  37. Middle colonies

  38. (a) the Netherlands (also known as the Dutch or Holland) and (b) New Netherland (or New Amsterdam which is the port city in New Netherland)

  39. (a) Pennsylvania, (b) William Penn

  40. To serve as a buffer colony between the rich plantations in Carolina/Virginia and the Spanish colony in Florida; Also, as a place to send debtors and people released from jail.

  41. (a) Britain’s policy of “beneficial ignoring” meant that the king and Parliament did not strictly control the governments of their British colonies. (b) this policy allowed the British colonies to create their own colonial assemblies and have self-government. This is unique; The Spanish and French did not do this.

  42. (a) Because of salutary neglect, the king did not use his power to control the colonies; (b) royal governors were almost always very weak because their salaries were paid by the colonial assemblies.

  43. Town meetings (local governments that had authority over the towns and were typically held in the churches)

  44. The part of the trans-Atlantic trade that brought African slaves to America

  45. The economic idea that the colonies should the mother country profit by providing cheap raw materials and buying manufactured goods; That countries should have more exports than imports; That the more money a country makes, the more power it has

  46. These laws restricted the trade of the colonies by requiring all colonial trade to go through Britain; But these laws helped make the colonists money because it gave them a monopoly on British trade

  47. Any two will do: (a) “Southern” colonies had more plantations, cash-crops, slavery, and indentured servants than the Northern colonies; (b) Northern colonies had a more diversified economy of small-scale farms, industry, and trade; Northern colonies had more cities; (c) social mobility was easier in Northern colonies, as Ben Franklin reveals.

  48. The “backcountry” near the Appalachian Mountains where land was cheap, but difficult to farm and people lived in constant fear of Indian attacks

  49. (a) Stono Rebellion; (b) By blending African religious rituals with Christianity; Blending African dialects into English language; or through music and dance

  50. (a) Great Awakening and (b) new universities were formed for new preachers; the first “national” event; growth of “New Light” faiths (Methodists & Baptists)


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