15.A.2a - Explain how economic systems decide what goods and services are produced, how they are produced and who consumes them.
15.B - Understand that scarcity necessitates choices by consumers.
15.C - Understand that scarcity necessitates choices by producers.
15.D - Understand trade as an exchange of goods or services.
15.E - Understand the impact of government policies and decisions on production and consumption in the economy.
17.A.1a - Identify physical characteristics of places, both local and global (e.g., locations, roads, regions, bodies of water).
17.A.2a - Compare the physical characteristics of places including soils, land forms, vegetation, wildlife, climate, natural hazards.
17.A.3a - Explain how people use geographic markers and boundaries to analyze and navigate the Earth (e.g., hemispheres, meridians, continents, bodies of water).
17.B.2a - Describe how physical and human processes shape spatial patterns including erosion, agriculture and settlement.
17.B.2b - Explain how physical and living components interact in a variety of ecosystems including desert, prairie, flood plain, forest, tundra.
17.B.3a - Explain how physical processes including climate, plate tectonics, erosion, soil formation, water cycle, and circulation patterns in the ocean shape patterns in the environment and influence availability and quality of natural resources.
17.B.4b - Analyze trends in world demographics as they relate to physical systems.
17.C.1a - Identify ways people depend on and interact with the physical environment (e.g., farming, fishing, hydroelectric power).
17.C.1b - Identify opportunities and constraints of the physical environment.
17.C.2a - Describe how natural events in the physical environment affect human activities.
17.C.2b - Describe the relationships among location of resources, population distribution and economic activities (e.g., transportation, trade, communications).
17.C.3a - Explain how human activity is affected by geographic factors.
17.C.3c - Analyze how human processes influence settlement patterns including migration and population growth.
17.C.4c - Explain how places with various population distributions function as centers of economic activity (e.g., rural, suburban, urban).
17.C.5a - Compare resource management methods and policies in different regions of the world.
17.C.5c - Describe geographic factors that affect cooperation and conflict among societies.
17.D - Understand the historical significance of geography.
18.A - Compare characteristics of culture as reflected in language, literature, the arts, traditions and institutions.
18.B.1a - Compare the roles of individuals in group situations (e.g., student, committee member, employee/employer).
18.B.1b - Identify major social institutions in the community.
18.B.2b - Describe the ways in which institutions meet the needs of society.
18.A.3b - Explain how social institutions contribute to the development and transmission of culture.
18.C.1 - Describe how individuals interacted within groups to make choices regarding food, clothing and shelter.
18.C.2 - Describe how changes in production (e.g., hunting and gathering, agricultural, industrial) and population caused changes in social systems.
18.C.4a - Analyze major cultural exchanges of the past (e.g., Colombian exchange, the Silk Road, the Crusades).