Unit 1 Multiple Choice



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unit 1
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Scientists often use visual or mathematical representations to investigate items that are very large, very small, or otherwise difficult to study. What are these visual or mathematical representations called?

a.

experiments

b.

hypotheses

c.

models

d.

observations

2. Identifying the independent and dependent variables in an experiment will help you better interpret and convey results. What is the difference between the independent and dependent variables in an experiment?



a.

The independent variable is always a number, and the dependent variable is never a number.

b.

The independent variable is what you control, and the dependent variable is what changes as a result.

c.

The dependent variable is what the investigator controls, and the independent variable is what happens as a result of this.

d.

The dependent variable is typically found in the first column of a table, and the independent variable is typically found in the second column.

3. Sunrise and sunset data for Cocoa Beach, Florida, are shown in the table below.




Date

Sunrise (a.m.)

Sunset (p.m.)

January 5

7:15

5:40

March 5

6:43

6:25

May 5

6:39

?

July 5

6:31

8:23

Scientists often use data to recognize patterns and make predictions. Which time would you expect to appear where the question mark is in the table?




a.

5:15 p.m.

b.

6:00 p.m.

c.

8:00 p.m.

d.

9:00 p.m.

4. Which conclusion can you accurately reach from this information?




a.

From January to July, it gets colder in Cocoa Beach each day.

b.

From January to July, there are more hours of daylight each day.

c.

From January to July, the sun rises later in the morning each day.

d.

From January to July, the sun sets earlier in the evening each day.

5. The students in Mrs. Dhaibar’s science class take a test. The results of the test are shown in the table below.




Grade

Percentage of students who earned this grade

A

25%

B

25%

C

35%

D

10%

F

5%

Mrs. Dhaibar creates a pie chart to display this data.



Which grade does the shaded region correspond to?




a.

A

b.

B

c.

C

d.

D

6. Children in the United States are often vaccinated against certain diseases, such as polio and the measles. During this process, dead cells of a virus are injected into a patient so that their body will build an army of antibodies to fight the living cells of the disease if it ever arrives. How has the development of vaccines affected the health of people in the United States?




a.

Vaccines have prevented millions of people from contracting certain diseases.

b.

Vaccines have led to outbreaks of certain diseases in different parts of the country.

c.

Vaccines have allowed people to get more effective treatment to quickly cure disease.

d.

Vaccines have caused people who contract certain diseases to experience fewer symptoms.

7. In 1895, German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered x-rays. The drawing below shows an example of a chest x-ray of an adult human.



What was the impact of Roentgen’s discovery on medicine?




a.

It helped doctors develop new ways to treat infections of the bone.

b.

It led to new ways to treat viral illnesses such as influenza and smallpox.

c.

It encouraged more people to visit doctors after they became ill.

d.

It enabled doctors to make more accurate diagnoses than they could before.

8. The United States government passes many laws every year. Which government agency would most likely be responsible for laws regarding industrial air pollution?




a.

Department of Labor

b.

Agricultural Research Service

c.

Department of Homeland Security

d.

Environmental Protection Agency

9. The Cuyahoga River in Ohio has caught fire eleven times. The last time was in 1969, when sparks from a train are believed to have ignited (lit fire to) an oil slick on the river. The condition of the Cuyahoga River most likely helped persuade Congress to pass which act?




a.

the Wilderness Act

b.

the Clean Water Act

c.

the Flood Control and Coastal Emergency Act

d.

the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act

10. Scientific research can affect laws and lawmaking at all levels of government. Which level of decision-making affects the most people?



a.

state level

b.

international level

c.

community level

d.

national level

11. Scientific investigations involve many steps and processes. Which characteristics define a laboratory experiment?




a.

hypothesis, models, and calculations

b.

test variables, data, and uncontrolled conditions

c.

data, conclusions, and unregulated environment

d.

independent and dependent variables, data, and controlled conditions

12. Rhianna rolls a steel ball down a ramp. She conducts multiple trials by releasing the ball from varying heights on the ramp. For each trial, she measures and records the release height of the ball and the distance the ball travels away from the ramp before falling to the ground. The figure below shows the experiment.



In this experiment, which variable is the independent variable?


a.

distance from the ramp traveled by the ball

b.

path of ball once it leaves the ramp

c.

height from which the ball is released

d.

time is takes the ball to hit the ground

13. Use diagram on # 12. When planning an experiment, a scientist must first choose a question to investigate. Rhianna conducts the experiment shown below. In the experiment, she changes the release height of the steel ball and measures the distance the ball travels from the ramp before falling to the ground.


Based on this procedure, which question is Rhianna investigating?


a.

How much force does the ball exert when it strikes the floor?

b.

How is the speed of the ball affected by the release height from a ramp?

c.

How does the release height of a ball on a ramp affect the distance it travels from the ramp before falling to the floor?

d.

How does the release height of a ball on a ramp affect the amount of time that passes before the ball hits the floor?

14. Use diagram on # 12. In Rhianna’s experiment, which variable is the dependent variable?





a.

distance from the ramp traveled by the ball

b.

path of ball once it leaves the ramp

c.

height from which the ball is released

d.

time is takes the ball to hit the ground

15. Observation is the process of gathering information through the senses, including sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch. Which observation is an example of sensory data?




a.

The mass of a pebble is 25.0 g.

b.

The volume of a pebble is 5.0 cm3.

c.

A white pebble is speckled with gray spots.

d.

A pebble does not conduct an electric current.

16. Seth tests a hypothesis that the heavier of two materials will insulate cold drinks better than the lighter-weight material. He adds equal volumes of the same cold beverage to two cups. One cup is made of lightweight plastic foam, and the other cup is made of a heavier, ceramic material. He records his results in a chart.




Material

Time for beverage to warm

to room temperature

(hours)

plastic foam

3.25

ceramic

2.50

How are these experimental results valuable to Seth?




a.

The results explain why the materials perform differently.

b.

Seth learns that his hypothesis was not supported.

c.

Seth can use a different heavier material to see if he obtains different results.

d.

The results can be communicated with others through newspapers, magazines, and the Internet to increase the validity of his results.

17. Tylir heads a biomedical company that uses a certain type of bacteria to manufacture a new medicine. Tylir studies how temperature affects the rate at which the bacteria reproduce. He records his results in a graph.



Currently, the company grows the bacteria in a lab maintained at 18 °C. If the company wants to grow the bacteria as quickly as possible, which recommendation should the researcher make?

a.

The current lab temperature is ideal for growing the bacteria.

b.

The lab temperature should be increased to between 20 °C and 30 °C.

c.

The lab temperature should be increased to between 30 °C and 40 °C.

d.

The lab temperature should be increased to between 40 °C and 50 °C.

18. During several trials, a group of scientists test the reaction of a new medicine on a strain of bacteria. Which step is essential for proving the validity/reliability of the results?




a.

Make the process public so the results can be replicated.

b.

Change the procedure to check whether the same results take place.

c.

Have one other scientist check to make sure the medicine was properly produced.

d.

Have each group member use a different medicine and see what happens when they test it on the bacteria.

19. Shelby is researching a recent, controversial scientific issue. Which of these sources is a reliable source for Shelby to use for unbiased scientific information?




a.

an encyclopedia article in a respected, older encyclopedia

b.

a scientific journal with peer-reviewed articles

c.

a personal website or blog

d.

an informative pamphlet mailed to your home by a politician or lobby group

20. Biologists study the migration patterns of the Florida manatee. The biologists try not to disturb the manatees or their environment while studying them. To gather evidence, they sometimes put radio tracking devices on the manatees. The picture shows a manatee wearing such a device.



The belt that holds the device on the manatee is designed to be breakable. Why would biologists design a belt that would break in certain situations?


a.

to discourage other animals from coming near the manatees

b.

to destroy a tracking device the biologists consider to be faulty

c.

to prevent manatees from being trapped if the device snags on something

d.

to avoid collecting information on a manatee that migrates outside its range

21. Geologist Alfred Wegener believed that all the land on Earth once formed a giant continent called Pangaea. Wegener theorized that Pangaea broke apart into smaller continents that moved away from each other. This theory is called continental drift. The map below shows the continents as they exist today.



Which of these facts best supports the theory that today’s continents were once part of a larger landmass that broke up and drifted apart?



a.

The Asian and Australian continents are close together.

b.

Most of the continents are north of the equator.

c.

The continent of Asia is nearly twice the size of the continent of North America.

d.

The Atlantic coastlines of South America and Africa fit together like jigsaw pieces.

22. What is the purpose of repeating trials after reaching a conclusion in an investigation?




a.

to develop a new theory

b.

to repeat experiments and verify results

c.

to conduct experiments with more variables

d.

to revise each step of their research procedure

23. Erosion is a powerful force that shapes Earth’s surface. Deep, V-shaped canyons are formed as rivers and streams carve into the rock and soil. Which of these methods might a scientist have used to develop the idea of erosion by rivers?




a.

try to dissolve rocks using different type of chemicals

b.

observe rocks and rock layers along the banks of rivers

c.

test samples of rock near rivers to see how old they are

d.

watch for changes in rocks that have been sitting in water

24. Which phrase best defines science?




a.

study of living organisms

b.

observational study of Earth

c.

discussion of feelings and thoughts

d.

systematic study of natural events and conditions

25. What limits what scientists can study in their work?




a.

They can study only phenomena that they can observe or model.

b.

They can study only the events that take place on Earth.

c.

They can investigate only questions that they were the first to ask.

d.

They can investigate only the areas of science in which they are experts.

26. Which of the following best supports a scientific explanation?




a.

personal bias and the opinion of the scientist

b.

hypothesis formed after initial observations

c.

imagination and originality of the hypothesis

d.

experimental data obtained by using technology to get objective measurements

27. Scientists are extremely observant when they examine the natural world. What information do scientists collect when they observe the natural world?




a.

data

b.

investigations

c.

experimental designs

d.

explanations of experimental data

28. Which personal trait do scientists mainly depend upon when they design an experiment?




a.

creativity

b.

determination

c.

objectivity

d.

skepticism

29. In the 1950s, a scientist conducted a study on the changes in a population of moths. Dead moths of the same species, but of two different color types were fastened to trees to study which color of moth was most likely to be eaten by birds. On dark trees, the light moths were eaten. On light trees, the dark moths were eaten. Other scientists criticized the investigation because birds’ food choice using live moths should also have been studied. Which personal trait prompts scientists to question the validity of an investigation?



a.

creativity

b.

determination

c.

imagination

d.

skepticism

30. Scientists try to develop an explanation for what they see happening in the natural world. What must be true of any explanation they develop?




a.

It must be supported by empirical evidence.

b.

It can never be changed.

c.

It must be shown to have practical value for humans.

d.

It must be based on information that other scientists have also gathered.

31. Astrology is an example of pseudoscience. Astrologists use horoscopes that are based upon the positions of planets and stars to make predictions about a person’s life. How is science different than pseudoscience?




a.

Pseudoscience does not involve making observations.

b.

Pseudoscience does not examine phenomena in the natural world.

c.

Pseudoscience does not attempt to provide explanations for phenomena.

d.

Pseudoscientific conclusions are not supported by data gathered using scientific methods.

32. The figure below shows a sequence of steps that a scientist might take during a scientific investigation.



Which letter best represents the step where a scientist takes accurate measurements?


a.

A

b.

B

c.

C

d.

D

33. Which statement best describes the nature of scientific explanations?




a.

They are based upon feelings.

b.

They are based upon unguided guesses.

c.

They are based upon evaluation of data.

d.

They are based upon careful planning of experimental design.

34. More than 2,000 years ago, in about 400 BCE, Democritus proposed that all matter is made up of atoms. Scientists have revised the atomic theory many times since Democritus first used the word atom. Why has the atomic theory changed over time?



a.

Theories always change over time.

b.

The feelings of scientists changed over time.

c.

Other scientists interpreted Democritus’ evidence differently.

d.

After new, relevant evidence emerged, scientists reevaluated the theory.

35. What must happen before a scientific explanation is widely accepted?



a.

unbiased peers must verify incorrect logic

b.

peers must be unable to prove the claims true or false

c.

peers must be unable to replicate the scientific methods

d.

knowledgeable peers must evaluate and confirm the conclusion of the explanation

unit 1

Answer Section
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.1.6
2. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.1.6
3. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.3.1
4. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.3.1
5. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.3.1
6. ANS: A STA: SC.8.N.4.1 | SC.8.N.4.2
7. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.4.1 | SC.8.N.4.2
8. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.4.1 | SC.8.N.4.2
9. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.4.1 | SC.8.N.4.2
10. ANS: B
11. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.1.1 | SC.8.N.1.2
12. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.1.1
13. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.1.1
14. ANS: A STA: SC.8.N.1.1
15. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.1.1
16. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.1.4
17. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.1.6
18. ANS: A STA: SC.8.N.1.2
19. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.1.5
20. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.1.5
21. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.1.3 | SC.8.N.1.5
22. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.1.3 | SC.8.N.1.5
23. ANS: B STA: SC.8.N.1.5
24. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.2.2
25. ANS: A STA: SC.8.N.2.2
26. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.2.2
27. ANS: A STA: SC.8.N.1.6
28. ANS: A STA: SC.8.N.1.6
29. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.1.6
30. ANS: A STA: SC.8.N.2.2
31. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.2.1
32. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.1.6
33. ANS: C STA: SC.8.N.2.2
34. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.2.2
35. ANS: D STA: SC.8.N.2.2


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