This unit bundles student expectations that address the reasons for exploration and colonization of North America, the establishment of the 13 British Colonies, and the geography of the colonies. Social, political, economic, and religious aspects of the colonies are investigated, as are geographic factors that influence all aspects of settlement, even the different models of economic systems (agrarian and industrial). The development of our system of representative government also begins here.
Major concepts addressed in Unit 1:
reasons for European exploration and colonization are investigated, as are the people and the social and cultural patterns that emerged
examine the settlement of the British in colonial America--how, when, and why the British settled in America
evaluate the Mayflower Compact, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and Virginia House of Burgesses to see how they impacted the growth of representative government
the study of slavery in America begins in this unit and continues to be addressed throughout the year
8.23EIdentify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society.
Social – Anne Hutchinson led Bible studies against the orders of church leaders
History. The student understands the foundations of representative government in the United States.
8.3CDescribe how religion and virtue contributed to the growth of representative government in the American colonies.
Religious freedom was a main cause for the establishment of the American colonies.
Religious groups (Pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers, etc.) created communities that were self-governed.
Penn Colony (Pennsylvania) was an experiment in the possibility of equality and citizens involved in the government.
8.3AExplain the reasons for the growth of representative government and institutions during the colonial period.
The distance from England created a need for colonists to make their own laws and keep peace and order.
Colonists were accustomed to English historical traditions (Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, etc.) and structures (Parliament).
Most colonies were self-governing, electing members of their community to a general assembly, which made their laws.
8.15A Identify the influence of ideas from historic documents, including the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact on the U.S. system of government.
Magna Carta (1215) – limited the power of the King (Constitution limits the power of the central government)
English Bill of Rights – listed individual rights (model for the Bill of Rights in the Constitution, first 10 Amendments)
Mayflower Compact – written by the Pilgrims in 1620, an agreement that established the idea of self-government and majority rule
8.3BAnalyze the importance of the Mayflower Compact, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, and the Virginia House of Burgesses to the growth of representative government.
The Virginia House of Burgesses (1619) – first representative assembly in the American colonies. Representatives immediately began to enact laws and to safeguard individual rights. Setting precedent in the colonies for individual rights protected by law (British law did not provide for individual rights.)
Mayflower Compact (1620) – an agreement that established the idea of self-government and majority rule. Signed by most of the men on the Mayflower, this compact was an agreement to form a political body and give it the power to enact laws for the good of the colony. It provided a model for later development of representative government. A social contract where all agreed to abide by these rules.
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1638) – first written constitution in the colonies. This document stated that people had the right to elect governors, judges, and a legislature. Was written by the people; the fact that it was written down gave it credence.
8.25BDescribe religious motivation for immigration and influence on social movements, including the impact of the first Great Awakenings.
Protestant Revolution in Europe brought many religious groups to the colonies, especially the New England and middle colonies
First Great Awakening – democratized the Protestant faith by proclaiming salvation for all, not just those predestined; stimulated growth in all denominations, assured the common man that he could have salvation as well as those predestined for it, fostered anti-intellectualism in religion, and began the development of denominational colleges; encourages the ideas of equality and the right to challenge authority. Churches welcomed groups of women, African Americans, and Native Americans and inspired colonists to help others. It contributes to the revolutionary idea of independence from Britain years later.
8.20AExplain the role of significant individuals such as Thomas Hooker, Charles de Montesquieu, John Locke, William Blackstone, and William Penn in the development of self-government in colonial America.
Thomas Hooker – reverend and leader of a group of Boston Puritans that migrated to Hartford, Connecticut; gave a sermon in 1638 that influenced the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (the first written constitution in America and included individual rights); believed in democratic ideas such as elections conducted by the people, people have the power to limit the power of the government, the government operates with the consent of the governed
John Locke – European Enlightenment philosopher; believed that personal liberty could coexist with political order; consent is the basis for government and fixes its limits; government is a social contract with limited powers and has obligations to its creators; government can be modified by its creators at any time (heavily influenced Thomas Jefferson and the writing of the Declaration of Independence); discussed legislative and executive branches of a government; wrote about unalienable rights which included life, liberty and protection of property
Charles de Montesquieu – expanded on Locke’s beliefs, added the judiciary to Locke’s executive and legislature; wrote of the separation of powers; believed that in a republic, education is an absolute necessity
William Penn – he founded a colony in present-day Pennsylvania where Quakers could live according to their religious beliefs and make political decision according to those beliefs.
William Blackstone – an English judge, jurist, and professor who wrote the historical and analytical treatise on common law (Commentaries on the Laws of England); considered as the definitive pre-Revolutionary War source of common law; believed strongly in religious tolerance; supported the idea of self-defense (later became the 2nd Amendment); wrote about “natural rights” which included life and liberty
History. The student understands how political, economic, and social factors led to the growth of sectionalism and the Civil War.
8.12BExplain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery.
Exploration and Colonization
Large amount of land available in the Southern colonies; rich soil; almost year-round growing season; ideal for plantation crops (tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton)- with enough labor they could be grown as cash crops
Transatlantic Slave Trade
Started in the British West Indies to provide a labor force for the sugar plantations
The triangular trade developed between the Colonies, England, and West Indies and slaves were traded in the colonies for other goods (including the cash crops slaves would help cultivate).
Spread of slavery -Demand for rice, indigo, tobacco, cotton led to plantation owners needing more slaves and the slave trade increased.
8.7CAnalyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States.
South during the colonial period
Economic factor: Slaves viewed as property and labor supply
Aided in development of plantation system and agrarian South
8.7BCompare the effects of political, economic, and social factors on slaves and free blacks.
Slaves during the colonial period
Political – no political voice, no rights
Economic – labor of the plantation system, considered property, children considered property and sold with no regard to parents
Social – viewed as property, viewed as outside the American identity, three most basic refuges: family, religion, and active resistance
Free Blacks during the colonial period
Political – no political voice, limited/ restricted rights
Economic – low wage earners
Social – lowest social class, limited access to education, socially isolated, three most basic refuges – family, religion, and resistance