Understand the factors that affect climate lacemop. (S15) L

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PRE-AP WORLD GEO 2104 Final Exam Review

  1. Understand the factors that affect climate LACEMOP. (S15)

  • Latitude - part of Earth-Sun Relationship

  • Air Masses - take on the "weather" of the place from which they came

  • Continentality - large bodies of water have a moderating effect on land temperature

  • Elevation - Earth's atmosphere thins as altitude increases

  • Mountain Barriers - can block air masses and cause precipitation

  • Ocean Currents - help distribute heat

  • Pressure and Wind - rising warm air= low pressure; falling cold air= high pressure; winds move from high to low

  1. What was the goal of the creation of NAFTA and the European Union? (P240,300)

NAFTA: To reduce trade restrictions and increase the flow of goods, services, and people among those countries

EU: A united Europe in which goods, services, and workers could move freely among member countries

  1. Why would people in Europe need to be multilingual, more than American?

People in Europe need to be more multilingual than Americans because Europe consists of many small countries that speak many different languages originating from language families (mostly Indo-European language) compared to America which prominently speaks one language, English.

  1. Review all the different types of economic and political system Ch. 4. (P86-90)

Economic Systems:

  • Traditional Economy - a system in which tradition and custom control all economic activity; exists in only a few parts of the world today

  • Market Economy - an economic system based on free enterprise, in which businesses are privately owned, and production and prices are determined by supply and demand

  • Command Economy - economic system in which economic decisions about production and distribution are made by some central authority

Political Systems:

  • Autocracy - government in which a single individual possesses the power and authority to rule

  • Oligarchy - system of government in which a small group holds power

  • Democracy - any system of government in which leaders rule with consent of the citizens

  1. Know the main religions of the regions we have studied.

  1. America and Canada - mostly Christian (Protestant in America, Roman Catholic in Canada)

  2. South America- most Roman Catholic, then Protestant

  3. Europe - Primarily Christian

  4. Russia - Christianity (Orthodox), then Islam

*Other (6) main religions include: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism

  1. Review the conflict between the Chechen nationalist and the Russian Government. What conclusion could you draw from this conflict. (P373)

The conflict will continue until a full agreement can be made between the groups. Russia claimed control over the Chechnya territory despite their declare of independence. Warfare and violence has continues and it had drained economic development funds from the rest of Russia.

  1. Define cultural convergence.

Cultural convergence –the tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication

  1. European businesses have found trade between countries easier in the past decade for two reasons: a reduction of tariffs and ______________.

cheap labor

  1. Know about the Chernobyl disaster. When did it happen, what happened, etc.(P398-399)

When: 1986

What: Fire in nuclear reactor releasing tons of radioactive particles into the local environment; many people were exposed to deadly levels of radiation

  1. Know what S.S.R. stands for.

Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR: Union of ")

  1. Understand what helps make trade possible and what the number one way we trade today is. (P163?)

Low tariffs, ways of transporting goods, access to sea

Number one way: By water (shipping)

  1. What happened to the Aral Sea?

Has gone from fourth -largest body of inland water to separate smaller lakes because of having water diverted from feeder rivers to irrigate cropland: changed destroyed sea's fishing industries, dust storms spread disease

  1. Read Yugoslavia: Then and Now pg. 292 & 293.

  2. A minaret in Miass, Russia is an example of which phenomenon? Colonization, ethnocentrism, cultural diffusion. *define Minaret Google an image of a minaret.

Cultural diffusion

Minaret - a tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer.

  1. Define landlocked, how can this have an impact on human migration?

Landlocked - country almost or entirely surrounded by land; having no coastline or seaport.

Impact: amount of traveling

  1. Understand why countries in Europe want to join the European Union.

Economic advantage (improve) through larger market, allies, welfare state

  1. Explain factors that have caused many conflicts in Europe in the past and present.

  1. Review climate regions that we have studied. Ch. 3 sec 3. (S16, P

Tropical climates -

Dry climates -

Mid-latitude climates-

High latitude climates -

Highlands climates-

  1. Review world populations Ch. 4 sec 1

  1. Why did Northern Ireland become part of the UK?

Because they had cultural and religious differences from the rest of Ireland- most people were many Protestant and did not want to be part of the mainly Roman Catholic Ireland

  1. List at least 4 political and economic changes after the fall of the Soviet Union.

  1. From command economy to market economy

  2. Massive unemployment as outdated and inefficient factories were closed and agriculture was reconstructed

  3. Soviet republics declared independence

  4. Separatist movements and ethnic conflicts

  1. Define Biosphere.

Biosphere- the part of the earth where life exists

  1. Review weathering and erosion Ch. 2 sec 2 Forces of Change. (P42)

  1. 2 Types: Physical and Chemical weathering

  2. Physical- large masses of rock physically broken down into smaller pieces (ex. water freezing in rock making it split)

  3. Chemical- changes chemical makeup of rocks, transforming the minerals or combining them with new elements (ex. creating limestone)

  • Erosion: the wearing away of the earth's surface by wind, glaciers, and moving water

  1. Wind erosion, glacial erosion, water erosion

  1. Define Biome.

Biome- area of the planet which can be classified according to the plant and animal life in it.

  1. Define and Understand Rain shadow effect. (P64)

Rain shadow effect - dry area found on the leeward side of a mountain range

  1. Define Delta. *this is not the Greek letter! However, this physical feature does get its Greek name for the shape it makes. (P503)

Delta - alluvial deposit at a river's mouth that looks like the Greek letter delta

  1. Define GIS and what it is used for. (P25)

GIS - computer tools for processing and organizing details and satellite images with other pieces of information

  1. Review Push and pull factors. *Push is negative, pull is positive! (S24)

Push: cause people to leave a location (ex. no job)

Pull: attract people to a new location (ex. higher pay)

  1. Most Canadians live where?

narrow strip of land along Canada's border with the United States

  1. Review the physical geography of each region we have studied. (S28, 37, 46, 52;P [individual chapters])


  1. Define Cultural Diffusion.

Cultural Diffusion - the spread of new knowledge and skills from one culture to another

  1. What forces create ocean currents, list at least three? (P62)

  1. Earth's rotation

  2. Changes in air pressure

  3. Differences in water temperature

  1. What make Quebec culturally different from the rest of Canada?

French-speaking with descendents and culture unlike others from Great Britain

  1. What geographic feature was essential for migration to the Americas? *how was it possible for Native Americans to migrate to the Americas?

Beringia Land Bridge

  1. Define Continentality.

Continentality- a measure of how the climate of a place is affected by its remoteness from the oceans and oceanic air

  1. Review the political boundaries of Latin America. (S46)

(Look at map)

  1. Read Brazil's Rain Forests: Biodiversity at Risk, pg. 248

  2. Define El Nino.

El Nino - a periodic reversal of the pattern of ocean currents and water temperatures in the mid-Pacific region

  1. Define sustainable development.

Sustainable development - technological and economic growth that does not deplete the human and natural resources of a given area

  1. Read passage through Panama pg. 218

  2. What is a population pyramid, and what type of information can you gather from one?

Population Pyramid - (age gender pyramid) graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population

Information:  the rate of growth of the population (larger base [more kids and babies] population grow explosively; more rectangle is more of stable); what the population distribution will look to some degree

  1. Google images of Cuban refugees, they are willing to make boats out of anything to get to the USA, what pull factors does the USA have, that would explain why they would do that.

USA Pull Factors: Personal Freedom (Religious, Freedom from Communism, Speech), Economic opportunities

  1. What will most likely happen if we continue to use fossil fuels at the current rate?

We will eventually run out of fossil fuels and pollution will increase.

  1. Review altitudinal zonation: tierra caliente, tierra templada, tierra fria, tierra helada. (P203)

Tierra Caliente-

Tierra Templada -

Tierra Fria -

Tierra Helada -

  1. Define Terrace farming.

Terrance farming - a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms. which resemble steps for effective farming

  1. What group of people colonized the Americas?


  1. Define GDP and GDP per capita.

GDP- (Gross Domestic Product) the value of goods and services created within a country in a year

GDP per capita - an approximation of the value of goods produced per person in the country, equal to the country's GDP divided by the total number of people in the country
(an indicator of the standard of living in an economy ;measures the relative wealth of a nation)

  1. Describe the everyday life for most people in Central America.


  1. When did most countries in South America begin to gain independence?


  1. Brazilian favelas expanded rapidly in the 1970s, what was the reason for this? *4 Real City of God video and notes.

Racial and poverty

  1. The Mayans are most famous for being able to _______________.

develop accurate calendars and used astronomical observations to predict solar eclipses; skilled in mathematics

  1. Where do most people around the world live? *you live along one.

Bodies of water (rivers, coasts)

  1. Africans first came to Latin America as?


  1. Latin America includes Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, and South America. Although these regions are unique, there are some characteristics that make Latin America a region. List 5 reasons based on human and physical geography, which make Latin America a region. Write in well thought out complete sentences! *think perceptual, formal, and functional! This is part of the six elements of geography.

  1. How do geographers divide the earth? Describe the grid system, and explain its significant features, including the Equator and tropic lines, and the Prime Meridian. *This info is in the geography skills handbook pg. 1-14 also Ch. 1 sec 1

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