U. S. State Dept on behalf of the Soviets back in 1937-38 (before wwii)



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McCARTHYISM
during this whole time frame, America was not concerned about containing Communism overseas; we were also wanting to make sure Communism

didn’t make any inroads here in America, too


look at the quote from Truman’s Attorney General, Howard McGrath (p. 455):

“There are today many Communists in America. They are everywhere – \

in factories, offices, butcher shops, on street corners, in private business –

and each carries in himself the germs of death for society.”
“The climate of suspicion was most severe in the years 1947-1954, but it lasted

throughout the 1950s.” (text, p. 455)


Truman got the ball rolling with his Loyalty Review Board in 1947 – it fired 1200 federal workers for being “disloyal” or “bad security risks”, and another 5000 or so resigned from federal government jobs under pressure
Next up: the House Un-American Activities Committee started investigating

Hollywood types, asking the famous question “Are you now, or have you



ever been, a member of the Communist Party?”that Committee is where

Richard Nixon first appeared on the American scene, as a young

representative from California


then, lo and behold, we actually caught us a spy: Whittaker Chambers (an ex- Communist Party member) outed Alger Hiss as having spied in the

U.S. State Dept. on behalf of the Soviets back in 1937-38 (before WWII) –

the statute of limitations had run on those offenses, but they nailed Hiss for committing perjury in 1950, when he said he didn’t know who Chambers was – now, for the first time, we had an actual Communist spy
on top of that famous case, word leaked out that there were spies who helped give top secret re: atomic weapons to the Soviets, which led to the arrest, conviction and execution of Julius & Ethel Rosenberg (first and only U.S.

civilians ever convicted of espionage and sentenced to death)


in 1950, anti-Communism “Red Scare” hit its peak with the “investigations” of

Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin – he started, two weeks after Alger Hiss

conviction, with the unsubstantiated claim that he had a list of 205 Communists working in the U.S. State Dept. -- and his chief assistant was one of the prosecutors from the Rosenberg trial, Roy Cohn


later events more or less proved that McCarthy had no proof of any known

Communists, but he was preying on people’s fear for his own political gain


this started out as a Republican tactic against the Democrat Harry Truman, but

McCarthy continued his nonsense even after the Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected President in 1952 -- he continue to push and push

one baseless accusation against another, and the American people lapped it

up… until McCarthy decided that he needed a new “whipping boy”: the U.S. Army -- that was McCarthy’s undoing: Eisenhower hated McCarthy and his gutter tactics, but he wasn’t going to challenge him UNTIL McCarthy went after Eisenhower’s beloved Army and his ex-boss, George Marshall


and why did McCarthy go after the Army? Roy Cohn was ticked off at the Army for drafting (and “mistreating”, in his opinion) his “close friend”.

David Schine
the Army-McCarthy Hearings were one of the first events ever shown live on

TV, in 1953-54 -- seemingly everybody in the U.S. was scared of

McCarthy, but it wasn’t until the Army’s attorney, Joseph Welch, stood up

and said “Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last?” that anybody

had the guts to stand up to McCarthy -- Edward R. Murrow, a legendary CBS newsman, then called out McCarthy in a series of TV shows, and McCarthy’s whole façade crumbled -- McCarthy died of alcoholism in 1957

it was more than just McCarthy, though; everybody was on the lookout for

Communists in America – Yates v. US (1957) calmed things down a bit, when the Supreme Court ruled that talking about the ideas of revolution was protected by the First Amendment and therefore not a crime, although urging others to break the law was a crime

Joseph McCarthy: VC 921 McC



Senator Joseph McCarthy: An American Inquisitor



an A&E video -- approx. 50 minutes in length


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