U. S. History Unit 1 The following pages contain items that can be used for formative assessments. The items provided in this document are intended to aid the teacher in measuring student progress. The items corres



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Tips for Using the Social Studies Formative Item Pools

The Formative Item Pool is an integral part of QualityCore®. Each course has its own pool of 225 multiple-choice items and more than 20 constructed-response items, each aligned to QualityCore course objectives. The items are intended to help teachers measure student progress and determine whether a student or group of students needs additional instruction on particular skills or concepts.

The items are presented as a PDF to maintain the visual consistency of graphics, special characters, and symbols. Each item is on its own page and is “bookmarked” for easy navigation through the PDF. This allows the teacher to easily find and arrange items into a formative assessment, homework, or classroom assignment, without having to reformat any text.

The multiple-choice items are grouped by QualityCore Instructional Units. (See the QualityCore Instructional Unit Plans or the Course Outline to see how various objectives might be covered in each of the units.) Each set of items is introduced by a cover sheet displaying the item Identification Number (ID), the correct answer (Key), the cognitive level, and the alphanumeric code for each course objective covered by that item.

Each constructed-response item has a coversheet describing the item, the cognitive level, the alphanumeric code for the course objective(s) covered by the item, and the cognitive task type. The items are matched to the relevant unit in the QualityCore Course Outline. The scoring criteria and a scoring rubric follow each constructed-response item. Included in the pool are two items designed to emulate the items on the End-of-Course constructed-response assessment. Taken together, these two items provide students with a practice End-of-Course Assessment.

QualityCoreTM Formative Item Pool
U.S. History Unit 1

The following pages contain items that can be used for formative assessments. The items provided in this document are intended to aid the teacher in measuring student progress. The items correspond to specific objectives for this unit. Each page has one item and the Identification (ID) number for that item. Each item is on a separate page to allow the teacher to easily choose independent items for a formative assessment. The following table gives the ID number for each item, the correct answer (Key), the cognitive level, and the alphanumeric code for each objective measured by the item. The objective referenced by each code is found in the set of course objectives. The items are listed in order first by Objective and second by Cognitive Level, but may be presented to the students in any order. The items are in the PDF in the order presented in this table.



Unit 1

ID

Key

Cognitive
Level


Objective

00384

B

L1

B.1.a

00394

C

L2

B.1.a

00408

B

L2

B.1.a

00409

C

L2

B.1.a

00518

D

L1

B.1.a

00534

B

L2

B.1.a

00388

D

L2

B.1.b

00412

C

L3

B.1.b

00533

B

L2

B.1.b

00390

A

L2

B.1.c

00391

D

L1

B.1.c

00413

C

L1

B.1.c

00414

C

L2

B.1.c

00415

B

L2

B.1.c

00419

A

L2

B.1.c

00485

D

L3

B.1.c

00486

B

L3

B.1.c

00393

D

L2

B.1.d

00417

A

L1

B.1.d

00418

B

L2

B.1.d

00416

B

L2

B.1.e

00384

What factor incited the 1680 Pueblo revolt against the Spanish in New Mexico?



  1. The harsh encomienda system

  2. The attempt to suppress native religious practices

  3. The poor corn harvest resulting from drought

  4. The execution of a native leader

00394

Bacon’s Rebellion resulted in what significant development?



  1. The Virginia House of Burgesses passed a series of laws that compromised the legal rights of the Powhatans.

  2. Rebels seized the estate of Virginia Governor William Berkeley and divided his lands among their Indian supporters.

  3. Antagonism toward native peoples became a dominant characteristic of frontier life in colonial Virginia.

  4. The Virginia House of Burgesses returned the lands that were seized from the Powhatans during the fighting.

What sixteenth-century event in Tenochtitlan proved most devastating to the Aztecs?

  1. The military invasion launched by Francisco Pizarro

  2. The smallpox epidemic introduced by European invaders

  3. The arrival of zealous Jesuit missionaries

  4. The enslavement of native peoples on sugar plantations

What was NOT a factor underlying European efforts to subdue native people in the Americas?

  1. The conviction that inhabitants of the New World were savages

  2. The threat posed to European ambitions by well-organized native societies

  3. The genocidal policies of religious leaders

  4. The comparative superiority of European military technology

00518

Which colony was established for the purpose of economic profit?



  1. Massachusetts

  2. Pennsylvania

  3. Rhode Island

  4. Virginia

00534

Based on context clues and your knowledge of colonial history, what is the original source of this excerpt?

We, whose names are underwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord, King

James . . . Having undertaken, for the Glory of God, and advancements of the Christian Faith, and the Honour of our King and Country, a voyage to plant the first colony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by these presents, solemnly and mutually, in the Presence of God and of one another; covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body

politic . . . to enact, constitute, and frame, such just and equal laws . . . as shall be thought . . . convenient for the general good of the colony; unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.


  1. John Winthrop’s Journal

  2. William Bradford’s Of Plymouth Plantation

  3. John Smith’s General Historie of Virginia

  4. John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government

00388

Which belief system provides the clearest expression of Enlightenment religious thought?



  1. Atheism

  2. Calvinism

  3. Congregationalism

  4. Deism

00412

What activity was LEAST characteristic of Americans affected by the Enlightenment?



  1. Questioning orthodox religious views

  2. Learning scientific classifications

  3. Supporting New Light revivalists

  4. Studying astronomy and philosophy

00533

Which description of seventeenth-century Massachusetts Bay Puritans and Pilgrims is accurate?



  1. The Puritans and the Pilgrims had sharp doctrinal differences that stemmed from the Puritan belief in original sin and predestination.

  2. Both shared a belief in Calvinism, but in contrast to the poor and the uneducated Pilgrims, the Puritans were learned and prosperous.

  3. The Puritans sought to establish a “city on a hill” to be a “light unto the world,” and the Pilgrims sought to promote democracy.

  4. Both established theocratic governments, but as the purity of their original visions waned, they began to embrace democracy.

What is the best explanation for the unprecedented population growth in colonial America after 1700?

  1. Large families were necessary to meet the need for labor.

  2. Heavy immigration caused urban growth on the eastern seaboard.

  3. Birthrates rose due to religious beliefs against contraception.

  4. Improved child mortality rates resulted from better midwifery.

What was the primary demographic feature of the population of eighteenth-century colonial America?

  1. A high unemployment rate

  2. A strong urban character

  3. A low marriage rate

  4. A young average age

Which statement most accurately describes the population of the American colonies after 1700?

  1. Settlers confined themselves to the eastern seaboard below the tidewater.

  2. The settlement of German, French, and Scots-Irish peoples was insignificant.

  3. Increasing numbers of slaves resulted in significant racial diversity.

  4. Catholics comprised the vast majority of non-English newcomers.

Which statement accurately generalizes the plight of American women at the time of the American Revolution?

  1. European women had greater political, economic, and social rights than American women.

  2. Unlike European women, American women could not divorce or own property.

  3. The formal education of American women was usually inferior to that of men.

  4. Laws against spousal abuse protected married women in most American colonies.

Which statement about the social structure of seventeenth-century America is accurate?

  1. Most colonial Americans expressed great reservations about the institution of slavery.

  2. The rigid social hierarchy that English colonists brought to America disintegrated rapidly upon arrival.

  3. The autonomous, self-sufficient, and devout individual was considered the foundation of society.

  4. The first generation of professionals was replaced by planters and agricultural laborers.

00419

Why were many women in seventeenth-century Chesapeake Bay colonies able to accumulate significant personal wealth?



  1. The scarcity of women in a society characterized by high male mortality allowed them to make shrewd marriage agreements.

  2. The egalitarian nature of community life in frontier settlements encouraged tolerance for enterprising women.

  3. Men were willing to give up their land and property in exchange for marriage partners in the lonely, uncivilized outpost.

  4. Women who avoided the physical stress of field work had significantly longer life spans.

Consider this poem by Puritan Anne Bradstreet (1613−1672):

If ever two were one, then surely we.

If ever man were lov’d by wife, then thee; If ever wife was happy in a man,

Compare with me ye women if you can.

What stereotype about Puritans does the poem challenge?


  1. They valued love for God above all else.

  2. They believed that women should be subordinate.

  3. They felt that marriage equalized men and women.

  4. They disdained human love, joy, and passion.

Consider these lines from a seventeenth-century ballad:

Come all you young fellows wherever you be, Come listen awhile and I will tell thee,

Concerning the hardships that we undergo, When we get lagg’d to Virginia.

Now in Virginia I lay like a hog,

Our pillow at night is a brick or a log,

We dress and undress like some other sea dog, How hard is my fate in Virginia.

Who was most likely the source of this ballad?


  1. A newly arrived slave

  2. An indentured servant

  3. A Powhatan Indian

  4. A Spanish missionary

00393

Many historians have noted a transformation of the institution of slavery during seventeenth-century colonial America. To what are these historians referring?



  1. Laws against slavery were challenged in court and overruled.

  2. Miscegenation became a capital crime.

  3. Only whites were eligible for indentured servitude.

  4. Slavery became a hereditary function of race.

What commercial activities were most significant to the economy of colonial New England?

  1. Trading, shipbuilding, and fishing

  2. Tobacco, rice, and indigo farming

  3. Manufacturing and finance

  4. Lumber and mining

Why were large numbers of male indentured servants brought to colonial Virginia?

  1. They were needed to defend the colony against Powhatan attacks.

  2. Additional labor was needed to cultivate and harvest tobacco.

  3. Early settlers sought marriageable partners for their daughters.

  4. Their skills were indispensable to the growing shipbuilding industry.

Which statement about society and government in seventeenth-century Massachusetts Bay Colony is accurate?

  1. The working class exerted political influence in much greater proportion than its population.

  2. Ministers possessed high social status and greatly influenced colonial government.

  3. Aristocratic Pilgrims wielded greater power than the working-class Puritans.

  4. The “Godly Commonwealth” was a courageous experiment in pure democracy.

QualityCoreTM Formative Item Pool
U.S. History Unit 2

The following pages contain items that can be used for formative assessments. The items provided in this document are intended to aid the teacher in measuring student progress. The items correspond to specific objectives for this unit. Each page has one item and the Identification (ID) number for that item. Each item is on a separate page to allow the teacher to easily choose independent items for a formative assessment. The following table gives the ID number for each item, the correct answer (Key), the cognitive level, and the alphanumeric code for each objective measured by the item. The objective referenced by each code is found in the set of course objectives. The items are listed in order first by Objective and second by Cognitive Level, but may be presented to the students in any order. The items are in the PDF in the order presented in this table.



Unit 2

ID

Key

Cognitive
Level


Objective

00385

A

L2

B.1.f

00386

D

L2

B.1.f

00387

C

L2

B.1.f

00389

A

L3

B.1.f

00410

C

L1

B.1.f

00411

B

L2

B.1.f

00392

C

L1

B.1.g

00395

D

L2

B.1.g

00396

A

L3

B.1.g

00397

D

L3

B.1.g

00420

D

L2

B.1.g

00421

A

L3

B.1.g

00422

B

L3

B.1.g

00496

C

L3

B.1.g

00530

A

L1

B.1.g

00535

D

L1

B.1.g

00399

B

L2

B.1.h

00532

D

L3

B.1.h

00503

B

L2

B.1.i

00331

C

L2

B.1.j

00400

A

L1

B.1.m

00401

A

L2

B.1.m

00425

A

L2

B.1.m

What idea was central to the American Enlightenment?

  1. Optimism resides in science and reason.

  2. Faith is more significant than intellect.

  3. Morality emerges from a belief in God.

  4. Democracy is the highest form of political life.

Which metaphor best characterizes how Americans viewed the universe during the Enlightenment?

  1. The universe is a flower; it emerges from a seed, blooms, and dies.

  2. The universe is a soul; its workings are invisible and impervious to science.

  3. The universe is a tree; its roots are hidden, but its design is beautiful.

  4. The universe is a clock; its components work perfectly and can be analyzed.

Which example best represents the influence of the Enlightenment?

  1. The celebrity of George Whitefield

  2. The philosophies of Jonathan Edwards

  3. The experiments of Benjamin Franklin

  4. The artistry of Gilbert Stuart

How was Isaac Newton’s view of the universe reflected in eighteenth-century American thinking?

  1. By a growing commitment to the idea of natural rights

  2. By a pervasive belief in the doctrine of original sin

  3. By a sweeping objection to the institution of slavery

  4. By a widespread conviction in the importance of religion to progress

Which document is LEAST associated with the American Enlightenment?

  1. Common Sense by Thomas Paine

  2. The Way to Wealth by Benjamin Franklin

  3. History of New England by John Winthrop

  4. Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson

Which example best illustrates the synthesis of Enlightenment and religious ideas in the American colonies?

  1. Benjamin Franklin’s writings were read as widely as the Bible.

  2. Colleges were founded to train clergy in the rational approach to inquiry.

  3. Anglican clergy launched a widespread effort to abolish slavery.

  4. People who had not experienced conversion could be admitted into churches.

00392

How was Bacon’s Rebellion associated with slavery during colonial America?



  1. Bacon’s rebels betrayed the slaves and returned them to their masters.

  2. Slaves asserted their right to secede from the Virginia colony.

  3. Enslaved blacks were promised freedom if they fought on Bacon’s side.

  4. The rebellion was the first of many related to the southern cotton economy.

What action by delegates of the First Continental Congress suggests their political stance was predominantly conservative?

  1. They agreed to make restitution to Britain for the Boston Tea Party.

  2. They reprimanded South Carolina for its self-serving stance on exports.

  3. They refused to endorse the Suffolk Resolves.

  4. They upheld regulations that were beneficial to the British Crown.

To support the claim that the seeds of the American Revolution were sown during the French and Indian War and its aftermath, what evidence would a historian offer?

  1. Americans objected to the taxes Parliament levied to offset the high cost of protecting the American colonies.

  2. British officials refused to recognize that democracy flourished in America as a result of its active participation in the fighting.

  3. Prolonged disorder gave the British a reason to deprive Americans of political powers to which they had grown accustomed.

  4. British efforts to regulate the colonies were perceived as a conspiracy in the context of emergent American political ideology.

Which assessment of the enactment of the Proclamation Line of 1763 is most accurate?

  1. The British failed to consider that colonists would resent being forced to maintain forts on the frontier.

  2. The British ignored the impact of the policy on the right of colonial legislatures to administer western territories.

  3. The British considered the act as the only way to avoid conflict between colonists and Indians.

  4. The British misjudged the extent of colonial opposition to restrictions on expansion into western lands.

Given that only seven people died in the Boston Massacre, why was it labeled a “massacre”?

  1. British commanders ordered troops to shoot into a rioting crowd in an effort to restore order.

  2. The victims were innocent bystanders who were caught in the barrage of gunfire.

  3. The victims had done little to provoke the confrontational and hostile British troops.

  4. Boston radicals sensationalized the incident to take advantage of heightened tensions.

Why did Americans use guerrilla-style warfare against retreating British troops after the battles at Lexington and Concord?

  1. Americans had learned in earlier conflicts the utility of unconventional tactics against European rules of war.

  2. Americans adopted the same philosophy that governed the European military rules of engagement.

  3. American militiamen were vastly outnumbered by the heavily armed British soldiers.

  4. American field commanders were unprincipled in their indiscriminate use of violence against the British.

Why did poet Ralph Waldo Emerson describe the battles fought at Lexington and Concord as “the shot heard round the world”?

  1. The use of hyperbole was consistent with the transcendentalist literary style.

  2. Those conflicts began the fight that led to the creation of the U.S. and inspired revolutions elsewhere.

  3. He sought to commemorate the history of those areas in which the conflicts occurred.

  4. Literature was commonly used to encourage people in other countries to revolt against tyranny.

00496

In a symbolic message to the Albany Congress in 1754, Benjamin Franklin printed this image in his Pennsylvania Gazette.



What was the intent of Franklin’s message?



  1. To encourage ratification of the Constitution

  2. To encourage work on a declaration of independence

  3. To promote unity against British tyranny

  4. To promote interest in a bill of rights

00530

Who is the subject of this 1826 obituary?

Late President of the United States, one of the ablest and most efficient advocates and supporters of the Revolution, an original signer of the Declaration of Independence, a patriot and statesman, whose career was full of honor, whose life, services, talents, and virtues, were the pride and glory of the nation, expired at his residence in Quincy, Massachusetts, on the 4th day of July, at the advanced age of 92.


  1. John Adams

  2. Alexander Hamilton

  3. Thomas Jefferson

  4. George Washington

00535

Who made the observation “a little rebellion now and then is a good thing,” and what event inspired it?



  1. Benjamin Franklin; Bacon’s Rebellion

  2. George Washington; Pontiac’s Rebellion

  3. Alexander Hamilton; the Whiskey Rebellion

  4. Thomas Jefferson; Shays’ Rebellion

00399

What was the main significance of Shays’ Rebellion?



  1. It exemplified the adverse impact of currency laws on the independence of small farmers.

  2. It revealed the inability of the weak central government to maintain order.

  3. It established paper currency as a solution to economic problems caused by unfair trade.

  4. It suggested merchants’ interests had greater national significance than those of the agricultural class.

00532

Which two nineteenth-century works are most similar in political intent?



  1. Thoreau’s “Civil Disobedience” and Emerson’s “Self Reliance

  2. The Federalist and Tocqueville’s Democracy in America

  3. The Emancipation Proclamation and the Fugitive Slave Law

  4. The Kentucky Resolution and the South Carolina Nullification doctrine

00503

Consider this statement from the ruling in the 1803 Supreme Court case, Marbury v. Madison:

Those who apply the rule to particular cases must of necessity expound and interpret that rule.

What fundamental principle of government was established by that statement?



  1. Checks and balances

  2. Judicial review

  3. Trial by jury

  4. Popular sovereignty

00331

President Washington urged ratification of the Bill of Rights to strengthen the rights of individuals. Why did other politicians support ratification of the Bill of Rights?



  1. It reaffirmed the supremacy of federal laws over state laws.

  2. It established a system of checks and balances among the three branches of government.

  3. It calmed the fears of people who believed the federal government had been given too much power.

  4. It provided a means by which corrupt government officials could be removed from office.

What was the strategic consequence of the U.S. victory over Britain in the Battle of New Orleans?

  1. It ended British efforts to interfere with American commerce in Louisiana.

  2. It discouraged the British in their protracted fight against Napoleon’s forces.

  3. It enabled American negotiators to press the British to cede parts of Canada.

  4. It required the British to halt the impressment of American sailors on the high seas.

What philosophy helps to explain the strong Congressional support for the 1846 declaration of war against Mexico?

  1. Manifest Destiny

  2. Monroe Doctrine

  3. Imperialism

  4. Progressivism

00425

Although the War of 1812 failed to resolve Britain’s violation of American neutral rights on the high seas, how was the outcome advantageous to Americans?



  1. The British defeat in the Battle of New Orleans boosted American morale.

  2. The British agreed to stop interdicting American slave ships.

  3. The British departure allowed the U.S. government to initiate treaties with the Indians.

  4. The British promised to end their support of Tecumseh and other tribal leaders.
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