U. S. Foreign Policy America’s Role on the International Stage



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U.S. Foreign Policy

America’s Role on the International Stage




Complete the InQuizitive exercises for Chapter 18 as you work through this outline.
For each of the assignments in on this topic, do not attempt to memorize the facts of the historical events discussed, but rather focus on the “lessons learned” from each occurrence: how these events would instruct and affect future U.S. foreign policy decisions.


Pre-Cold War Foreign Policy

  1. Rise to global power (1866-1913)

  2. Acknowledgement of a new world power




Research the role that alliances played in the outbreak and execution of World War I (the graphic is especially good). How might this event affect the future of U.S. foreign policy?

http://alphahistory.com/worldwar1/alliances/


  1. World War I (1914-1920)

  2. Professed neutrality and eventual involvement

  3. Isolationism (1921-1936)

  4. Guarded relations

  5. World War II (1937-1945)

  6. Evolving alliance




Read the linked article on the Yalta Conference. What are reparations and occupation?

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/yalta-conference


  1. Emergence as a superpower (1946-)

  2. Decimation of the Axis powers

  3. Our weakened allies

The Cold War

  1. Beginnings

  2. Containment

  3. The Truman Doctrine




  1. The Marshall Plan




What was the Marshall Plan? What was our motivation behind implementing it?

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/marshall-plan
Read this linked overview of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Why were these two alliances formed, and who were the members of these?

http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/formation-of-nato-and-warsaw-pact


  1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)




  1. The Warsaw Pact




  1. The Korean War

  2. The U.S. and U.N. provide troops




Read the linked article about NSC-68. Revealed in the last paragraph the last paragraph, what motivated the U.S. to accept the recommendations of NSC-68?

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/NSC68


  1. Stalemate until the Cuban Missile Crisis

  2. Although skirmishes existed, national borders were stabilized

  3. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)




  1. The Vietnam Conflict

  2. Direct involvement




Skim the article below for definitions of détente and rapprochement. Be prepared to describe both:

https://history.state.gov/milestones/1969-1976/rapprochement-china


  1. Détente




  1. Rapprochement




This linked article summarizes the effect that U.S. involvement in Vietnam had on our future foreign policy. Which were the most important?

http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3469


  1. Post-Vietnam

  2. Economic competition




  1. Military buildup




  1. End of the Cold War

  2. Soviet retreat from world politics

  3. Soviets engage in market and democratic reforms:

  4. Perestroika



  1. Glasnost



  1. Demokratizatsia



Below is a description of the fall of the Soviet Union, brought on by Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms. How do these events affect our view of freedom and human nature?

http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/perestroika-and-glasnost


  1. Eastern Europe independence




  1. Soviet explosion


The Lone Superpower

  1. Military power

  2. The relative power of the U.S. military




  1. Other countries’ armed forces




  1. Economic power

  2. A GDP of $16,800,000,000,000




Problems of the New Order

  1. New security issues

  2. Russia and the breakaway republics




  1. Eastern Europe




  1. Western Europe




  1. The Pacific Rim

  2. North Korea, China and our allies




  1. The developing world

  2. Certain regional conflicts require attention

  3. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict



  1. India and Pakistan are of particular interest



  1. From Bush to Obama




Compare and contrast the foreign policy perspectives of realism and idealism:

http://www.sparknotes.com/us-government-and-politics/political-science/international-politics/section2.rhtml


  1. Realism vs. idealism




  1. Preemptive action




Read a description of the “Bush Doctrine” on page 739 in We the People for its description of preemptive action.


  1. Unilateralism vs. multilateralism


  1. Economic and social issues

  2. International trade

  3. The European Union (EU)




  1. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)




  1. Trade and American prosperity

  2. Protectionsim



The article below is a good discourse on the trade policy of protectionism. Be able to define the practice and list some advantages and disadvantages it may bring:

http://useconomy.about.com/od/glossary/g/Trade-Protectionism.htm


  1. Foreign aid

  2. Poverty reduction




  1. Arms sales




  1. The global environment




  1. The drug trade




  1. Immigration




Be prepared to describe in a brief sentence any of the entities linked below:

Foreign Policy Actors

  1. The executive branch

  2. National Security Council (http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc)


  1. Department of State



  1. Embassies and ambassadors (http://www.usembassy.gov/index.html)




  1. Department of Defense

  2. Interservice rivalry




  1. Intelligence agencies

  2. The National Security Agency (NSA) (http://www.nsa.gov)




  1. The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) (http://www.nro.gov)




  1. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) (https://www.nga.mil/Pages/default.aspx)




  1. The Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) (http://www.dia.mil)




  1. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (https://www.cia.gov/index.html)




  1. The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) (http://www.dni.gov/index.php)



  1. Congress

  2. Constitutional powers




  1. Historical acquiescence




  1. Appropriations power




  1. Trade and immigration issues




  1. Public opinion

  2. Policymakers often take public opinion into consideration before making decisions




  1. Pluralism and private interests

  2. Businesses

  3. Corporations have a significant stake in American foreign relations



  1. The facets of trade deals affect businesses differently



  1. Ethnic groups




  1. Other interests



  1. The circle of decision making



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