Turkish Empires Rise in Anatolia



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World History 8
Chapter 11 Section 3 “Turkish Empires Rise in Anatolia”
As you read about the rise and decline of the Turkish Empire in Anatolia, make notes on the chart to describe the outcome of each action or situation.


  1. In 945, Persian armies move into Baghdad.



Ended power of the caliph (Islamic religious or political leader); Caliph gives up political power as ruler to the new Persian ruler


  1. In the tenth century, large numbers of Turks known as Seljuks migrate into the Abbasid Empire.



Turks begin converting to Islam

Seljuks grow in number



  1. The Seljuks march on the Byzantine Empire.




By 1081, Seljuks occupy most of Anatolia, the eastern part of the Byzantine Empire

Brings Turks closer to Constantinople than any other group

  1. The Seljuks choose a Persian city, Isfahan, as their capital city.


Seljuks work to gain loyalty of conquered Persians

Seljuks appoint Persians as gov’t officials, including as vizier, prime minister, to Seljuk sultan Malik Shah.

Turks greatly admire Persian learning


  1. The Turks adopt Persian as the language of culture and adopt features of the Persian was of life.



Turks were illiterate and didn’t know much about the religion they had adopted, Islam, so looked to Persians for guidance

Rulers called shah, Persian word for king

Supported Persian artists and architects

Arabic disappears as language in Persia

  1. Malik Shah, the last of the strong Seljuk leaders, dies.



Malik Shah dies in 1092 with no capable shah to replace him

Seljuk Empire quickly disintegrates into a loose collection of minor kingdoms

At the same time, the west launches the Crusades

  1. The Seljuks fight back against the Crusaders after a century of domination.


1099, Crusades capture Jerusalem, Turks, under Saladin, recapture in 1187

Later popes call for more Crusades


  1. Further Crusades occur, but each is weaker than the last one.




Crusades pose little threat, but Mongols attack Baghdad by 1258

Mongols kill tens of thousands of Turks

Mongols knew little about administering a territory, so empire crumbled in a few generations

Ottoman Turks rose to build an empire lasting into the 20th century



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