Tugas filsafat ilmu linguistic imperialism



Download 51.72 Kb.
Date conversion24.05.2016
Size51.72 Kb.
TUGAS FILSAFAT ILMU

LINGUISTIC IMPERIALISM

Definition

            If we talk about imperialism, we need to know first what Imperialism is. As we see in a real world, everything has been becoming a part of imperialism, for example, we see there are so many English words, written in one of the restaurant that is not located in London. In our time, the global expansion of English has often been cited as the primary example of linguistic imperialism.Then in Indonesia, people now are trying to reach west culture as their culture, for example, people usually wear clothes which are designed with English words, and people feel satisfied when they speak in English with foreigner. From this kind of symptoms, we can identify the definition of imperialism.

Phillipson defines English linguistic imperialism as the dominance asserted and retained by the establishment and continuous reconstitution of structural and cultural inequalities between English and other languages.

Linguistic imperialism, or language imperialism, is a linguistics concept that "involves the transfer of a dominant language to other people". The transfer is essentially a demonstration of power—traditionally, military power but also, in the modern world, economic power—and aspects of the dominant culture are usually transferred along with the language."

Since the early 1990s, the theory of linguistic imperialism has attracted attention among scholars of applied linguistics. Particularly, Robert Phillipson's influential 1992 book, Linguistic Imperialism, has led to considerable debate about the merits and shortcomings of the theory. Phillipson found denunciations of linguistic imperialism that dated back to Nazi critiques of the British Council, and to Soviet analyses of English as the language of world capitalism and world domination.

The meaning of linguistic imperialism includes the process of culture colonized, politics, economics, and language itself.  Like people usually said as Eurocentric, people over the world head to west to determine their life. Many Eurocentric concepts conform the pattern of how racism is affirmed, in the Robert Phillipson’s book (P. 38) “Linguistic Imperialism”, means of :

1. Self-exaltation on the part of the dominant group which creates an idealistic image, for example, White Americans who consider themselves as dominant group between black people.

2. The devaluation of the dominated group, and the suppression and stagnation of its culture, institutions, life-styles, and ideas, for example, English language as dominated language over the young people in Africa which change and influence their cultural aspect also.

3. Systematic rationalization of the relationships between both groups, always favorable to the dominant group (Preiswerk, 1980).

Language Imperialism is the translation of foreign key terminology into familiar vocabulary of one’s own language tradition in order to claim deutungshoheit,* to diminish another culture’s originality, or to pretend to have full comprehension of a foreign topic by simply switching into one’s own lingua. (T. Pattberg – Live Interview on GRTV)

The main difference between Linguistic Imperialism and Language Imperialism is whether or not translation is involved, namely the translating of foreign key concepts into one’s own language for the reasons given in the quotation above. Language Imperialism is a very distinct form of cultural imperialism, more subtle and subversive than just replacing an entire language by a dominant other (like dominant English replaced (almost) all other languages in North America, for example), but more like a surgical operation, a small readjustment of meaning, and it’s often done to a single key word at a time. In fact, another name for language imperialism would be word imperialism.

Thus, while Linguistic Imperialism is defined as the transfer of a dominant language to other people, Language Imperialism is the translation of another people’s language.

        


imperialism and its many forms - thorsten pattberg

Imperialism and its many forms - Thorsten Pattberg

For example: Teaching English to children in Indiais linguistic imperialism but not necessarily language imperialism. The teacher may have no knowledge of Hindi at all; or the children learn the language without reference to a second one. However, translating dharma, a Sanskrit word and key concept in the Hindu tradition, as “cosmic law” for a textbook about India is Language Imperialism –not Linguistic Imperialism. The difference is the act of translation (of key terminologies).

Everyone who says “democracy in China” is by definition a language imperialist only if he refers to a term that supposedly exists in China that, in his mind, ought to correspont and translate as “democracy”. Since the Western word and concept “democracy” doesn’t exist in the Chinese language, but the speaker evidently needs it to exist in order for his observation “democracy in China” to be factfully correct, he must base his reasoning on the assumption that there is something in China (a Chinese word, a concept) that ought (in his reasoning) to translate into “democracy”. Consciously or not, he is superimposing a Western term over that a Chinese one (whether he knows the Chinese term or not). Accordingly, it is not Language Imperialism if the speaker refers to ‘democracy’ as a word and concept imported to China from the West.

Imperialism = Conquer and control another country (J. Downing & A. Mohammadi)
Cultural Imperialism = Superimpose one culture over another (H. Schiller)
Linguistic Imperialism = Transfer of a dominant language to other people (R. Phillipson)
Language Imperialism = Translation of another people’s language (T. Pattberg)

2.The implementation

Phillipson's theory critiques the historic spread of English as an international language and that language's continued dominance, particularly in postcolonial settings such as India, Pakistan, Uganda, Zimbabwe, etc, but also increasingly in "neo-colonial" settings such as continental Europe. His theory draws mainly on Johan Galtung's imperialism theory, Antonio Gramsci's social theory, and in particular on his notion of cultural hegemony.

A central theme of Phillipson's theory is the complex hegemonic processes which, he asserts, continue to sustain the pre-eminence of English in the world today. His book analyzes the British Council's use of rhetoric to promote English, and discusses key tenets of English applied linguistics and English-language-teaching methodology. These tenets hold that:



  • English is best taught monolingually ("the monolingual fallacy");

  • the ideal teacher is a native speaker ("the native-speaker fallacy");

  • the earlier English is taught, the better the results ("the early-start fallacy");

  • the more English is taught, the better the results ("the maximum-exposure fallacy");

  • if other languages are used much, standards of English will drop ("the subtractive fallacy").

According to Phillipson, those who promote English—organizations such as the British Council, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, and individuals such as operators of English-language schools—use three types of argument:

  • Intrinsic arguments describe the English language as providential, rich, noble and interesting. Such arguments tend to assert what English is and what other languages are not.

  • Extrinsic arguments point out that English is well-established: that it has many speakers, and that there are trained teachers and a wealth of teaching material.

  • Functional arguments emphasize the usefulness of English as a gateway to the world.

Other arguments for English are

  • its economic utility: it enables people to operate technology;

  • its ideological function: it stands for modernity;

  • its status as symbol for material advance and efficiency.

Another theme in Phillipson's work is "linguicism"—the species of prejudice that leads to endangered languages becoming extinct or losing their local eminence due to the rise and competing prominence of English.

In 1976 Black school children in Soweto protested at being taught in Afrikaans, which had been pushed by the Apartheid authorities concerned at the growing refusal of the Black population to speak it. They reasoned that by only having access to Afrikaner resources the South African government could control them more closely than having access to a global language i.e. English. 176 children died for the right to be taught in English and the Uprising became a turning point in the overthrow of Apartheid with many of the generation of school children becoming members of the post-Apartheid government.

At various times, especially in colonial settings or where a dominant culture has sought to unify a region under its control, a similar phenomenon has arisen. In the Roman Empire, Latin - originally the language of a limited region in central Italy - was imposed on large parts of Europe, largely displacing previous languages spoken there. In the Far East, Africa and South America, regional languages have been or are being coercively replaced or marginalized by the language of a dominant culture—Tibetan and minority Chinese dialects by Mandarin Chinese, Ainu and Ryukyuan by Japanese, Quechua by Spanish, and so on.

Despite the English language's reputation for linguistic imperialism, during the Middle Ages it too was an object of linguistic imperialism, by the French language, particularly following the Norman conquest. For hundreds of years, French or Anglo-Norman was the language of administration (See Law French) and therefore a language of superior status in England. Latin remained the language of the church and of learning. Although many words introduced by the Normans are today indistinguishable by most English-speakers from native Germanic words, later-learned loanwords derived from Latin or French often have a more cultured sound to a native English-speaker.

Following the establishment of the Holy Roman Empire over much of present-day Germany and Central Europe, the German language and its dialects became the preferred language of many Central-European nobility. With varying success, German spread across much of Central and Eastern Europe as a language of trade and status. This finally came to an end with World War II (See also Germanization.). French too is known as an expansionist language. Languages such as Occitan, Breton, Basque and Corsican were to a great extent margnialised in France. This process, known as Francization, often causes resistance amongst the subject peoples, leading to demands for independence. Examples of this can still be found in Brittany and Flanders (Belgium).

Another example of linguistic imperialism was seen in post-independence India. That country's authorities initially sought to make Hindi the sole "national language", but due to protests from southern states (where Dravidian languages such as Kannada, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, and Tulu are spoken) and West Bengal (where Bengali is spoken), the "national-language" policy did not succeed. Both Hindi and English were made the "Official Languages of the Indian Union Government." However, since the economic liberalization in 1991, English has become the lingua franca of business, higher education and research. In urban India, the medium of education even in primary schools is now mainly English.

Russian linguistic imperialism can be detected in Belarus both in the former dispute over the name of the country (Belarus vs Belorussia) and in the common spelling of the name of their president. English transcription has overtaken the Russian form Alexander Lukashenko instead of Belarusian form Alyaksandr Lukashenka.

            Another example tells us about the way English is represented and practiced in other countries. Let see from Indonesia. An example when Indonesian shows an English teaching series on television, people of Indonesia are more attractive to that than Indonesian teaching series. Nowadays, English becomes so popular over the societies in Indonesia even they life-styles imitate English life-styles. we can see from their way of naming something, for example, the name of a restaurant in Jakarta “Betawi Special Food Court”, they use English words to represent their perspective that if they use English words, the customers will be more interested than if we use Indonesia words “Makanan Khas Betawi”, people or customers will often come to this restaurant. From this example, we know that even villagers such Betawi people are also getting imperialized by English. There are so many English words used in Indonesia, not only in the way of naming things, but also the style of daily life, for example, many teenagers always wear cloth with English words written on it like Eminem song lyrics clothes. Then they also always sing English songs.

Another example can show us how importance English in our daily life is the words written on the direction in traffic jam. Police officers put the directional sign in English words like Stop, Turn Right, Turn Left, Straight Forward, Back, Slippery Way, Be Careful, so on. We can see there are no Indonesia words written on it such as Hati-Hati, Belok Kiri and Belok Kanan and so on.

            The example of the real situations of ELT’s effect to Indonesia education system in school can be seen in the school that is an International School (RSBI) that uses English as their dominance language in school. But now our government closed this school. The first thing we can pay attention is the students. The students of that school are required to be able to speak English in conversation with friends in school area, if any of the students do not speak English, they will got punishment. The second thing is that the materials of teaching process also follow English system. The third thing is the teacher of that school must be able to speak English fluently because they must speak in English while they are teaching the students and not only English subject the teacher must speak English, but they also speak in English in every subject, such as Biology subject in English, the teachers teach Math in English. From this kind of example, we find how big the influences of English linguistic imperialism in Indonesia.


Critique

Many scholars have participated in lively discussions of Phillipson’s claims. Alan Davies, for instance, envisions the spectre of Phillipson haunting the Department of Applied Linguistics in Edinburgh:

'Round up the usual suspects', he cries, outing those who have pretended all these years merely to teach applied linguistics, but who have really been plotting with the British Council to take over the world.

For Davies, two cultures inhabit Linguistic Imperialism: one, a culture of guilt ("colonies should never have happened"); the other, that of romantic despair ("we shouldn’t be doing what we are doing"). Rajagopalan goes a step farther and maintains that Phillipson’s book has led to a guilt complex among English language learning and teaching (ELT) professionals.

Davies also argues that Phillipson’s claims are not falsifiable: what "if the dominated... wanted to adopt English and continue to want to keep it? RP’s unfalsifiable answer must be that they don’t, they can’t, they’ve been persuaded against their better interests."[6] It has thus been argued that Phillipson’s theory is patronizing in the sense that it does not regard developing countries as being capable of independent decision-making (to adopt or not to adopt ELT). In the context of Nigeria, Bisong holds that people in the "periphery" use English pragmatically—they send their children to English-language schools precisely because they want them to grow up multilingual. Regarding Phillipson, Bisong maintains that "to interpret such actions as emanating from people who are victims of Centre linguistic imperialism is to bend sociolinguistic evidence to suit a preconceived thesis."[7] If English should be abolished because it is foreign, Bisong argues, then Nigeria itself would also have to be dissolved, because it was conceived as a colonial structure.

Furthermore, the assumption that the English language itself is imperialistic has come under attack. Henry Widdowson has argued that "there is a fundamental contradiction in the idea that the language of itself exerts hegemonic control: namely that if this were the case, you would never be able to challenge such control."[8] Additionally, the idea that the promotion of English necessarily implies a demotion of local languages has been challenged. Holborrow points out that "not all Englishes in the centre dominate, nor are all speakers in the periphery equally discriminated against."[9] Irish English, for instance, could be regarded as a non-dominant centre variety of English.

Thus it could be argued that, while those who follow Phillipson see choices about language as externally imposed, the other camp sees them as decisions made by individuals.[10]

Response

Those who support the arguments favoring the reality of linguistic imperialism claim that arguments against it are often advanced by monolingual native-speakers of English who may see the current status of English as a fact worthy of celebration.

In contrast, it has been argued that those who see the increasing spread of English in the world as a worrying development (that marginalizes the status of local and regional languages as well as potentially undermining or eroding cultural values) are likely to be far more receptive to Phillipson's views. Alastair Pennycook, Suresh Canagarajah, Adrian Holliday and Julian Edge broadly fall into this group and are often described as critical applied linguists.

However, Henry Widdowson’s remarks on critical discourse analysis may also be applied to the critical applied linguists:

It ought surely to be possible to say that an argument is confused, or an analysis flawed, without denying the justice of the cause they support. My view would be that if a case is just then we should look for ways of supporting it by coherent argument... And I would indeed argue that to do otherwise is to do a disservice to the cause. For the procedures of ideological exposure by expedient analysis... can, of course be taken up to further any cause, right wing as well as left.... If you have the conviction and commitment, you will always find your witch.

As a response to English linguistic imperialism, de-anglicisation became a matter of national pride in some places and especially in regions that were once under colonial rule, where vestiges of colonial domination are a sensitive subject. Following centuries of English rule in Ireland, an argument for de-anglicisation was delivered before the Irish National Literary Society in Dublin, 25 November 1892; "When we speak of 'The Necessity for De-Anglicising the Irish Nation', we mean it, not as a protest against imitating what is best in the English people, for that would be absurd, but rather to show the folly of neglecting what is Irish, and hastening to adopt, pell-mell, and indiscriminately, everything that is English, simply because it is English."[12] Despite its status as an official language, the Irish language has been reduced to a minority language in Ireland as a result of centuries of English rule, as is the case in North America where their indigenous languages have been replaced by that of the colonists.

According to Ghil'ad Zuckermann, "Native tongue title and language rights should be promoted. The government ought to define Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander vernaculars as official languages of Australia. We must change the linguistic landscape of Whyalla and elsewhere. Signs should be in both English and the local indigenous language. We ought to acknowledge intellectual property of indigenous knowledge including language, music and dance."

In 2005 a French Report on the linguistic situation in the European Union emphasizes that the most economically advantageous and equitable language policy is the learning and use of Esperanto for international communication.



Appropriation

Some who reject the concept of linguistic imperialism argue that the global spread of English is better understood in the framework of appropriation—that English is used around the world for local purposes. In additional to the example of Nigeria, above, the following examples have been given:



  • Demonstrators in non-English-speaking countries often use signs in English to convey their demands to TV audiences around the globe. In some cases, the demonstrator may not even understand what the sign he is carrying says.

  • Bobda shows how Cameroon has moved away from a mono-cultural, Anglo-centered way of teaching English and has gradually accommodated teaching materials to a Cameroonian context. Non-Western topics are treated, such as rule by emirs, traditional medicine, and polygamy. Bobda argues for bi-cultural, Cameroonian and Anglo-American education.

  • Kramsch and Sullivan describe how Western methodology and textbooks have been appropriated to suit local Vietnamese culture.

  • The Pakistani textbook Primary Stage English includes lessons such as "Pakistan, My Country," "Our Flag," and "Our Great Leader," which might sound jingoistic to western ears. Within the native culture, however, establishing a connection between ELT, patriotism and the Muslim faith is seen as an aim of ELT, as the chairman of the Punjab Textbook Board openly states: "The board... takes care, through these books to inoculate in the students a love of the Islamic values and awareness to guard the ideological frontiers of your [the student's] home lands."

  • Such an "internationalization" of English might also create new possibilities for English native-speakers. McCabe elaborates:

...whereas for two centuries we exported our language and our customs in hot pursuit of... fresh markets, we now find that our language and our customs are returned to us but altered so that they can be used by others... so that our own language and culture discover new possibilities, fresh contradictions.

Conclusion

We are as human beings live in the world categorized by inequality of gender, nations and nationality, race, class, culture, and language. We cannot separate all aspect of this life because we need them all. The most need for us as identity is our language that distinguishes us from other ethnics in the world. English linguistic imperialism is the dominance of English is asserted and maintained by the establishment and continuous reconstitution of structural and cultural inequalities between English and other languages.

We can say that English has become world language.

Eventhough English also has spread in Indonesia, we, as indonesian people, do not need to reject it in our life. We have to make our Indonesian language become more powerful as our mother tongue but we can use English for certain purpose, for example for bussiness, higher education and may be for research. It is because we will relates to people from other countries so we can use English as communication. To make our mother tongue more powerfull, we can speak it at home, school and official activity. So we will not loose our language and nationality. And also the younger generations do not imitate Western life-styles.

If we are not careful in anlyzing the situation, English imperialism causes so many problems such as:

a.  Language loses. It means that the indigenous language of a country is no longer used by their people, for example in Africa.

b.   Lose identity

c.    We lose our original culture and characteristic of our country

d.    There is no patriotism to keep saving our language


So, we have to be wise in facing Linguistic imperialism. Use the English without forgetting our mother tongue. Don’t let it change our language as our identity.

References

Phillipson, Robert. Linguistic Imperialism. 1992. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Linguistic Imperialism, from wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Linguistic imperialism, Richard Nordquist, about.com Guide

What is Language Imperialism in www-east-west-dichotomy.com



Linguistic Imperialism, robbinurdin.blogspot.com/2012/06


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page