Tsar Bismarck provokes
Alexander II Franco-Prussian War
frees the serfs. to create a unified German empire.
For: Interactive timeline Web Code: nbp-2264
Revolution breaks out in St. Petersburg after Bloody Sunday massacre.
Terms, People, and Places
Match the following definitions with the terms listed below.
social welfare Duma anarchist
someone who wants to abolish all government
elected national legislature in Russia
emperor of Germany
granting of freedom to serfs
the highest official of a monarch
violent attack on a Jewish community
movement away from one's homeland
realistic politics based on the needs of the state
programs to help people in need
Section 1 (pp. 330-333)
What was Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's main goal? What policies did he follow to meet that goal?
Section 2 (pp. 334-337)
How did Germany increase its power in the late 1800s?
Section 3 (pp. 338-342)
Summarize the process by which Italy unified. Include information on the leaders who helped unify Italy.
Section 4 (pp. 343-346)
How did nationalism contribute to the decline of the Hapsburg and Ottoman empires?
Section 5 (pp. 348-353)
Why was Russia slow to industrialize?
Chapter Focus Question
What effects did nationalism and the demand for reform have in Europe?
Make Comparisons How did the nationalism represented by Bismarck differ from that embraced by liberals in the early 1800s?
Make Comparisons Compare and contrast the goals and methods of Cavour in Italy and Bismarck in Germany.
Analyze Information Tsar Alexander II declared that it is "better to abolish serfdom from above than to wait until it will be abolished by a movement from below." Explain his statement.
Geography and History How did regional differences contribute to continued divisions in Italy after unification?
Analyzing Cartoons How does this French cartoonist view Bismarck? Explain.
Consequences Based on your reading of the chapter, predict the consequences of the following: (a) defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, (b) growth of German nationalism and militarism in the late 1800s, (c) failure to satisfy nationalist
ambitions in Austria-Hungary, and (d) weakening of the Ottoman empire.
Writing About History
Writing a Persuasive Essay Some people define nationalism as excessive, narrow, or jingoist patriotism. A nationalist might be described as someone who boasts of his patriotism and favors aggressive or warlike policies. The rise of nationalism in Europe led to both division and unification. For example, it unified Germany, but it led Russian tsars to suppress the cultures of national minorities within the country. Nationalism remains a powerful force to this day for unifying countries and for sparking rivalries, conflicts, and bloodshed. Write a persuasive essay in which you support or oppose the idea that nationalism is an excessive form of patriotism.
Collect the examples and evidence that you need to support your position convincingly.
Use a graphic organizer to list points on both sides of the issue.
Focus on a thesis statement. Clearly state the position that you will prove. Use the rest of your introduction to provide readers with the necessary context about the issue.
Acknowledge the opposition by stating, and then refuting, opposing arguments.
Use the guidelines for revising your essay on page SH17 of the Writing Handbook.
On the Crimean Front
In 1853, the British, the French, and their allies took on the vast Russian empire in the Crimean War. Called a "perfectly useless modern war," it was fought in the Black Sea region, although major campaigns took place well beyond that area. Like all wars, it was grim. More than 500,000 people died during the conflict.
"[The Crimean War] was one of the last times that the massed formations of cavalry and infantry were employed—the thin red line was to disappear forever. Henceforward, armies would rely on open, flexible formations and on trench warfare. For the British, it was the end of an era: never again would their soldiers fight in full-dress uniform. Never again would the colors be carried into the fray and the infantry would no longer march into battle to the stirring tunes of regimental bands. The Crimean War ushered in the age of the percussion cap rifle. The new Minie rifle was the decisive weapon, replacing the clumsy ... musket. The weapon fired a cartridge, not a ball, with accuracy far superior to the old firelocks...."
—From The Road to Balaklava, by Alexis S. Troubetzkoy Document B
"I see men in hundreds rushing from the Mamelon [bastion] to the Malakoff [tower].... with all its bristling guns. Under what a storm of fire they advance, supported by that impenetrable red line, which marks our own infantry! The fire from the Malakoff is tremendous—terrible.... Presently the twilight deepens, and the light of rocket, mortar, and shell falls over the town."
—From Journal kept during the Russian War: From the
Departure of the Army from England in April 1854, to the Fall
of Sebastopol, by Mrs. Henry Duberly, an army wife
"Men sent in there [French hospital] with fevers and other disorders were frequently attacked with the cholera in its worst form, and died with unusual rapidity, in spite of all that could be done to save them. I visited the hospital, and observed that a long train of ... carts, filled with sick soldiers, were drawn up by the walls.... the quiet that prevailed was only broken now and then by the moans and cries of pain of the poor sufferers in the carts."
—From The British Expedition to the Crimea by W. H. Russell, Times correspondent
Use your knowledge of the Crimean War and Documents A, B, C, and D to answer questions 1-4.
1. According to document A, the Crimean War marked the end of
A private soldiers in war.
B most small wars in Europe.
C old ways of fighting.
D soldiers dying of diseases in military hospitals.
2. With what purpose did the author write Document B?
A to help people understand the dangers of fighting with new weapons
B to criticize inadequate technology
C to describe the state of mind of the soldiers
D to make the British public understand how quickly the war was progressing
3. With what purpose did the artist create Document D?
A to help the British public understand the dangers of fighting with new weapons
B to criticize the inadequate state of army hospitals
C to describe the dangers of soldiering and soldiers' valor
D to make the British public understand the toll that disease
was taking on soldiers
4. Writing Task Suppose you are a surgeon working near the war front. Write a brief letter home describing your impressions. Use the four documents along with information from the chapter to write your letter.