The American Revolution may have been the first major eruption of nationalism. Americans sought liberty and equality. This search, prevented by Britain's efforts to maintain control, helped unify the diverse American colonies. Americans already spoke the same language and followed the same basic religion. Faced with Britain's tyranny, nationalist feelings arose in the form of patriotism. Those feelings gained full expression in the Declaration of Independence of July 4, 1776.
Three Sarajevan girls run through "Sniper Alley" in Sarajevo.
Yugoslavia has been an ethnic powder keg since its creation in 1918. Nationalist tensions broke up this federation of six republics after the fall of communism. Four republics declared their independence, but the republic of Serbia aggressively tried to keep the nation together. It supported Serbian nationalists in civil wars and used "ethnic cleansing" to clear regions of non-Serbs in hopes of absorbing those regions into a "Greater Serbia." Intervention by NATO finally ended this practice and restored an uneasy peace in 1999.
Queen Elizabeth and King George VI of Great Britain visit a London neighborhood that had been
bombed by Germany in 1941.
(a) Is nationalism a positive force? Explain your answer. (b) What event or events in recent years brought out nationalistic feelings among Americans? Why?
Connections to Today Do library research to identify an example of nationalism today.
In June 1940, the British expected an invasion. Their nation stood alone against the German military machine, which was ready to strike as soon as Britain's defenses weakened. They never weakened. Prime Minister Winston Churchill set the tone when he urged the nation to stand up to Hitler. The British responded with courage and devotion to the cause of freedom. Despite a bombing blitz that devastated London, British morale remained high, and Hitler gave up his plans.
WITNESS HISTORY 110 AUDIO
Plight of the Serfs
Although serfdom had almost disappeared in Western Europe by the 1700s, it survived in Russia. Masters exercised almost total power over their serfs. A noble turned revolutionary described the treatment of the serfs:
«I heard ... stories of men and women torn from their families and their villages, and sold, or lost in gambling, or exchanged for a couple of hunting dogs, and then transported to some remote part of Russia to create a [master's] new estate; of children taken from their parents and sold to cruel ... masters."
—Peter Kropotkin, Memoirs of a Revolutionist
Focus Question Why did industrialization and reform come more slowly to Russia than to Western Europe?
Russa: Reform and Reaction
Describe major obstacles to progress in Russia.
Explain why tsars followed a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction.
Understand why the problems of industrialization contributed to the outbreak of revolution.
Terms, People, and Places
Alexander II refugees
Crimean War Duma
emancipation Peter Stolypin zemstvo
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Create a timeline of Russian events like the one below to keep track of the sequence of events that led to the revolution of 1905. Look for dates and other clues to sequence in the text.
1800 1850 1900 1950
348 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
Reformers hoped to free Russia from autocratic rule, economic backwardness, and social injustice. But efforts to modernize Russia had little success, as tsars imprisoned critics or sent them into exile.
Conditions in Russia
By 1815, Russia was not only the largest, most populous nation in Europe but also a great world power. Since the 1600s, explorers had pushed the Russian frontier eastward across Siberia to the Pacific. Peter the Great and Catherine the Great had added lands on the Baltic and Black seas, and tsars in the 1800s had expanded into Central Asia. Russia had thus acquired a huge multinational empire, part European and part Asian.
Other European nations looked on the Russian colossus, or giant, with a mixture of wonder and misgiving. Russia had immense natural resources. Its vast size gave it global interests and influence. But Western Europeans disliked its autocratic government and feared its expansionist aims. Despite efforts by Peter and Catherine to westernize Russia, it remained economically undeveloped. By the 1800s, tsars saw the need to modernize but resisted reforms that would undermine their absolute rule.
Russia's Social Structure A great obstacle to progress was the rigid social structure. Landowning nobles dominated society and rejected any change that would threaten their privileges. The middle class was too small to have much influence. The majority of Russians were serfs, or laborers bound to the land and to masters who controlled their fates.
Most serfs were peasants. Others were servants, artisans, or soldiers forced into the tsar's army. As industry expanded, some masters sent serfs to work in factories but took much of their pay.
Many enlightened Russians knew that serfdom was inefficient. As long as most people had to serve the whim of their masters, Russia's economy would remain backward. However, landowning nobles had no reason to improve agriculture and took little interest in industry.
Ruling With Absolute Power For centuries, tsars had ruled with absolute power, imposing their will on their subjects. On occasion, the tsars made limited attempts at liberal reform, such as easing censorship or making legal and economic reforms to improve the lives of serfs. However, in each instance the tsars drew back from their reforms when they began to fear losing the support of nobles. In short, the liberal and nationalist changes brought about by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution had almost no effect on Russian autocracy.
Checkpoint Describe the social structure that existed in Russia during the 1800s.
Emancipation and Stirrings of Revolution
Alexander II came to the throne in 1855 during the Crimean War. His reign represents the pattern of reform and repression used by his father and grandfather, Alexander I and Nicholas I. The Crimean War had broken out after Russia tried to seize Ottoman lands along the Danube River. Britain and France stepped in to help the Ottoman Turks, invading the Crimean peninsula that juts into the Black Sea. The war, which ended in a Russian defeat, revealed the country's backwardness. Russia had only a few miles of railroads, and the military bureaucracy was hopelessly inefficient. Many felt that dramatic changes were needed.
Freeing the Serfs A widespread popular reaction followed. Liberals demanded changes, and students demonstrated, seeking reform. Pressed from all sides, Alexander II finally agreed to reforms. In 1861, he issued a royal decree that required emancipation, or freeing of the serfs.
Freedom brought problems. Former serfs had to buy the land they had worked, but many were too poor to do so. Also, the lands allotted to peasants were often too small to farm efficiently
or to support a family. Peasants remained
poor, and discontent festered.
Still, emancipation was a turning point.
Many peasants moved to the cities, taking
jobs in factories and building Russian
industries. Equally important, freeing the
serfs boosted the drive for further reform.
Introducing Other Reforms Along
with emancipation, Alexander II set up a system of local government. Elected assemblies, called zemstvos, were made responsible for matters such as road repair, schools, and agriculture. Through this system, Russians gained some experience of self-government at the local level.
The Decembrist Revolt
In 1825, army officers led an uprising known as the Decembrist Revolt (below). They had picked up liberal ideas while fighting in Western Europe and demanded reforms and a constitution. Tsar Nicholas I repressed the revolt. This stamp (inset) commemorates the 125th anniversary of the revolt. How did the revolt symbolize Russia in the 1800s?
Chapter 10 Section 5 349
radical—(RAD ih kul) n. a person who favors great changes or reforms
The tsar also introduced legal reforms based on ideas like trial by jury, and he eased censorship. Military service terms were reduced, and brutal discipline was limited. Alexander also encouraged the growth of industry in Russia, which still relied heavily on agriculture.
Revolutionary Currents Alexander's reforms failed to satisfy many Russians. Peasants had freedom but not land. Liberals wanted a constitution and an elected legislature. Radicals, who had adopted socialist ideas from the West, demanded even more revolutionary changes. The tsar, meantime, moved away from reform and toward repression.
In the 1870s, some socialists went to live and work among peasants, preaching reform and rebellion. They had little success. The peasants scarcely understood them and sometimes turned them over to the police. The failure of this movement, combined with renewed government repression, sparked anger among radicals. Some turned to terrorism. On March 13, 1881, terrorists assassinated Alexander II.
Crackdown Alexander III responded to his father's assassination by reviving the harsh methods of Nicholas I. To wipe out liberals and revolutionaries, he increased the power of the secret police, restored strict censorship, and exiled critics to Siberia. The tsar also launched a program of Russification aimed at suppressing the cultures of non-Russian peoples within the empire. Alexander insisted on one language, Russian,
ttg aL_ ar: Reform and Repression
by the Russian Tsars
The five tsars that ruled Russia from 1801 to 1917 all followed a similar pattern of autocratic rule: at times they appeared open to liberal ideas and enacted reforms to satisfy the groups demanding change. In every case, however, the tsars pulled back on these reforms and launched a battery of repressive measures designed to preserve their absolute power and the support of the nobles.
Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander III. Nicholas I
A Jewish men survey damage done to sacred
Torah scrolls during an 1881 pogrom in Russia.
3ression and Crackdown
Secret police, arrests, executions
Strict censorship of liberal ideas
Bolstering Russian Orthodox Church
Insisting on the absolute power of the state
Persecuting non-Russian groups within empire
and one church, the Russian Orthodox Church. Poles, Ukrainians, Finns, Armenians, Muslims, Jews, and many others suffered persecution.
Persecution and Pogroms Russia had acquired a large Jewish population when it carved up Poland and expanded into Ukraine. Under Alexander III, persecution of Jewish people in Russia increased. The tsar limited the number of Jewish people who were allowed to study in universities and practice certain professions. He also forced them to live in restricted areas.
Official persecution encouraged pogroms, or violent mob attacks on Jewish people. Gangs beat and killed Jewish people and looted and burned their homes and stores. Faced with savage persecution, many left Russia. They became refugees, or people who flee their homeland to seek safety elsewhere. Large numbers of Russian Jews went to the United States.
Checkpoint How did Alexander Ill respond to the murder of his father?
The Drive to Industrialize
Russia finally entered the industrial age under Alexander III and his son Nicholas II. In the 1890s, Nicholas' government
The Tsars Give In:
Concessions and Reforms
Revising law code
Limiting the power of landowners
Freeing serfs (1861)
Creating local self-government, or zemstovs
Creating national legislature, or Duma
Russian peasants in a rural village around 1900
°sing e Tsars 110- Liberals, socialists,
army officers, workers
Identify Main Ideas What factors brought about so much opposition to the tsars?
Draw Conclusions Why do you think the tsars swung back and forth between repression and reform?
WITNESS HISTORY VIDEO
Watch Crisis and Revolution in Russia on the Witness History Discovery SchoolTM video program to examine the discontent in tsarist Russia.
An artist's depiction shows the execution of workers in front of the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, January 9, 1905 (below). The magazine cover (inset) shows "Le Tzar Rouge," or "The Red Tsar." Compare and contrast these images of Bloody Sunday.
focused on economic development. It encouraged the building of railroads to connect iron and coal mines with factories and to transport goods across Russia. It also secured foreign capital to invest in industry and transportation systems, such as the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which linked European Russia to the Pacific Ocean.
Political and social problems increased as a result of industrialization. Government officials and business leaders applauded economic growth. Nobles and peasants opposed it, fearing the changes it brought. Industrialization also created new social ills as peasants flocked to cities to work in factories. Instead of a better life, they found long hours and low pay in dangerous conditions. In the slums around the factories, poverty, disease, and discontent multiplied. Radicals sought supporters among the new industrial workers. At factory gates, Socialists often handed out pamphlets that preached the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx.
Checkpoint How did Russia industrialize?
Turning Point: Crisis and Revolution
When war broke out between Russia and Japan in 1904, Nicholas II called on his people to fight for "the Faith, the Tsar, and the Fatherland." Despite all of their efforts, the Russians suffered one humiliating defeat after another.
3loody Sunday News of the military disasters unleashed pent-up dis'ontent created by years of oppression. Protesters poured into the streets. ]Yorkers went on strike, demanding shorter hours and better wages. Liberds called for a constitution and reforms to overhaul the government.
As the crisis deepened, a young Orthodox priest organized a peaceful narch for Sunday, January 22, 1905. Marchers flowed through the treets of St. Petersburg toward the tsar's Winter Palace. Chanting )rayers and singing hymns, workers carried holy icons and pictures of he tsar. They also brought a petition for justice and freedom.
Fearing the marchers, the tsar had fled the palace and called in soldiers. As the people approached, they saw troops lined up across the square. Suddenly, gunfire rang out. Hundreds of men and women fell dead or wounded in the snow. One woman stumbling away from the scene moaned: "The tsar has deserted us! They shot away the orthodox faith." Indeed, the slaughter marked a turning point for Russians. "Bloody Sunday" killed the people's faith and trust in the tsar.
The Revolution of 1905 In the months that followed Bloody Sunday, discontent exploded across Russia. Strikes multiplied. In some cities, workers took over local government. In the countryside, peasants revolted and demanded land. Minority nationalities called for autonomy from Russia. Terrorists targeted officials, and some assassins were cheered as heroes by discontented Russians.
At last, the clamor grew so great that Nicholas was forced to announce sweeping reforms. In the October Manifesto, he promised "freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly, and union." He agreed to summon a Duma, or elected national legislature. No law, he declared, would go into effect without approval by the Duma.
Results of the Revolution The manifesto won over moderates, leaving Socialists isolated. These divisions helped the tsar, who had no intention of letting strikers, revolutionaries, and rebellious peasants challenge him.
In 1906, the first Duma met, but the tsar quickly dissolved it when leaders criticized the government. Nicholas then appointed a new prime minister, Peter Stolypin (stuh LIP yin). Arrests, pogroms, and executions followed as the conservative Stolypin sought to restore order.
Stolypin soon realized that Russia needed reform, not just repression. To regain peasant support, he introduced moderate land reforms. He strengthened the zemstvos and improved education. Unfortunately, these reforms were too limited to meet the broad needs of most Russians, and dissatisfaction still simmered. Stolypin was assassinated in 1911. Several more Dumas met during this period, but new voting laws made sure they were conservative. By 1914, Russia was still an autocracy, but one simmering with unrest.
Checkpoint Why was Bloody Sunday a turning point for the Russians?
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2255
; Terms, People, and Places
For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence explaining its significance.
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use your completed timeline to answer the Focus Question: Why did industrialization and reform come more slowly to Russia than to Western Europe?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
Summarize What conditions in Russia challenged progress during the early 1800s?
Draw Conclusions How did Russian tsars typically react to change?
Draw Inferences What does Bloody Sunday suggest about the relationship between the tsar and the Russian people?
• Writing About History
Quick Write: Gather Evidence to Support Thesis Statement Choose a topic from the section, such as whether you think emancipation helped or hurt Russian serfs. Make a list of evidence from the section that supports your view.
Chapter 10 Section 5 353
Quick Study Guide
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-test with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2266
Effects of Nationalism
Nationalism by Region
German states unite under William I.
Empire takes leading role in Europe.
Bismarck becomes known
as the Iron Chancellor.
Garibaldi leads Red Shirts.
Victor Emmanuel II makes Cavour prime minister of Sardinia.
Italian states become
unified by 1871.
Francis I and Metternich uphold conservative goals.
Dual Monarchy with
Hungary is set up.
Empire becomes weakened.
Serbians achieve autonomy in 1830.
Greeks achieve independence in the 183
European nations divide up Ottoman lands.
"Balkan powder keg" helps set off World War I
Serfs are freed in 1861.
Alexander III encourages persecution and pogroms.
Russia enters the industrial age late.
Bloody Sunday leads to
revolution in 1905.
Duma has limited power.
Otto von Bismarck, chancellor
William I, Prussian king, German kaiser William kaiser
Giuseppe Mazzini, founder of Young Italy Victor Emmanuel II, king
Count Camillo Cavour, prime minister Giuseppe Garibaldi, leader of Red Shirts
Ferenc Deak, Hungarian politician
Francis Joseph, Austrian emperor, Hungarian king
Alexander II, tsar of Russia Alexander Ill, tsar of Russia Nicholas II, tsar of Russia
North Sea DE
0 400 mi
pio=m=i , ,:
400 km 7
Vienna Budapest AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
Unification in Europe, 1873
As the map below shows, nationalist movements led to the creation of several new nations across Europe
Key Events of Nationalism
Early 1800s Nationalism rises in Germany.
The Congress of Vienna redraws the map of Europe after Napoleon's defeat.
Giuseppe Mazzini founds Young Italy to encourage Italian unification.
Chapter Events Global Events
1800 1825 1850
Haiti declares independence from France.
Concept I Conr 6r
Record the answers to the questions below on your Concept Connector worksheets.
1. Empire In 1871, German nationalists celebrated the birth of the Second Reich, or empire. They called it that because they considered Germany heir to the Holy Roman Empire. Compare the Second Reich to the Holy Roman Empire. How were they similar? How were they different? Think about the following:
structure of government
power of the kaiser and emperor
the rule of William II and Otto I
who had voting rights
who held the real power
2. Nationalism During the early 1800s, nationalist rebellions erupted in the Balkans and elsewhere along the southern fringe of Europe. Between 1820 and 1848, nationalist revolts exploded across Italy. Compare and contrast Greece's unification and nationalism to Italy's. Think about the following:
the empires they revolted against
which countries they turned to for help
the structure of their governments
3. Nationalism During the 1800s, various subject peoples in the Balkans revolted against the Ottoman empire, hoping to set up independent states of their own. A complicated series of crises and wars soon followed. Take notes on the situation in the Balkans between 1800 and the early 1900s. Why did competing interests in the Balkans lead the region to be called a powder keg?
Connections To Today
Nationalism: The State of Nationalism Today You've read how nationalism was a strong enough force in the 1800s to help unify nations, such as Italy and Germany, but threatened to destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires. Do you think that nationalism is still a force in the world today? Conduct research to learn more about current nationalist issues. You may want to focus your research on Kurdistan, Northern Ireland, the former Yugoslavia, or Russia. Write two paragraphs on nationalism today, citing examples from current events to support your answer.
Economic Systems: Social Welfare Programs Under Otto von Bismarck, Germany was a pioneer in social reform, providing several social welfare programs to its citizens. By the 1890s, Germans had health and accident insurance as well as retirement benefits. Social welfare programs soon spread to other European nations. Conduct research to learn more about social welfare programs today. Compare social welfare programs in one country in Europe with those in the United States. How are they similar? How are they different?
World War I begins.
The Civil War begins in the United States.