Quick Write: Answer Opposing Arguments To write a strong persuasive essay, you need to address arguments that can be used to contradict your position. Choose a topic from the section. For example, think about whether a government should guarantee that its citizens have adequate healthcare. List the arguments for and against your position on a piece of paper.
Chapter 10 Section 2 337
Stirrings of Nationalism
After a failed revolution against Austrian rule in northern Italy, many rebels, fearing retribution, begged for funds to pay for safe passage to Spain. Giuseppe Mazzini (mat SEE nee), still a boy, described his reaction to the situation:
66 He (a rebel) held out a white handkerchief, merely saying, 'For the refugees of Italy.' My mother ... dropped some money into the handkerchief.... That day was the first in which a confused idea presented itself to my mind ... an idea that we Italians could and therefore ought to struggle for the liberty of our country....”
—Giuseppe Mazzini, Life and Writings
Focus Question How did influential leaders help to create a unified Italy?
List the key obstacles to Italian unity.
Understand what roles Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi played in the struggle for Italy.
Describe the challenges that faced the new nation of Italy.
"erms, People, and Places
iiuseppe Garibaldi Inarchist
leading Skill: Recognize Sequence As you ead, create a timeline showing the sequence of vents from 1831 to 1871 that led to Italian
1830 1850 1870
338 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
' Although the people of the Italian peninsula spoke the same language, they had not experienced political unity since Roman times. By the early 1800s, though, Italian patriots—including Mazzini, who would become a revolutionary—were determined to build a new, united Italy. As in Germany, unification was brought about by the efforts of a strong state and furthered by a shrewd, ruthless politician—Count Camillo Cavour (kah vooR).
Obstacles to Italian Unity
For centuries, Italy had been a battleground for ambitious foreign and local princes. Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people to identify with local regions. The people of Florence considered themselves Tuscans, those of Venice Venetians, those of Naples Neapolitans, and so on. But as in Germany, the invasions of Napoleon had sparked dreams of national unity.
The Congress of Vienna, however, ignored the nationalists who hoped to end centuries of foreign rule and achieve unity. To Prince Metternich of Austria, the idea of a unified Italy was laughable. At Vienna, Austria took control of much of northern Italy, while Hapsburg monarchs ruled various other Italian states. In the south, a French Bourbon ruler was put in charge of Naples and Sicily.
In response, nationalists organized secret patriotic societies and focused their efforts on expelling Austrian forces from northern Italy. Between 1820 and 1848, nationalist revolts exploded across the region. Each time, Austria sent in troops to crush the rebels.
Mazzini Establishes Young Italy In the 1830s, the nationalist leader Giuseppe Mazzini founded Young Italy. The goal of this secret society was "to constitute Italy, one, free, independent, republican nation." In 1849, Mazzini helped set up a revolutionary republic in Rome, but French forces soon toppled it. Like many other nationalists, Mazzini spent much of his life in exile, plotting and dreaming of a united Italy.
Nationalism Takes Root "Ideas grow quickly," Mazzini once said, "when watered by the blood of martyrs." Although revolution had failed, nationalist agitation had planted seeds for future harvests.
To nationalists like Mazzini, a united Italy made sense not only because of geography, but also because of a common language and history. Nationalists reminded Italians of the glories of ancient Rome and the medieval papacy. To others, unity made practical economic sense. It would end trade barriers among the Italian states and stimulate industry.
Checkpoint What forces hindered Italian unity?
The Struggle for Italy
After 1848, leadership of the Risorgimento (ree sawr jee MEN toh), or Italian nationalist movement, passed to the kingdom of Sardinia, which included Piedmont, Nice, and Savoy as well as the island of Sardinia. Its constitutional monarch, Victor Emmanuel II, hoped to join other states to his own, thereby increasing his power.
Cavour Becomes Prime Minister In 1852, Victor Emmanuel made Count Camillo Cavour his prime minister. Cavour came from a noble family but favored liberal goals. He was a flexible, practical, crafty politician, willing to use almost any means to achieve his goals. Like Bismarck in Prussia, Cavour was a monarchist who believed in Realpolitik.
Once in office, Cavour moved first to reform Sardinia's economy. He improved agriculture, had railroads built, and encouraged commerce by supporting free trade. Cavour's long-term goal, however, was to end Austrian power in Italy and annex the provinces of Lombardy and Venetia.
constitute—(KAHN stub toot) v. to set up; establish
Opposing Austrian Rule
In March 1848, nationalists in Venice took over the city's arsenal and declared the establishment of the Republic of Venice (left). Their success was short lived, however, as the republic was soon disbanded and Venice again fell under the rule of Austria in 1849. The image above is a draft of a speech written by Camillo Cavour in 1861.
Chapter 10 Section 3 339
successor—(suk SES ur) n. a person who succeeds another to an office or rank
Intrigue With France In 1855, Sardinia, led by Cavour, joined Britain and France against Russia in the Crimean War. Sardinia did not win territory, but it did have a voice at the peace conference. Sardinia also gained the attention of Napoleon III.
In 1858, Cavour negotiated a secret deal with Napoleon, who promised to aid Sardinia in case it faced a war with Austria. A year later, the shrewd Cavour provoked that war. With help from France, Sardinia defeated Austria and annexed Lombardy. Meanwhile, nationalist groups overthrew Austrian-backed rulers in several other northern Italian states. These states then joined with Sardinia.
Garibaldi's "Red Shirts" Next, attention shifted to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy. There, Giuseppe Garibaldi (gah ree BAHL dee), a longtime nationalist and an ally of Mazzini, was ready for action. Like Mazzini, Garibaldi wanted to create an Italian republic. He did not hesitate, however, to accept aid from the monarchist Cavour. By 1860, Garibaldi had recruited a force of 1,000 red-shirted volunteers. Cavour provided weapons and allowed two ships to take Garibaldi and his "Red Shirts" south to Sicily. With surprising speed, Garibaldi's forces won control of Sicily, crossed to the mainland, and marched triumphantly north to Naples.
Unity at Last Garibaldi's success alarmed Cavour, who feared that the nationalist hero would set up his own republic in the south. To prevent this, Cavour urged Victor Emmanuel to send Sardinian troops to deal with Garibaldi. Instead, the Sardinians overran the Papal States and linked up with Garibaldi and his forces in Naples.
In a patriotic move, Garibaldi turned over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel. Shortly afterward, southern Italy voted to approve the move, and in 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of Italy.
Two areas remained outside the new Italian nation: Rome and Venetia. Cavour died in 1861, but his successors completed his dream. In a deal negotiated with Bismarck after the Austro-Prussian War, Italy acquired Venetia. Then, during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, France was forced to withdraw its troops from Rome. For the first time since the fall of the Roman empire, Italy was a united land.
Checkpoint What steps did Camillo Cavour take to promote Italian unity?
Challenges Facing the New Nation
Italy faced a host of problems. Like the German empire that Bismarck cemented together out of many states, Italy had no tradition of unity. Few Italians felt ties to the new nation. Strong regional rivalries left Italy unable to solve critical national issues.
Divisions The greatest regional differences were between the north and the south. The north was richer and had more cities than the south. For centuries, northern Italian cities had flourished as centers of business and culture. The south, on the other hand, was rural and poor. Its population was booming, but illiterate peasants could extract only a meager existence from the exhausted farmland.
Hostility between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church further divided the nation. Popes bitterly resented the seizure of the Papal
340 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
Umiym It /137
The Italian peninsula had been divided into small independent states since the fall of the Roman empire in 476. Political unification seemed impossible. However, rebellion, nationalism, and unity slowly took hold with the help of four individuals: a revolutionary, a statesman, a soldier, and a king.
0 Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini, founder of Young Italy, helps set up a revolutionary republic in
Rome in 1849. French troops soon topple it.
OZ Camillo Cavour
In 1859, prime minister
Camillo Cavour provokes a war with Austria after secret negotiations with Napoleon III, who promised aid to Sardinia.
0 Nationalist Revolts Italian nationalists overthrow Austrian-backed rulers
in several northern states.
® Giuseppe Garibaldi
In 1860, Cavour provides weapons to Giuseppe Garibaldi, who invades Sicily with 1,000 Red Shirt volunteers (below). Garibaldi then captures Naples.
CD Victor Emmanuel II
In a patriotic move, Garibaldi turns over Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel, who is crowned king. In 1870, Italians conquer Rome, which becomes the capital city of a unified Italy.
Map Skills What route did Garibaldi's expedition take?
Draw Conclusions Why was Italian unification difficult to achieve?
Emigrants crowd the port of Naples (above). Why did Italians immigrate to other countries in the early 1900s?
States and of Rome. The government granted the papacy the small territory of the Vatican. Popes, however, saw themselves as "prisoners" and urged Italian Catholics—almost all Italians—not to cooperate with their new government.
Turmoil Under Victor Emmanuel, Italy was a constitutional monarchy with a two-house legislature. The king appointed members to the upper louse, which could veto bills passed by the lower house. Although the
lower house consisted of elected representatives, only a small
number of men had the right to vote.
In the late 1800s, unrest increased as radicals on
the left struggled against a conservative government. Socialists organized strikes while anarchists, people who want to abolish all government, turned to sabotage and violence. Slowly, the government extended
suffrage to more men and passed laws to improve social conditions. Still, the turmoil continued. To distract attention from troubles at home, the government set out to win an overseas empire
I in Ethiopia.
Economic Progress Despite its problems, Italy did
develop economically, especially after 1900. Although the
nation lacked important natural resources such as coal,
industries did sprout up in northern regions. Industrialization, of :ourse, brought urbanization as peasants flocked to the cities to find obs in factories. As in other countries, reformers campaigned to improve education and working conditions.
The population explosion of this period created tensions. One important safety valve for many people was emigration, or movement away rom their homeland. Many Italians left for the United States, -2anada, and Latin American nations. By 1914, the country was signifi;antly better off than it had been in 1861. But, it was hardly prepared for he great war that broke out in that year.
Checkpoint What problems did Italians experience after unification?
Terms, People, and Places
For each term, person, or place listed at the beginning of the section, write a sentence explaining its significance.
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Use your completed timeline to answer the Focus Question: How did influential leaders help to create a unified Italy?
Comprehension and Critical Thinking
Summarize (a) What obstacles to unity did Italian nationalists face? (b) What conditions favored unity?
Analyze Information (a) What was the source of conflict between Garibaldi and Cavour? (b) How was the conflict resolved?
Express Problems Clearly What challenges did Italians face after unification?
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2233
UP Writing About History
Quick Write: Decide on an Organizational Strategy Using clear organization to present a logical argument is a good way to keep the reader's attention in a persuasive essay. Choose an issue from the section about which you could make an argument. Then write an outline showing how you would organize a persuasive essay.
342 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
Austria-Hungariar empire flag
WITNESS iv AUDIO
64 How is it that they [European powers] cannot understand that less and less is it possible ... to direct the destinies of the Balkans from the outside? We are growing up, gaining confi
dence, and becoming independent ...99 —Bulgarian statesman on the first Balkan War and the European powers
Focus Question How did the desire for national independence among ethnic groups weaken and ultimately destroy the Austrian and Ottoman empires?
Describe how nationalism contributed to the decline of the Hapsburg empire.
List the main characteristics of the Dual Monarchy.
Understand how the growth of nationalism affected the Ottoman empire.
Terms, People, and Places
Francis Joseph Ferenc Deák
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence Complete a table like the one below to keep track of the sequence of events that led Austria into the Dual Monarchy. Look for dates and other clues to sequence in the text.
Events in Austrian History
1840 1848 1859 1866 1867
Hungarian parliament passes legislation funding an army to fight against the Hapsburg empire, 1848
Napoleon had dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, which the Hapsburgs had led for nearly 400 years. Austria's center of power had shifted to Central Europe. Additional wars resulted in continued loss of territory to Germany and Italy. Why did nationalism bring new strength to some countries and weaken others?
In Eastern and Central Europe, the Austrian Hapsburgs and the Ottoman Turks ruled lands that included diverse ethnic groups. Nationalist feelings among these subject peoples contributed to tensions building across Europe.
The Hapsburg Empire Declines
In 1800, the Hapsburgs were the oldest ruling house in Europe. In addition to their homeland of Austria, over the centuries they had acquired the territories of Bohemia and Hungary, as well as parts of Romania, Poland, Ukraine, and northern Italy.
Austria Faces Change Since the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian emperor Francis I and his foreign minister Metternich had upheld conservative goals against liberal forces. "Rule and change nothing," the emperor told his son. Under Francis and Metternich, newspapers could not even use the word constitution, much less discuss this key demand of liberals. The government also tried to limit industrial development, which would threaten traditional ways of life.
Chapter 10 Section 4 343
fraternal—(fruh TUR nul) adj. brotherly
Austria, however, could not hold back the changes that were engulfing the rest of Europe. By the 1840s, factories were springing up. Soon, the Hapsburgs found themselves facing the problems of industrial life that had long been familiar in Britain—the growth of cities, worker discontent, and the stirrings of socialism.
A Multinational Empire Equally disturbing to the old order were the urgent demands of nationalists. The Hapsburgs presided over a multinational empire. Of its 50 million people at mid-century, fewer than a quarter were German-speaking Austrians. Almost half belonged to different Slavic groups, including Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Often, rival groups shared the same region. The empire also included large numbers of Hungarians and Italians. The Hapsburgs ignored nationalist demands as long as they could. When nationalist revolts broke out in 1848, the government crushed them.
Francis Joseph Grants Limited Reforms Amid the turmoil, 18-year
old Francis Joseph inherited the Hapsburg throne. He would rule until 1916, presiding over the empire during its fading days into World War I.
An early challenge came when Austria suffered its humiliating defeat at the hands of France and Sardinia in 1859. Francis Joseph realized he needed to strengthen the empire at home. Accordingly, he made some limited reforms. He granted a new constitution that set up a legislature. This body, however, was dominated by German-speaking Austrians. The reforms thus satisfied none of the other national groups that populated the empire. The Hungarians, especially, were determined to settle for nothing less than total self-government.
Checkpoint What actions did Francis Joseph take to maintain power?
Formation of the Dual Monarchy
Austria's disastrous defeat in the 1866 war with Prussia brought renewed pressure for change from Hungarians within the empire. One year later, Ferenc Dedk (DEH ahk), a moderate Hungarian leader, helped work out a compromise that created a new political power known as the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The Austria-Hungary Government Under the agreement, Austria and Hungary were separate states. Each had its own constitution and parliament. Francis Joseph ruled both, as emperor of Austria and king of Hungary. The two states also shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs, but were independent of each other in all other areas.
Nationalist Unrest Increases Although Hungarians welcomed the compromise, other subject peoples resented it. Restlessness increased among various Slavic groups, especially the Czechs in Bohemia. Some nationalist leaders called on Slays to unite, insisting that "only through liberty, equality, and fraternal solidarity" could Slavic peoples fulfill their "great mission in the history of mankind." By the early 1900s, nationalist unrest often left the government paralyzed in the face of pressing political and social problems.
Checkpoint How did Hungarians and Slavic groups respond to the Dual Monarchy?
344 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
:olors reflect the major languages spoken
in Eastern Europe, 1800 to 1914.
Map Skills In the late 1800s, the Balkans had become a center of conflict, as various peoples and empires competed for power.
Locate (a) Black Sea (b) Ottoman empire (c) Serbia (d) Greece
Place Which four large seas border the Balkan Peninsula?
Identify Central Issues Why do you think competing interests in the Balkans led the region to be called a powder keg?
"The Sick Man of Europe"
Turkey's Abdul Hamid II (right) reacts to Bulgarian and Austrian rulers claiming parts of the Ottoman empire. How does this cartoon show the Ottoman empire as "the sick man of Europe"?
The Ottoman Empire Collapses
Like the Hapsburgs, the Ottomans ruled a multinational empire. It stretched from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to North Africa and the Middle East. There, as in Austria, nationalist demands tore at the fabric of the empire.
Balkan Nationalism Erupts In the Balkans, Serbia won autonomy in 1830, and southern Greece won independence during the 1830s. But many Serbs and Greeks still lived in the Balkans under Ottoman rule. The Ottoman empire was also home to other national groups, such as Bulgarians and Romanians. During the 1800s, various subject peoples staged revolts against the Ottomans, hoping to set up their own independent states.
European Powers Divide Up the Ottoman Empire Such national
ist stirrings became mixed up with the ambitions of the great European powers. In the mid-1800s, Europeans came to see the Ottoman empire as "the sick man of Europe." Eagerly, they scrambled to divide up Ottoman lands. Russia pushed south toward the Black Sea and Istanbul, which Russians still called Constantinople. Austria-Hungary took control of the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This action angered the Serbs, who also had hoped to expand into that area. Meanwhile, Britain and France set their sights on other Ottoman lands in the Middle East and North Africa.
War in the Balkans In the end, a complex web of competing interests contributed to a series of crises and wars in the Balkans. Russia fought several wars against the Ottomans. France and Britain sometimes joined the Russians and sometimes the Ottomans. Germany supported Austrian authority over the discontented national groups. But Germany also encouraged the Ottomans because of their strategic location in the eastern Mediterranean. In between, the subject peoples revolted and then fought among themselves. By the early 1900s, observers were referring to the region as the "Balkan powder keg." The explosion that came in 1914 helped set off World War I.
Checkpoint How did the European powers divide up Ottoman lands?
Progress Monitoring Online
For: Self-quiz with vocabulary practice Web Code: nba-2244
Terms, People, and Places Comprehension and Critical Thinking
For each term, person, or place listed at 3. the beginning of the section, write a
sentence explaining its significance.
Reading Skill: Recognize Sequence
Use your completed table to answer the 4. Focus Question: How did the desire for national independence among ethnic
groups weaken and ultimately destroy 5. the Austrian and Ottoman empires?
346 Nationalism Triumphs in Europe
Identify Alternatives What alternatives did Francis Joseph have in
responding to nationalist demands?
How might Austrian history have been different if he had chosen a different course of action?
Draw Conclusions Why did the Dual Monarchy fail to end nationalist demands?
Identify Central Issues How did Balkan nationalism contribute to the decline of the Ottoman empire?
• Writing About History
Quick Write: Draft an Opening Paragraph In a persuasive essay, you
want to grab the reader's attention by
opening with a strong example, and then convincingly stating your views. Choose a topic from the section, such as whether the Hapsburgs or the Ottoman Turks could have built a modern, unified nation from their multinational empires. Then draft an opening paragraph.
How have people used nationalism as a basis for their actions?
Starting in the late 1700s, a spirit of nationalism swept across Europe and the Americas. Nationalism is a powerful force characterized by strong feelings of pride in and devotion to one's nation. It gives people a sense of identity beyond their family and local area. Nationalism can compel people to fight to establish their own nation, through revolution. It can move people to volunteer to defend their country from outside attack. It can even cause people to attack another country in order to acquire more territory for the homeland. Consider the following examples: