|TRAVEL GUIDES TO COLONIAL AMERICA
Teaching American History 2
For Participants in the Summer Institute, 2007
Colonial Communities and Institutions
Description of the Travel Guide
In groups, teachers in the Summer Institute will produce Travel Guides to various regions of Colonial America. These travel guides will serve as resources/models for 5th grade students, who will in turn do their own research and create their own guides. Each Travel Guide will focus on one of these geographical areas (from HSS standard 5.1): the Great Plains, the Pacific Northwest, the Northeast /Atlantic Coast, the Mississippi Corridor, and the Desert Southwest. The Travel Guides will contain descriptions of the communities that developed and changed over a period of approximately 300 (1500 to the early 1800s) in each region.
Travel Guide Chapters
There are three chapters in each regional Travel Guide. The chapters focus on these chronological eras in the region (approximately; may change slightly from group to group):
Chapter 1: 1500s
Chapter 2: 1600s
Chapter 3: 1700s
a. The various cultural groups that lived in that area during the target time period (HSS 5.1, 5.2, 5.3)
b. The environment and resources of the area, as well as the political, cultural, social, and economic institutions that evolved and changed over the time period (HSS 5.1, 5.3, 5.4) as new people arrived and the communities grew.
In addition to completing the Travel Guide (written component),
each group will present a travelogue about their region, including a multi-part diorama (visual component) and a series of 3 narratives (oral component).
Lesson Plan for
TRAVEL GUIDES TO COLONIAL AMERICA:
Southeast/Mississippi Corridor 1700
Heather Feinberg and Rian Lindley
Teaching American History 2
Summer Institute 2007
I. Lesson objective:
Students will create their own travel guides and travelogues, demonstrating that they understand the economic, social, cultural, environmental and political factors that influenced the people living in various regions of North America during the colonial era, and the ways communities changed and evolved over that time period. Students will be working in groups to complete individual tasks, share out with their peers, and to create a final product together.
II. Standards addressed
a. History/Social Studies: 5.1, 5.2.4, 5.3, 5.4
b. English/Language Arts: R 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5; W 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.3; LC 1.0; LS 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, S 2.1, 2.2
III. Instructional Activities
1. Introduce geography: Using a map of North America, point out areas that were claimed by various European powers. Show the location of the specific region and community they will be studying.
2. If you have a class timeline, show where the focus time period is located and mark it on the timeline.
3. Show film clip or pictures showing the type of environment in the region. Have the students say what environmental features and resources they see in the film or pictures; write their responses on chart paper.
4. Ask students to talk to a partner about these questions: "What would be good about living in this place? What would be bad?" Discuss their responses.
5. Continue to set the stage and build interest by letting them know generally what they will be learning about: explain a little about the community, the overall political situation in the region during the time period, some intriguing questions and facts, etc. If you wish, do a KWL chart.
6. Explain the final project: show them a completed Travel Guide as a model, give a short narration as an example of their oral presentations, and explain the diorama project. It would be good to show them a completed diorama as an example, or a slide of one.
7. Introduce vocabulary: some or all of the underlined words in all the Information Sheets (see Resources.) Post them on your focus wall along with pictures, synonyms, antonyms and/or realia. Continue to refer to these words throughout the lesson. Below is one technique you can use to teach the academic vocabulary.
Students will divide a piece of white paper into thirds. They will have three headings: 1500’s, 1600’s and 1700’s. Under each column the students will draw what the environment looked like at that time.
1. Students will work in 5 groups to research one of these themes: economy, environment, culture, society or politics in the focus region during the focus century. Form groups and pass out the rubric, the note-taking guides and e-sheets to each one. You might give them each a two-pocket folder to keep everything in.
2. Differentiation: below is one strategy you can use to adapt your lesson for EL, Special Populations, or Challenge students, or those with different learning modalities (kinesthetic, musical, visual, mechanical, etc.)
Using Powerpoint, the instructor will display the vocabulary with definition and/or corresponding picture. Correct pronunciation will be recorded to aid students. Roots, phonics, and spelling rules will be added to each vocabulary word.
3. Allow students time to research their particular theme. They can use websites, books, primary documents and pictures supplied by the teacher. They should record information they find on their e-sheets using the websites specified, and/or on their note-taking guides. Teacher should help students skim and scan books for information, using District/School approved methods and techniques for accessing expository text.
4. After they have had time to do their own research, teacher may choose to give each group, or certain groups, a copy of the teacher-made Information Sheet on the group's theme. They can use it to add to, correct, and/or edit their information for accuracy (NOT to copy the information!).
5. Student groups use the information in their note guides and e-sheets to write their “chapters” of the Travel Guide on the theme they researched. These will be similar in format and content to the teacher-made Information Sheets. Here you can refer to the lesson in the Houghton Mifflin 5th grade Language Arts text for a "Research Report," found in the Reading/Writing Workshop for Theme 5, "One Land, Many Trails."
6. Students prepare short oral reports/narratives based on their research. Here you can refer to the lesson for an "Oral Report" found in Selection 3 of Theme 5 in the 5th grade H.M. Language Arts text.
7. Student groups create multi-part dioramas illustrating the ways in which the environment, economy, society, culture or politics changed and evolved during the time period. They may draw, or create replicas of, images and artifacts.
8. Each group's final product will have three parts: (1) and (2), the diorama and oral presentation (“Travelogue”), and (3) the written "Travel Guide" itself.
1. ASSESSMENT: All of the student groups present their Travelogues to the rest of the class at the same time in a gallery-walk format. One or two students from each group remain at the diorama and give the oral report on their theme; members of the other groups are assigned to listen to them. At a signal from the teacher, students switch so all have a chance to give the report and see all the dioramas. Students who are listening use the Student Evaluation Rubric to assess their peers' presentations.
2. Teachers can use rubrics in the adopted Language Arts text to score the written Travel Guide.
3. After the groups have presented, and everything is scored, all of the "chapters" can be stapled together to make a class book, "Travel Guide to......"
4. Students can find out what is happening in their geographic region today by searching newspapers, the web, magazines, etc. for information about current people, or environmental/economic/societal/political issues. Create an interactive bulletin board with information that students bring in.
5. Is there an important environmental issue faced by the region today that your students can investigate? Can you link that to the 5th grade science standards?
A list of all the texts, research books, websites, magazine articles, pictures, videos, posters, artifacts, etc. that are needed for this lesson.
1. Student rubric: use the one attached below.
2. Student e-sheets : attach your e-sheets below
3. Teacher-made information sheets on these themes: attach your information sheets below.
Student Name: ________________
STUDENT EVALUATION RUBRIC
Which group are you evaluating?
___ politics ___ environment
___ economy ___ society ___ culture
As you look at this group's diorama and listen to them talk, answer these questions:
1. What did you learn from the group's oral presentation?
2. What questions do you have after hearing the oral presentation?
3. Does the diorama show how the community changed because of the influence of the group's theme?
5. What things in the diorama show the changes?
What is missing from the diorama, or what questions do you have about it?
Group Members: ________________________
Southeast Mississippi Corridor
State Standard: 5.3
Describe the cooperation between the colonists and the Indians during the 1700’s(e.g., in agriculture, the fur trade, military alliances, treaties, cultural interchanges)
Task One: In the mid 1750’s the Choctaw Indians disagreed whether to side with the French or the English. This led to the Choctaw Civil War. Follow this link to answer the following questions: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Choctaws.html
1. After the Choctaw Civil War what new skills did the Choctaw acquire that helped them deal with the English?
2. What lead to the Choctaw’s decision to work with the English rather than fight them?
Task Two: The Choctaw Indians were excellent farmers and an agriculturally based society. Follow this link to answer the following questions: http://www.answers.com/topic/choctaw
1. List at least three items the Choctaw Indians produced for either survival or trade.
Task Three: Follow this link to answer the following questions about Choctaw Indian History: http://www.choctaw.org/history/index.htm
1. What happened to the Choctaw Indians between 1690 and 1723?
2. What major event happened in 1702?
Learning about the Southeast, 1700’s
Family and Society
Communities of the southeast during the 1700’s were very complex. In Native American families, there was often a mix of mom, dad, children, aunts, uncles, and grandchildren all living and working on the same area of land. French settlers often only consisted of soldiers, some settlers and casket girls. African Americans were an important part of the southeast; they were originally brought to the area as slaves. In these communities, women were responsible for the agricultural work and domestic responsibilities. Men were responsible for hunting, war and political activities. Children were expected to work alongside their mothers to help with both the field and domestic work.
Cultures in this area were as varied as the people who lived there. For example, the Choctaw, a Native American group who lived in the Mississippi area, were Sun worshippers. Their culture was agriculturally based. Often their leaders were chosen based upon the bounty of their harvest. The Choctaw told traditional legends and fairy tales that would be orally passed down through the generations. Choctaw culture included the making of river-cane baskets, wood carving and beadwork.
French and Spanish explorers to the area brought their Christian ideas and beliefs with them. Over time, many of the explorers subjected their beliefs on the native peoples in the surrounding areas.
During this time the political structure of the area was changing quickly. French, Spanish, and British governments were arguing over who would control the mighty Mississippi River. Native American societies were also struggling with who was in charge. Many of the societies were led by a Chief. Each Chief controlled a specific territory. Each territory was responsible for its own political affairs. Chiefs were responsible for the distribution of food. A Chiefs power rested solely on the fragile outcome of the year’s harvest. If the harvest was plentiful, then a Chief might remain in charge. If, however, a harvest was bad then a Chief could be replaced by another more ambitious Chief-to-be.
The region is home to many diverse natural resources. Communities adapted their lifestyle to fit the resources around them. Each society used the Mississippi River to trade goods with others. Some items that could be traded on the river included furs, food, weapons, and animals. During the 1700’s the climate in the area began to cool. This resulted in a shorter growing season. Some foods that were grown were: maize, beans, and squash. Plants that grew naturally were: Indian grass, prairie drop seed, compass plant, and the Big Bluestem plant. A diet rich in corn leads to health problems. Inhabitants of this area also hunted and ate: white-tailed deer, elk, raccoon, and muskrat. Over time, as more people began to move into the area, the societies suffered from too many people and not enough food. These factors lead to more trade between peoples coming into the area.
The economy of the area was multi-layered and complex. The Mississippi corridor existed on trade of goods. There were two levels of trade. They were: High status- that were specialized, skilled laborers. The Low status- who were low skilled but did most of the heavy labor. The economy was based upon gambling in a stock exchange manner. Initially, the French arrived with little to no food or supplies. The French turned to the Native Americans for help. Many Native Americans of the area were very willing to trade food with the French for guns, gunpowder, and axes. Over time, enslaved Africans were brought into the area as skilled workers, surgeons and doctors. Many enslaved Africans did not stay that way; some established their own farms, and crops in which to trade.
Title: Mississippian Culture
State Standard: 5.1 Students describe the major Pre-Columbian settlements.
Task One: Answer the following questions using the website: www.nps.gov/history/seac/misslate.htm
1. What was the main responsibility of the Chiefs?
2. What was the culture called before Mississippian?
3. Describe the Mississippian culture by examining the pictures? (Also look at the link about Mississippian villages and mounds.)
Task Two: Answer the following questions using the following website: www.kindredtrails.com/Missouri-History-1.html
1. Who were the first explorers in Missouri?
2. What was Missouri originally called and what year was the name “Missouri” adopted?
3. What was the first permanent settlement in Missouri? What year? And by whom?
Task Three: Answer the following questions using the following website: www.cahokiamounds.com/cahokplaza.html and click on “Archaeology” at the bottom of the page.
1. After clicking on “The ‘origins’ of Cahokia,” list the eight major characteristics of the Cahokia mounds.