Transportation Cost faq by Iver P. Cooper version June 11, 2005 (9: 06PM)



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Transportation Cost FAQ

by Iver P. Cooper

version June 11, 2005 (9:06PM)
1. Transportation Infrastructure

1.1 Transportation Network

Table 1-1: Road Construction Costs

Table 1-2: Rail Construction Costs

Table 1-3: Canal Construction Costs
2. Transport Entities (Animals and Vehicles)

2.1 Purchase Cost

Table 2.1.1:Service Animal Cost/Purchase Price/Rental Price

Table 2.1.2: Land Vehicle Construction Cost/Purchase Price/Rental Price

Table 2.1.3: Watercraft Construction Cost/Purchase Price

2.2 Carrying Capacity

Table 2.2.1: Pack Animal Carrying Capacity

Table 2.2.3: Load vs. Pull

Table 2.2.4. Load Pulled by Draft Animals as % of Body Weight, for Various Modes of Transport

Table 2.2.5: Drawn Vehicle Carrying Capacities

2.3. Speed

Table 2.3.1: Speed (General Data)

Table 2.3.2: Speed (Point to Point)

2.4 Feed and Crew Requirements

Table 2.4.1. Animal Feed Requirements

Table 2.4.2 Vehicle Manpower Requirements

2.5 Operating Costs

Table 2.5.1: Wages of Interest in Calculating Operating Costs for Land or Sea Transport

Table 2.5.2: Operating Costs (Food and Lodging)

Table 2.5.3. Ship's Crew Victualling Requirements and Cost

Table 2.5.4: Miscellaneous Operating Cost Data

2.6. Miscellaneous Comments on Service Animals
3. Transporting Your Own Goods
4. Shipping Goods

4.1. Analyzing Transportation Costs

4.2 Rate per Ton-Mile Data

Table 4.2.1: Cost to Transport One Long Ton of Freight Overland for One Mile by Animal Power

Table 4.2.2: Cost to Transport One Long Ton of Freight Overland for One Mile By Steam Railroad

Table 4.2.3: Cost to Transport One Long Ton of Freight for One Mile By Water

Table 4.2.4: Land and Water Direct Cost Comparisons


Table 4.2.5: Upstream vs. Downstream
5. Purchasing Power Corrections

5.1. Purchasing Power of Money

5.2 London Indexes

Table 5.2.1. Simplified British CPI

5.3. Handling American Data

5.4. Handling Data Stated in Other European Currencies; Purchasing Power Parity
6. Notes on Certain Conversion Issues
7. References
Miscellaneous Notes:
The transportation infrastructure consists of the actual transportation network (roads, rivers, canals, rail tracks, pipelines), and the service facilities at the various nodes (stations, ports, etc.)




The first set of tables estimate the cost of constructing improved roads (table 1-1), railroads (table 1-2), and canals (table 1-3), based on historical data. My methodology is explained in more detail in a later section, but in essence I take the historical cost and deflate it, using an accepted consumer price index for London, to 1632.

It is important to recognize one of the limitations of this approach: it assumes that the cost of the various inputs (labor, materials, land, capital) in 1632 will have the same ratio to their costs in the source year (e.g., 1800), that the CPI for 1632 London did to that for London in the source year. If, say, iron is relatively more expensive in 1632 than the CPI implies, then railroads will be more expensive to build–unless, of course, there is some countervailing factor, such as labor or land being much less expensive.













Year

Cost Then

1632

Comments

1792

$7,500/mi

1349L/mi


turnpike, 62 miles long, 37' wide, 24' stone, total cost $465,000, Philadelphia to Lancaster. (Rae 16)

E19C

$2,280/mi

271L/mi

@2.38s/$

turnpike, leveled, and graveled, Hartford & New Haven (Holbrook, 35)

"

$14,600/mi

1737L/mi

turnpike, Salem-Boston (Id.)

"

$11,700/mi

1392L/mi

turnpike, Newburyport-Boston (Id.)

"

$4,500/mi

536L/mi

turnpike, Mass. average (Id.)

1817

$9,745/mi

1027L/mi

Cumberland to Uniontown, road (Meyer 16)

1817

~$12,660/mi

1334L/mi

Cumberland to Wheeling, 130 mi., $1,645,679 road (Meyer 16) $1.7mil (Dilts 283). For details, see Meyer 16.

1479

7d/yd2




road paving, London (Gregory 92)

1816

800-1000L/mi

419-524L/mi

Telford style road, England, 30' wide (Gregory 219)

1914 -26

3s/yd2




water bound macadam, life 3 years. 65d/ ton mile traffic. (Gregory 293)

"

7s/yd2




tarmacadam, life 9 years. 72d/ ton mile traffic. (Id.)

"

10s/yd2




asphalt macadam, life 15 years. 28d/ ton mile traffic? (Id.)














Year

Cost Then

1632

Comments

1827

$20,000/mi

2351L/mi

estimated cost (Dilts 41)

E19C

$2,750/mi




Maunch Chunk Rwy (right of way already owned) (Dilts 51)

1836

$22,000/mi

2923L/mi

Dilts 212.




$42,700/mi




Baltimore to Cumberland, $7.6mil for 178 mi including bridges, B&O (Dilts 309)




L39,300/mi




London & Birmingham 4.4mil L, 112 miles. 4.5 yrs to construct (Hastings 29)

1830s

$42,600/mi




Boston to Providence, $2,000,000 for 47 mi. (Meyer 323). Meyer 327 says $2,764,296.

1836

$20,000/mi




Utica and Schenectady. 77 miles, 21 months to build. (Meyer 363)

1839

$18,600/mi




Raleigh & Gaston, VA. $1.6mil for 86 mi. (Meyer 465)

1847

$30,400/mi




NY RRs.

Utica & Schenectady, 78 mi, $2,265,000, Mohawk & Hudson 17 mi, $1,473,000; Syracuse and Utica, 53 mi., $1,187,000; Auburn & Syracuse, 26 mi., $679,000; Auburn & Rochester, 78 mi., $1,865,000; Tonawanda, 43.5, $754,000; Attica & Buffalo, 31 mi., $307,000; Buffalo & Niagara Falls, 22 mi., $206,000. Total 287.5 miles for $8,736,000. (Meyer 378)

1842

$44,000/mi




Western RR (Mass.). First section, 54.5 miles built for ~$2,000,000. (Meyer 320)

1849

$28,500/mi




Western and Atlantic, Ga. (Meyer 457)

1851

$28,000/mi




Maine RRs., 252 miles, $7,129,192 (Meyer 337)

1850s

$37,600/mi




Illinois Central (Meyer 536-7, 547)

Horse Railroads.










1856-59

$41,200/mi

4862L/mi

@2.36s/$

Boston. For commuters. (Poor 90).

The costs below are of "roads, etc." or "road & equipment" for regular railroads.










1837-59


$33,700/mi

4044L/mi

@2.4s/$

Maine RRs. Average Cost 6,377,177, Average mileage 189. In 1859, Cum Cost was 18,382,207 for 511 miles. (Poor 12).

1842-59

$19,500/mi

2389L/mi@2.45s/$

NH RRs. Avg. Cost 10,686,656, avg. mi. 334.59. In 1859, Cum Cost was 17,626,653 for 546.87 mi. (Poor 40)

1849-59

$42,400/mi

5194L/mi@2.45s/$

VT RRs. Avg. cost 17,645,032, avg. Mi. 416.09. (Poor 71)

1835-59

$44,900/mi

5478L/mi

@2.44s/$

MA RRs. Avg. cost 35,237,241, avg. mi. 784.61. (Poor 93)

1832-59

$42,900/mi

5277L/mi@2.46s/$

NY RRs. Avg. cost 48,766,185, avg. mi. 1,136.42. (Poor 228)

1833-59

$44,900/mi

5523L/mi@2.46s/$

NJ RRs. Avg. cost 11,336,752, avg. mi. 252.62 (Poor 381)

1830-59

$56,400/mi

6937L/mi@2.46s/$

PA RRs. Avg. cost 41,677,709, avg. mi. 739.27. (Poor 423)

1830-59

$52,000/mi

6396L/mi

@2.46s/$

MD RRs. Avg. cost 14,772,666, avg. mi. 284.08. (Poor 576)















Year

Cost Then

1632

Comments

1630s-1660s

4.5mil guilder

1095L/mi

@2s/G

658 km (411 mi) Trekvaarten canal system (Hadfield 49).

1733-7

48,000L

4565L/mi

8.25-10 miles long, new channel for Dee (Willan 94)

1825

$19,231/mi

2221L/mi

@2.32s/$

$7,000,000 Erie Canal, Buffalo to NY (Dilts 25) Albany to Buffalo is 364 mi. (Meyer 191)

1825

$13,000/mi




Farmington Canal, 83.5 miles long, constructed 1820-25 at cost of $1.1 million. (Guignino; Hindley, 86)

1827

$23,573/mi

2793L/mi

@2.37s/$

Champlain Canal.

1826-8

$13,000/mi

1534L/mi

@2.36s/$

Oswego Canal. $496,011 for 38.25 mi. (Poor 371)

1830

$21,300/mi

2599L/mi

@2.44s/$

Delaware Division Canal $1,275,715, 60 mi, 40' wide, 5' deep. (Poor 545)

1840

$101,000/mi

11161

L/mi

@2.21s/$

Susquehanna & Tidewater Canal. $4,547,173 for 45 mi. (Poor 557)

1833-45

$37,800/mi




East Division Canal, in Pa. $1,737,285 for 46 mi. (Poor 559)

1833-45

$30,500/mi




West Division Canal, in Pa. $3,173,434 for 104 mi. (Poor 559)

1820s

$56,900/mi




C&O Canal, Md. $10.5mil for 184.5 mi. (Poor 602-4).


In the 1820s, a turnpike could be built for $5,000 to 10,000 a mile, while a canal would be $25,000 to $80,000 a mile. (Guignino; Hindley, 86)
Goods are transported over the transportation network by a variety of physical entities. These include
–pack animals carrying the goods in packs or panniers
–cargo vehicles mechanically propelled by an internal motive power (automobiles, steamships, airplanes)
–cargo vehicles propelled by an environmental force such as gravity, wind or water currents (sailing ships, barges floating downstream, mine cars rolling down an incline)
–cargo vehicles pushed or pulled by humans or draft animals (wagons, barges hauled by tow horses or rowed by crewmen)
–cargo vehicles pushed or pulled by other vehicles (boxcars pulled by a locomotive, barge flotillas pushed by a steam towboart)


The vehicles and service animals may be compared according to any of a number of criteria:
–purchase cost
–rental cost
–operating cost (fuel for vehicles, food and lodging for the animals and crew)
–maximum carrying capacity (load)
–speed when carrying a particular load
–carrying efficiency (load per dollar)
–carrying efficiency (load per crewman)
Sailing ships have a high carrying efficiency (load per dollar and load per crewman) but also a high absolute price. Thus, characters in the 1632 novels are not likely to buy a ship unless they need to move ten tons or more in a single shipment.




















Type

Year

Cost Then(1)

1632 eqv.

Comments

Horse

Eliz

1-2L




Singman 36

Horse

1580

up to ~40s




Emerson 142

Farm Horse

1603

17-18RT




Hamburg price in Reichstaler (RT). (Baen's Bar source)

Flanders mare

1608

23.5L

26.8L

the preferred steed for coaches. Croft 121.

Horse

1638

up to 83s




Emerson,142.

Horse

1756

5-10L

4-8L

avg. Pa. 4L-16L. Shumway 44.

Horse

Eliz

12d/day




or 2.5d/mile. Singman 36

Horse

1776

2s/day

20d/

day

rental proposed by Franklin (Meyer 77)

Wagon, 4H & Drvr

1776

15s/day

12.5s/day

rental proposed by Franklin (Meyer 77). This was also in a Pa. 1757 statute. (Shumway 48).

Horse (tow)

1794

6s/day

4.5s/

day

Schuylkill & Susquehanna Canal. (Meyer 79)

Horse (tow)

1825

$0.75

/day

1.74s

/day

Pa. (Meyer 225)

Ox

19C

$25




(Geocities)

Horse

19C

$75




(Geocities)

Horse




2 reals




New World. (Braudel SEL 342)

Mule




9 pesos




New World (Salta)(Id.)

Horse

1834

$45

6.4L

Pittsburgh (Atherton 46)

Ox

1854

$37.50

4.1L

Kansas (Settle 38)

Ox

1857

$37.31




Kansas. 7,740 oxen valued at $288,750 (Settle 50)

Ox

1857

$44.20

5L

Utah. 1,906 oxen at $84,245.20 (Settle 122)

Mule

1859

$112.14

13.9L

543 mules for $60,890 (Settle 97)

Horse

1860

$175

21L

assumed avg. cost of 500 horses for Pony Express (Settle 113)

Horse

1853 -59

$387

44.6L

$58,487 for 151 horses of Second Avenue RR, NY. (Poor 268-9)

Horses and Mules

1851 -59

$187

22.4L

$87,967 for 330 horses and 140 mules, and harness, of Sixth Ave. RR, NY. (Poor 270)

Horse

1863

$110

9L

avg. cost to Union Army (QMR 9/28)

Mule

1863

$105

8.6L

avg. cost to Union Army (QMR 9/28)

Horse

1943-4

$300




Italy, max price paid by QM Corps of 5th Army (QMR 3/46)

Mule

1943-4

$250




Italy, max price paid by QM Corps of 5th Army (QMR 3/46)
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