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TRADOC Pam 525-7-6



Version 1.0
16 August 2007

The United States Army

Concept Capability Plan

for
Army Electronic Warfare Operations
for the

Future Modular Force
2015-2024

TRADOC Pamphlet 525-7-6

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Foreword
From the Director

U.S. Army Capabilities Integration Center
Evolving joint and Army concepts indicate that the future Modular Force will operate as part of a joint or multinational force. Future forces will operate across the spectrum of conflict on a global battlefield involving simultaneous regionally focused operations. These operations will take place in an increasingly complex electromagnetic environment, where both technical military capabilities and commercial off the shelf technology are being used to support military operations at an unprecedented rate. To operate unimpeded in the complex electromagnetic environment, the future Modular Force requires electronic warfare capabilities.
The U.S. Army Concept Capability Plan for Army Electronic Warfare Operations for the Future Modular Force 2015-2024 outlines electronic warfare (EW) operations. It identifies the EW capabilities required to execute Army operations in a joint environment during the 2015–2024 timeframe. The capabilities identified in the concept capability plan (CCP) provide a coherent means of examining potential doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) solutions. This CCP will therefore serve as the basis for a comprehensive capabilities based assessment involving many different proponents.
In examining the Army’s future EW requirements and capabilities, the CCP describes the integration of EW capabilities in support of the seven key ideas articulated in the Army’s capstone concept. These EW capabilities when applied across the warfighting functions will provide future Modular Force commanders the capabilities required to address the potential enemy EW threats within the joint operational environment out to 2024. The CCP describes the need for improved EW platforms and systems and how Army forces will leverage joint, Service, interagency, commercial, and multinational capabilities to assist in providing EW support to full spectrum operations. The CCP acknowledges that EW has a substantial joint dimension and therefore draws from the relevant joint concepts.
As with all concepts, CCPs are continuously evolving. This CCP will be refined and updated as new ideas and technologies emerge and as the capabilities introduced in this document are integrated. This CCP has applicability to many joint and Army functional areas and I recommend it to you when engaging other joint organizations, Services, and proponents.



Executive Summary
Introduction
a. EW refers to any action involving the use of electromagnetic (EM) or directed energy to control the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) or to attack the enemy. The purpose of EW is to deny the opponent an actual or perceived advantage in the EMS and ensure friendly unimpeded access to the electromagnetic environment.
b. EW can be applied from air, sea, land, and space by manned and unmanned systems. EW is employed to generate desired effects involving various levels of detection, denial, deception, disruption, degradation, protection, and destruction. (See Joint Publication 3-13.1for EW effects.).
Basis of Electronic Warfare

In order to dominate the EMS within the land component commander’s area of operations; the Army must develop the capabilities required to exploit the vulnerabilities and opportunities inherent within the electromagnetic environment (EME). The EW subdivisions of electronic attack (EA), electronic protect (EP) and electronic warfare support (ES) will assist commanders in shaping the EME by ensuring friendly advantage, while delivering the capabilities necessary to create threat disadvantage. EW will support Army, as well as joint, interagency and multinational (JIM) operations, by providing capabilities that enable full spectrum operations. These capabilities will require integration across the warfighting functions and must address the broadening set of EW targets and threats.


The Problem
a. Military operations are executed in an increasingly complex EME. The burgeoning of commercial technology is creating both challenges and opportunities in the use and exploitation of the EMS. State and non-state adversaries are able to access these technologies and adapt them to their needs. Compounding the problem is our adversaries’ use of these technologies among legitimate civilian user infrastructures. Within this complex environment, the Army does not possess the requisite EW capabilities required to operate freely across the EMS, while controlling adversarial use of the EMS.
b. Over the last decade, the Army focused its EW efforts on improving its signals intelligence capabilities which has significantly improved intelligence support to EW. There has also been a push to develop and build EA capability (such as, counter remote control improvised explosive device electronic warfare system) by the intelligence community. However, the Army must address the full complement of EW capabilities (EA, EP, ES) in order for land force commanders to dominate the EMS operational environment.
Solution Synopsis
a. Future Modular Force commanders must integrate EW capabilities in support of the seven key ideas articulated in the Army’s capstone concept. These EW capabilities when applied across the warfighting functions will provide future Modular Force commanders the desired EW capabilities needed to dominate the EMS within their operational environment. These capabilities will be integrated with and will leverage joint capabilities to provide EW support to full spectrum operations during all phases of operations.
b. EW capabilities must be fully integrated with LandWarNet and joint command and control systems to enable information sharing across the global information grid (GIG), and to provide an accurate common operational picture (COP) of EW operations. The listing of required capabilities are the optimum set of EW capabilities and remain the goal of what a future Modular Force requires to operate in a 2024 joint operating environment (JOE).
Key Ideas
a. The combination of EW capabilities applied across the Army’s warfighting functions, in support of full spectrum operations, will provide the capabilities necessary to address the broadening set of EW targets and threats to enable land force commanders to dominate the EMS within their area of operations. The integration of EW capabilities across the doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) processes, will enable full spectrum dominance through the implementation of unparalleled ES, EA, and EP.
b. This concept capability plan (CCP) draws its key ideas and required capability statements directly from joint and Army concepts. The EW CCP refines these broader capability statements into EW enabled capability statements and provides a more detailed description of the capabilities required by the Future Modular Force of 2015-2024. Although many of these capabilities are yet to be realized, they represent those required to bridge the gap between the current modular force and the future Modular Force.

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D

epartment of the Army TRADOC Pamphlet 525-7-6



Headquarters, United States Army

Training and Doctrine Command

Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-1046
16 August 2007
Military Operations
THE U.S. ARMY CONCEPT CAPABILITY PLAN FOR ARMY ELECTRONIC WARFARE OPERATIONS FOR THE FUTURE MODULAR FORCE 2015-2024

FOR THE COMMANDER:


OFFICIAL: THOMAS F. METZ

Lieutenant General, U.S. Army

Deputy Commanding General/

Chief of Staff




History. This publication is a new United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) concept capability plan (CCP) developed as part of the Army Concept Strategy for the future Modular Force and as part of the capabilities-based assessment (CBA) process.
Summary. TRADOC Pamphlet (Pam) 525-7-6, The U.S. Army Concept Capability Plan for Army Electronic Warfare Operations for the Future Modular Force 2015-2024, is the overarching CCP for what is required to accomplish electronic warfare (EW) operations in the future Modular Force. It focuses on the strategic, operational, and tactical application of integrated EW capabilities, across the range of military operations. The ideas presented are fully integrated within the evolving context of the future operating environment, joint and Army strategic guidance, and the Army Concept Strategy.
Applicability. This pamphlet applies to all Department of Defense (DOD), Department of the Army (DA), and TRADOC Services, agencies, and activities. It functions as the basis for developing required solution sets related to the future Modular Force EW operations within the domains of doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) requirements.
Proponent and supplementation authority. The proponent of this pamphlet is the TRADOC Headquarters, Director, Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC). The proponent has the authority to approve exceptions or waivers to this pamphlet that are consistent with controlling law and regulations. Do not supplement this pamphlet without prior approval from Director, TRADOC ARCIC (ATFC-ED), 33 Ingalls Road, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-1061.
Suggested improvements. Users are invited to send comments and suggested improvements on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Commander, TRADOC (ATFC-ED), 33 Ingalls Road, Fort Monroe, VA 23651-1046. Suggested improvements may also be submitted using DA Form 1045 (Army Ideas for Excellence Program Proposal).
Distribution. This publication is only available on the TRADOC Homepage at http://www.tradoc.army.mil/tpubs/pamndx.htm.
Contents

Paragraph Page
Foreword i

Executive Summary ii
Chapter 1

Introduction

Purpose 1-1 5

Functional Area 1-2 5

Scope 1-3 7

Relation to the Family of Joint and Army Concepts 1-4 8

References 1-5 13

Explanation of Abbreviations and Terms 1-6 13
Chapter 2

EW Concept Capability Plan

Introduction 2-1 13

The Problem 2-2 14

Operational Environment 2-3 14

Joint Interdependence 2-4 18

The Plan 2-5 20

EW Effects 2-6 24

EW Delivery 2-7 26

EW within the Joint Campaign Framework 2-8 26

EW support to IO and the Warfighting Functions 2-9 45

Summary 2-10 50
Chapter 3

Required Capabilities

Introduction 3-1 50

Battle Command EW Enabled Capabilities 3-2 51

See EW Enabled Capabilities 3-3 52

Strike EW Enabled Capabilities 3-4 53

Protect EW Enabled Capabilities 3-5 56

Move EW Enabled Capabilities 3-6 57

Sustain EW Enabled Capabilities 3-7 58
Chapter 4

Bridging Current to Future Capabilities

Introduction 4-1 58

EW Attributes 4-2 59

Assessment of Battle Command EW Enabled Capabilities 4-3 61

Assessment of See EW Enabled Capabilities 4-4 63

Assessment of Strike EW Enabled Capabilities 4-5 64

Assessment of Protect EW Enabled Capabilities 4-6 65
Contents (continued)

Paragraph Page
Assessment of Move EW Enabled Capabilities 4-7 66

Assessment of Sustain EW Enabled Capabilities 4-8 66
Chapter 5

Operational Architecture

Army EW operations operational architecture 5-1 67

High-Level Concept Graphics – Shaping and Entry 5-2 68

High-Level Concept Graphics – Decisive Operations 5-3 69
Chapter 6

DOTMLPF Integrated Questions List

Introduction 6-1 70

Doctrine 6-2 71

Organization 6-3 72

Training 6-4 73

Materiel 6-5 74

Leader Development and Education 6-6 75

Personnel 6-7 76

Facilities 6-8 77
Chapter 7

Hypothesis Testing, Wargaming and Experimentation

Introduction 7-1 77

Experimentation 7-2 78

Models and Simulations 7-3 78

Concept Development and Experimentation 7-4 79

Wargaming 7-5 79

Past and Future Experimentation and Wargames 7-6 80

Study Questions 7-7 80
Chapter 8

Alternative CCP

Introduction 8-1 81

Future Joint Capabilities Integration Development System Efforts 8-2 82
Appendix A. References 83
Glossary 86

Chapter 1

Introduction
1-1. Purpose
a. The purpose of this concept capability plan (CCP) is to identify future required electronic warfare (EW) capabilities for the future Modular Force for the 2015-2024 time period based on a detailed analysis of joint and Army concepts. The identification of these capabilities will provide a coherent way ahead for the further examination of potential doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leader development and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) solutions. These potential solutions will enable joint and Army operations at all echelons across the spectrum of conflict. Army EW operations are not the exclusive domain of any single branch or functional proponent. The ability to dominate the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) within the land force commander’s operational environment (OE) is central to achieving the full spectrum dominance envisioned in the joint and Army concepts.
b. This CCP provides for the integration of Army EW operations for the future Modular Force and may result in an Army EW focused capabilities-based assessment (CBA) involving many different proponents. This CCP presents capabilities envisioned to be used by a wide range of organizations that enable the effective application of EW capabilities in a joint, interagency, and multinational (JIM) environment. It describes how Army forces will integrate the lethal and nonlethal capabilities of EW assets.
c. This CCP discusses the application of existing and emerging joint and Army intellectual ideas on EW and identifies capabilities required for the use of the EW in support of future Modular Force operations. The Army EW operations CBA will identify DOTMLPF solutions or solution sets for Army EW operations capability gaps during the 2015–2024 timeframe. Experiments, tests and studies are needed to mitigate the risk inherent in developing and fielding these advanced capabilities.
1-2. Functional Area
a. This EW CCP identifies capabilities required to execute EW in support of the joint and Army concepts during the 2015-2024 timeframe. This CCP reaches across the fires, intelligence, protection, movement and maneuver, command and control (C2), and sustainment warfighting functions. In addition, this concept is fully nested with the Army concept strategy documents, from the Army capstone concept, TRADOC Pamphlet 525-3-0, The Army in Joint Operations, to the two operating concepts, Operational Maneuver, and Tactical Maneuver, and the six Army functional concepts, Battle Command, See, Strike, Sustain, Move, and Protect.
b. Overview of EW
(1) Military operations are taking place in an increasingly complicated information environment, where the use of electromagnetic (EM) devices are increasingly used alone and in networks by both civilian and military organizations and individuals for intelligence, communications, navigation, sensing, information storage, and processing, as well as a variety of other purposes. These EM systems and devices operate across a spectrum that is divided into bands ranging from radio frequencies at the low end to x-ray and gamma frequencies at the high end, known as the EMS. The recognized need for military forces to have unimpeded access to and use of the EMS creates vulnerabilities and opportunities for EW in support of military operations. EW includes three major subdivisions (see fig 1-1): electronic attack (EA), electronic protection (EP), and ES. (See Joint Publication 3-13.1 for EW.)
(2) EA involves the use of EM energy, directed energy (DE), or anti-radiation weapons to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability and is considered a form of fires.
(3) EP involves actions taken to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the EMS that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability.
(4) ES is the subdivision of EW involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated EM energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning, and conduct of future operations.
(5) The purpose of EW is to deny the opponent an advantage in the EMS and ensure friendly unimpeded access to the EMS portion of the information environment. EW can be applied from air, sea, land, and space by manned and unmanned systems. EW is employed to support military operations involving various levels of detection, denial, deception, disruption, degradation, protection, and destruction.

Figure 1-1. Overview of EW




1-3. Scope
a. This CCP focuses on the desired EW capabilities to enable dominance of the EMS within the Army commander’s OE. The underlying concepts in this plan are nested within the Army’s future Modular Force capstone concept and other emerging joint and Army concepts and will form the foundation for all EW (EA, EP, and ES) discussions and analysis across the DOTMLPF domains.
b. Additionally, this EW CCP addresses the conduct of Army EW operations in support of both traditional and nontraditional missions within the context of the warfighting functions (intelligence, movement and maneuver, fires, protection, sustainment, and C2).

1-4. Relation to the Family of Joint and Army Concepts
a. This CCP is vertically integrated with the joint and Army capstone concepts: Capstone Concept for Joint Operations (CCJO) and The Army in Joint Operations, the Army’s Future Force Capstone Concept; the Army’s two operating concepts: Operational Maneuver and Tactical Maneuver; and six Army functional concepts: Battle Command, See, Move, Strike, Protect, and Sustain. This CCP also articulates the application of desired EW capabilities across the warfighting functions of: movement and maneuver, intelligence, fires, sustainment, C2, and protection. Additionally, this CCP enables the Army’s vision of future capabilities in support of the joint operating concepts (JOCs); joint functional concepts (JFCs); joint integrating concepts (JICs); and U.S. Strategic Command’s (USSTRATCOM) Operational Concept for Electronic Warfare (OCEW).
b. CCJO. The CCJO addresses three fundamental actions for employment by the joint force in any campaign; acquire knowledge, extend reach, and create effects. This EW CCP supports the acquire knowledge action through ES enabling capabilities that provide threat warning, direction finding and collection of radiated EME in support of land force operations. The application of current and emerging EA capabilities will provide both lethal and nonlethal fires capable of extending the reach of the force and creating desired effects. Finally, the application of EP capabilities, through both active and passive means, will enable all three actions for employment, by providing the required protection of personnel, facilities and equipment against friendly and enemy EW. This EW CCP seeks to resolve the EW capability gaps that will enable friendly effects on the battlefield against the emerging challenges of catastrophic, irregular, disruptive, and traditional threats identified in the CCJO.

c. JOCs


(1) Major Combat Operations (MCO) JOC. MCO are large-scale operations conducted against a nation state(s) that possesses significant regional military capability and the will to employ that capability in opposition to or in a manner threatening to the U.S. National security interest. The MCO JOC assumes future regional adversaries will have significant anti-access capabilities and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The central theme of MCO JOC is to “…achieve decisive conclusions to combat and set the conditions for decisive conclusion of the confrontation; use a joint, interdependent force that swiftly applies overmatching power simultaneously and sequentially, in a set of contiguous and noncontiguous operations; employ joint power at all points of action necessary; and create in the mind of our enemy an asynchronous perception of our actions—all to compel the enemy to accede to our will.” The MCO JOC proposes a synergistic blend of diverse National, non-military capabilities with a superior military force. It describes an approach to warfighting that exploits all instruments of national and multinational power to achieve full spectrum dominance. EW in support of the MCO JOC will be addressed in chapter 2, within the context of the seven key operational ideas articulated in the Army’s future Force Capstone Concept.
(2) Homeland Security JOC. The highest priority of the United States (U.S.) security strategy is homeland security. The assignment of DOD homeland defense responsibilities to U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) carried with it the inherent responsibility to establish a credible force structure to meet homeland defense requirements. “U.S. NORTHCOM’s mission is to conduct operations to deter, prevent, and defeat threats and aggression aimed at the U.S., its territories, and interests within the assigned area of responsibility (AOR) and as directed by the President or Secretary of Defense, provide military assistance to civil authorities...” The “homeland” is physical region that includes the 50 states, U.S. territories and possessions in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean, and the immediate surrounding sovereign waters and airspace. EW applications can help detect, deter, prevent, and defeat external aggression and provide early warning for threats such as: ballistic missile threats; airborne threats; maritime threats; land threats; and hostile space and cyber systems. EW also provides nonlethal options for employment or use when operating in the homeland or its associated environs. However, the use of EW applications for homeland security also poses unique challenges with regard to U.S. law, which may limit available EW options. (See USSTATCOM, Operational Concept for Electronic Warfare for more information about challenges and limits.)
(3) Military Support to Stabilization, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction Operations JOC. The operations as described in the stabilization, security, transition, and reconstruction operations JOC are multiagency operations that involve all instruments of national and multinational action, including the international humanitarian and reconstruction community to support major conventional combat operations if necessary; establish security; facilitate reconciliation among local or regional adversaries; establish the political, social, and economic architecture; and facilitate the transition to legitimate local governance. The objective is to establish a local government capable of providing for its own security, rule of law, social services, and economic activity. During stability operations (in post conflict (Phase IV+)), Army EW capabilities can foster restorative operations by offering nonlethal force options, signals monitoring of subversive elements, or assist in the broadcasting of civil affairs and psychological operations (PSYOP) influence messages to assist interim authorities. These options, in a restive post hostilities environment, may nurture the conditions from which stability can grow. Consequently, nonlethal force protection, as well as covert or clandestine ES capabilities is the most valued. If aggressive action is necessary, man or vehicle portable systems capable of isolating the battlespace can offer the precious time necessary to prevent a surgical strike from developing into a running mob-induced gun battle.
(4) Deterrence Operations JOC. Deterrence operations are used to convince adversaries not to take actions that threaten U.S. vital interests by means of decisive influence over their decisionmaking. Decisive influence is achieved by credibly threatening to deny benefits and or impose costs, while encouraging restraint by convincing the adversary that restraint will result in an acceptable outcome. Deterrence operations provide a set of steps necessary to operationalize deterrence planning that supports the National Military Strategy objective of 'prevent conflict and surprise attacks' and the National Military Strategy requirement to develop a wider range of options that discourage aggression and coercion. The Deterrence Operations JOC describes the near and mid-term security environments as being marked by certain characteristics which will have profound implications for U.S. deterrence strategy and operations, including: the wide array of potential adversaries; an asymmetry of stakes versus asymmetry of power; the vulnerability of U.S. society and forces; and some unique characteristics of non-state actors. In discussing the asymmetry of stakes versus asymmetry of power characteristics, the JOC states that, “…the challenge for deterrence operations is finding ways of overcoming potential imbalances of stakes versus power that bolster the credibility of U.S. capabilities. Military capabilities that limit the damage an adversary can do to U.S. and allied forces and populations (for example, integrated missile defense and consequence management activities) or limit collateral damage from U.S. and allied strikes can increase the credibility of U.S. attack and counter the asymmetry of stakes.” EW capabilities in support of deterrence operations can be used to limit collateral damage, while severing lines of communication (LOC), logistics, C2, and other key adversary functions. Technological advances in EW (such as DE weapons) will also enhance deterrence operations by providing capabilities that will affect how an adversary perceives the potential benefits and costs of actions we seek to deter.
d. JFCs
(1) Battlespace Awareness JFC. According to the Battlespace Awareness JFC, battlespace awareness in 2015 provides actionable intelligence to commanders and warfighters, and provides them with the ability to make better decisions faster by enabling a more thorough understanding of the environment in which they operate. Army ES capabilities will enhance battlespace awareness by supporting the warfighter in the collection, interception, identification, and locations of radiated EME; threat warning; direction finding; and can also assist in monitoring and securing LOC. Additionally, EP capabilities can protect friendly information, information systems, sensors and communications services from the effects of friendly or enemy EW through EM hardening, spectrum management, and emission control (EMCON) measures.
(2) C2 JFC. As stated in the C2 JFC, C2 is the ability to recognize what needs to be done in a situation and to ensure that effective actions are taken. In 2015, U.S. commanders will habitually be operating in a joint and multilateral environment as part of joint and/or combined operations...the ability for all these players to collaborate with one another will be instrumental in the success or failure of these operations. A major focus of this EW CCP is to enable integrated/interoperable EW capabilities, which will use and can be shared through a common C2 architecture in support of Army operations. Additionally, this EW CCP will enable the EP of this common C2 architecture against the effects of friendly and enemy EW.
(3) Force Application JFC. In its simplest form, force application can be described as the maneuver and engagement of combat forces to generate the effects desired on the enemy. This EW CCP supports the Force Application JFC though the application of EW to produce effects designed to control, deny, deceive, disrupt, degrade, and or destroy adversary personnel, equipment and facilities and EW capabilities. Forces must possess combinations of stealth, speed, information superiority, connectivity, protection, and lethality to enable maneuver. This EW CCP will enable maneuver by providing support to information superiority, connectivity, protection and lethality through the application of Army EA (lethal and nonlethal), EP and ES capabilities in support of land force operations.
(4) Net Centric JFC. This EW CCP views net-centricity as a fundamental aspect of future EW operations. The networking of all joint force elements creates capabilities for unparalleled information sharing and collaboration and a greater unity of effort via synchronization and integration of force elements at the lowest levels. It also provides a foundation across the full spectrum of joint operations for providing the ability to electronically share sensor data among multiple sensors in order to increase capability over that provided by any single sensor. EW supports the Net-Centric JFC through the application of EP capabilities to protect friendly information, information systems, sensors and communications services from the effects of friendly or enemy EW, and can assist in the synchronization and integration by providing EW frequency deconfliction and rapid reprogramming of EW systems. Linking ‘net ready’ EW systems that automatically populate the COP with operational information (with little human intervention) will also support the Net Centric JFC.
(5) Protection JFC. Protection is composed of a variety of active and passive measures (such as, weapons, pre-emption, and warning) in the air, land, sea, and space domains. Protection must be proactive, focused, and conducted by integrating military and cross government capabilities against our adversaries. The joint force will achieve this through the scaled and tailored selection and application of multilayered, active and passive, lethal and nonlethal measures, within the air, land, sea, and space, across the range of military operations (ROMO), based on assessment of an acceptable level of risk. The goal is to prevent adversaries from employing capabilities that would restrict or prevent the joint force from conducting decisive actions at a time and place of our choosing. EW supports the Protection JFC through the employment of both active and passive capabilities (lethal and nonlethal) that deny adversarial actions aimed at preventing friendly decisive actions.
e. Relevant JICs
(1) Global Strike JIC. Global strike is defined as responsive joint operations that strike enemy high value and high payoff targets, as an integral part of joint force operations conducted to gain and maintain battlespace access, achieve other desired effects and set conditions for follow-on decisive operations to achieve strategic and operational objectives. EW will support the Global Strike JIC through the application of ES (strategic, operational, and tactical) capabilities to assist in the collection, interception, identification, and location of radiated EM energy to enable global strike operations against high value and high payoff targets. Additionally, EA capabilities can be used to produce lethal or nonlethal effects against the targets once identified and located.
(2) Integrated Air and Missile Defense (AMD) JIC. This EW CCP supports the Integrated AMD JIC’s position for the integration of joint AMD capabilities. Integrated joint and Army AMD capabilities are required to ensure protection of the force. EW support to this JIC is provided through the application of EP capabilities to protect friendly AMD personnel, equipment and facilities from the effects of EW (both friendly and enemy) through EM hardening, spectrum management and EMCON measures. Additionally, ES can provide detection, location and tracking of adversary platforms radiating in the EME and EA capabilities can be used to support active air defense missions by denying, disrupting or destroying adversary systems and platforms.
(3) C2 JIC. This EW CCP supports the C2 JIC through the application of EP capabilities to protect C2 nodes and systems and equipment from the effects of friendly and adversary EW operations, and to provide EW frequency deconfliction and rapid reprogramming of EW systems. The application of EA and ES capabilities can also be used to preempt or counter the adversary’s use of EW to deny, disrupt, degrade or destroy friendly net-centric C2 functions.
(4) Persistent Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR): Planning and Direction JIC. The Persistent ISR JIC proposes to improve persistence through integrated, synchronized management in the planning and direction of ISR assets to the benefit of the joint force commander. The enabling capabilities needed for P-ISR include integrated planning and prioritization of information needs; multi-level tasking of ISR assets; and global visibility of information needs and ISR assets. This EW CCP supports the Persistent ISR JIC by recognizing that those enabling capabilities apply to EW assets as well. Full integration of EW with ISR efforts will better allow for satisfying the commander's information needs while properly executing offensive and defensive EW operations. Also, as with ISR, multi-level tasking and global visibility of EW assets will ensure effective and efficient use of those limited EW systems and capabilities while ensuring that EW operations do not work at cross-purposes with ISR efforts.
f. The Army’s Family of Future Force Concepts
(1) The Army in Joint Operations, The Army’s Future Force Capstone Concept. This concept defines full spectrum dominance as the defeat of any adversary or control of any situation across the full ROMO, which is the overarching goal of joint transformation and joint force development. This EW CCP supports the seven key operational ideas in the Army capstone. These are shaping and entry operations, operational maneuver from strategic distances, intra-theater operational maneuver, decisive maneuver, concurrent and subsequent operations, distributed support and sustainment, and networked-enabled battle command. These seven key ideas articulate how Army operations enable the joint force commander to seize the initiative early, transition rapidly to decisive operations, sustain operations through multiple campaigns, when required, to achieve strategic objectives, and maintain stability thereafter to "win the peace" over the long term. The future combat force will apply adaptive combinations of these seven key operational ideas across the ROMO. As this CCP supports the joint concept family, it subsequently supports the Army in joint operations and will describe how Army EW capabilities will enable full spectrum operations (FSO) within a JIM environment. EW in support of the seven key operational ideas will be further discussed in chapter 2 within the joint campaign framework.
(2) The U.S. Army Operating and Functional Concepts. This CCP supports the key ideas articulated within the Army’s two operating concepts; Operational Maneuver and Tactical Maneuver, and the six Army functional concepts Battle Command, See, Move, Strike, Protect and Sustain. The six warfighting functions are used to describe how EW capabilities are applied in support of operations. A warfighting function is a group of tasks and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose that commanders use to accomplish missions and training objectives. Commanders visualize, describe, direct, and lead operations in terms of the warfighting functions. Decisive, shaping, and sustaining operations combine all the warfighting functions to generate combat power. There are six warfighting functions: intelligence, movement and maneuver, fires, protection, sustainment and C2. Each of the warfighting functions can be significantly enhanced by EW capabilities in support of offensive, defensive and stability or civil support operations, and will be discussed in greater detail in chapter 2.
1-5. References

Required and related publications and prescribed and referenced forms are listed in appendix A.




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