Tough decisions for eight states

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Tough decisions for eight states


  1. Missouri

  2. Kentucky The

  3. Delaware Border States

  4. Maryland


  1. Virginia: Decided to seceded but the north-western section of the state wanted to remain loyal. Part of the state seceded from the state as the state seceded from the Union. This section became a new northern state, West Virginia.

  1. North Carolina: The people of North Carolina did not want to secede, but felt that there was no choice. North Carolina was surrounded by Confederate states. (Tennessee, Virginia, and South Carolina)

  1. Texas: Governor Sam Houston declared that Texas should remain a loyal state within the Union. “Texas will leave the Union over my dead body.” Houston left Texas and the state joined the CSA

  1. Louisiana: Elections were held to

decide the outcome.

Voters had two choices.(USA or CSA)

The final vote was 51% for the CSA and

49% for the USA.

Resources Necessary for War


1. Factories 86% 14%

2. Banks 81% 19%

3. Railroads 71% 29%(different gauges)

4. Farms 70% 30%(mostly cotton)

5. Population 70% 30%(1/3 were slaves)

22 million 9.5 million (3 mill slaves)

6. Shipyards 86% 14%

7. Generals 182 officers

left the U.S.

Army to


CSA generals

The Anaconda Plan

By General Winfield Scott

The Anaconda Plan was designed to destroy the CSA in a manner similar to the killing techniques of an anaconda snake. The USA would suffocate the life out of the Confederacy and slowly strangle the Confederates into a surrender. Scott, a southerner, chose to remain loyal to the Union and will fight to save the Union.

Four Steps of the Anaconda Plan

1. Capture the capital of the Confederacy, Richmond, Virginia

2. Capture the Mississippi River and split the CSA into a western & eastern section

3. Blockade all CSA port cities and deny ships the ability to enter or exit. The CSA depends on European supplies. The blockade will starve out the Confederates.
4.Divide and Conquer the CSA into several smaller segments.

Confederate Plan for Victory

  1. Fight a defensive war because the Union has too many resources, troops, and banks.

  1. Enlist the assistance of powerful European nations (British & or French) to trade weapons for cotton.

3. Patience: Hope the northern states grow tired of the bloodshed and accept the reality of the south as a separate nation.

Bull Run

Both sides (USA & CSA) assumed this would be a quick war. Every general (except Sherman) assumed the war would last only one battle. The winner of the battle would win the war.

The first battle occurred in Manassas, Virginia. It was called the Battle of Bull Run.

The CSA soldiers ran for their lives to escape the Union army. One CSA general (Thomas Jackson) refused to run and began building a wall with soldiers. (one kneeling behind another) The Confederate army rallied behind this wall and stopped the Union army. The Union troops threw their rifles and ran back to Washington; D.C.

For the rest of history, Jackson became known as Stonewall Jackson.(CSA)

The Union army was in chaos after the Battle of Bull Run. It was obvious that this would not be a short war. President Lincoln needed a northern general that could organize the Union troops into a “real” army. Lincoln named George McClellan the general in command of the Union army.

George McClellan

  1. Born 03 December 1826

  2. Entered college at age 13

(University of Pennsylvania)

  1. Transferred to West Point at age 15 (studied as an engineer)

  2. Fought in Mexican War

  3. Named general in command of Union army after Battle of Bull Run

  4. Told Lincoln he needed one year to train the volunteers into “real” soldiers

  5. Trained & drilled his troops constantly for one year

  6. Seemed afraid to attack the CSA

  7. Lincoln grew frustrated that McClellan never attacked and begins looking for a new general

  8. McClellan runs for President in 1864 and loses to Lincoln

Closing thoughts on McClellan

  1. Saved the Union army by training correctly and forcing West Point values on all soldiers

  1. Turned the Union army into the most powerful army on earth

  1. Lacked the strategic ability to unleash the army

  1. After the war, elected governor of New Jersey

Emancipation Proclamation

01 January 1863

The British and French are on the verge of helping the CSA. Both countries (U.K. & France) considered sending troops and ships to help the CSA. At a minimum, both nations were planning to send weapons and food.

The Union wasn’t strong enough to fight the CSA, France, and the United Kingdom. Lincoln needed to make a move that would keep the French & British uninvolved.
Lincoln shifted the focus of the war from states’ rights to the freedom of slaves. Lincoln announced a proclamation that the slaves would be freed on 01 January 1863.

Freeing the slaves made the USA appear as if it was fighting a righteous cause to end slavery. It made the CSA appear that they were fighting to keep slavery.

Queen Victoria (British Queen)was deeply opposed to slavery. She had read Uncle Tom’s Cabin and wept when the book was finished. Slavery was illegal in the U.K. & France. Neither country wanted to send weapons to a nation that was fighting to keep slavery.

As a result, the CSA was isolated from the rest of the world. No other nations wanted to be partners with a country that fought to keep slavery.

Lincoln had outmaneuvered the CSA.

EMANCIPATION = to set free


  1. The Emancipation Proclamation guaranteed the British & French would stay out of the war. The CSA was alone.

  1. Stonewall Jackson was dead.

  1. Lee was crushed at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania

(July 01-04 1863)

  1. Grant wins the Mississippi River at Vicksburg, Mississippi

(04 July 1863)

There is no way for the CSA to win. Lincoln outmaneuvered the CSA.


New Technologies during

the Civil War

  1. Telegraph (instant communications between

leaders and soldiers)

  1. Gatling gun (an early machine gun)

  2. Repeating rifle

  3. Railroads (fast transport of troops and materials)

  4. Photography

  5. Hot air balloons (reconnaissance of a region

due to the height)

7. Submarines: C.S.S. Hunley(used to

break the Union blockade)

  1. Ironclads (Iron warships rather than wooden ships) U.S.S. Monitor

C.S.S. Virginia

Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson

  • Lee’s best general (never lost a battle)

  • Graduate of West Point

  • Veteran of the Mexican War

  • Did not believe in secession

  • He taught at the Virginia Military Institute ( led his students in combat at the Battle of Bull Run)

  • Fought for the CSA because he believed his first duty was to his state (Virginia)

  • Defeated 3 Union armies with only 17,000 troops in the Shenandoah Valley (outnumbered 4 to 1)

  • Shot and killed by his own troops in an accident as Lee was planning his invasion into the north (Gettysburg)

  • Died 10 May 1863

  • Mother and wife both died of hemorage in child birth

  • One arm was longer than the other

  • Almost deaf from artillery in Mexico

  • Had the same horse through entire war, Little Sorrel. Horse lived to be 36.

  • Left arm amputated and buried

Terminator Shermanator

General Sherman and his horse, Sam

William Sherman

  • Grant’s best general

  • Graduate of West Point



  • Sherman was labeled insane because of his prediction made in 1861. Sherman predicted that it would take years to defeat the CSA, the war would be a bloodbath, and the Confederacy could win the war.

  • After the Battle of Bull Run Sherman’s predictions were accurate

  • 1st modern general (believed in “total war”)

  • Sherman was assigned the responsibility of “divide & conquer.” Sherman was nicknamed the “Destroyer of the South.” His army destroyed everything in it’s path.



Jefferson Davis

  • Born on 03 June 1803 (legal holiday in many southern states)

  • Graduate of West Point

  • Veteran of the Black Hawk War

  • Veteran of the Mexican War (awarded a medal for bravery in combat)

  • Secretary of War (introduced the newest technologies into the US Army & the Camel Corps)

  • Did not believe in secession

  • Believed the states should remain in the Union

  • President of the CSA

09 April 1865

Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, Virginia. The war ended.

Grant’s generosity

  1. Confederate soldiers could keep their horses.

  1. Officers could keep their pistols.

  1. Grant ordered the Union Army to bring food and medical supplies to the CSA troops.

  1. Amnesty(forgiveness) was given

December 08th college football
Army (West Point) vs US Naval Academy

United States ____

a.) are b.)is

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