Topic/Section: Chp. 3 Early Humans and the Agricultural Revolution

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Class Notes

Chp. 3 Early Humans and the Agricultural Revolution

Lesson 1: Hunter Gatherers

Full Name:___________________________________________________________________

Class Period: ________________________________________________________________
Date: ________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:
The Paleolithic Age:

-Why its called this?

-What dates cover this period?
-Paleolithic define

Surviving in the Paleolithic Age:

-How did people live then?

-nomads define
-What did they hunt?

-What did they gather?

Finding Food:

Men jobs (list):

How did their method of killing animals change?

Women jobs (list):

What was relationship between men and women?
The Invention of Tools

-culture define:

-methods define:

technology define:
-How did the way tools were made change during this time?
-What different types of sharpened tools were used, and give their uses?
What were needles made from and list uses?

Changing to Survive:

List several ways in which Paleolithic people adapted to their environment:

-available define
-constructed define:
Fire Sparks Changes:

List the various uses of fire:

How did Paleolithic people start fires (list two)

Language and Art:

What were the advantages to having a spoken language?

-communicated define
-constantly define

Describe the early art work found in the cave.

Why might they have been drawn?
The Ice Ages:

What changes came with the ice ages? List them.

Ice ages define

How did the Ice Ages affect humans? List them.

Notes/Supporting Details:

The stone age – time when people used stone tools

2.5 million years ago – 8000 B.C.

old stone

People moved around in search of food

In groups of 20-30 members

People who regularly move from place to place to survive.

Buffalo, bison, wild goats, reindeer – fished along water

Wild nuts, berries, fruits, wild grains, green plants

Hunted large animals sometimes far from camp

-learned animal behaviors in order to hunt

-learned how to track animals

-used clubs or drove off cliffs to kill

-eventually used traps and spears to capture/kill

women stayed in camp close to water

-looked after children

-gathered near camp

An equal relationship between men and women

-both helped to make decision

-some women hunted in pairs with men (monogamous pairs)

-first families

the way of life for a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs.

-a particular way of doing something

-tools and methods used to perform tasks

-early – sticks, stones, and tree branches

-next – later tools made from rock called flint – which could be chipped to make sharp edges.

-hand axes,

-later – flint used to make spear tips, arrow heads, - used bows, harpoons, fishhooks, early hoes from flint, rock scraping tools to scrape hides

-end of Paleolithic – bone needles for making nets and baskets, sewing of hides for clothing.

In cold climates:

-animal skins for clothing

-sought shelter in caves or rock overhangs

-later construction of tents and huts – animal skin, brush, wood, bones from woolly mammoths.

In warm climates:

-few clothes necessary

-lived in caves/huts for safety mostly from wild animals

Easy to get or use, present or ready for use
-to physically build or make something, such as a building

-warmth from cold

-light in darkness

-used to scare animals

-used with spears to scare animals out then kill/capture

-social gathering to cook and share stories

-cooked food easier to chew and digest

-smoked meat would keep longer

-friction of rubbing two pieces of wood together

-later used drill like pieces of wood to start easier

-striking rocks, pyrite, created sparks to start fire.

-used to communicate information and emotion

-makes it easier to work together and pass on knowledge

-used to express thoughts and feelings

to give information about something to someone by speaking, writing, moving hands, facial expression, etc.

-happening all the time or very often over a period of time

-staying the same, not changing.

-early cave paintings depicting herds of animals – usually no humans

-used crush stone of different colors to make paint by adding to animal fat

-used fingertips and twigs on early paintings

-later – animal hair brushes used

-maybe thought animal drawings brought good luck

-maybe early recording of group history

-maybe early form of enjoyment – earliest movie or tv show
-large sheets of ice covered the earth

-water level of oceans dropped as ice increased

-dry land was exposed making travel easier between Asia and N. America – land bridge

-People travelled over land bridge into N. Am. from Asia. –they eventually move southward in the Americas.

-long periods of extreme cold that affected all the Earth.

-cold threatened human life

-adaptations needed to survive-

-eating more fat,

-sturdier shelters

-made warmer clothing using furs

-use of fire for warmth – saving energy

Student’s picture/symbol that make personal connection to concepts:

Summary: How did people of the Paleolithic Age show signs of early civilization (use our civilization graphic organizer)?

Class Notes

Chp. 3 Early Humans and the Agricultural Revolution

Lesson 2: Agricultural Revolution

Full Name:___________________________________________________________________

Class Period: ________________________________________________________________
Date: ________________________________________________________________________

Questions/Main Ideas:
Neolithic Age:

-Why its called this?

-domesticate define
-What dates cover this period?
-systematic agriculture
Big Changes for Humankind:

-What was this time period called, why?

-Describe how humans changed the way they lived

Widespread Farming:

Where did people begin farming?

Neolithic Communities

-Where did some of the first communities develop?

-Why did they have shrines?
What were the benefits of a settled life?:

List several benefits of people living and working together:

End of the Neolithic Age:

List the various technological advances:

-What is bronze and why was it important?

Cities and Government:

Where did the first civilizations develop? Why?

Why did people form governments?

Why did religions develop?

Social Structure:

What is social structure?

Who is on top, in the middle, and at the bottom?

Writing and Art:

Why was writing important?

Why did civilizations create art?

Notes/Supporting Details:

New Stone Age - Greek

To tame wildlife – animals and plants for human use – food and labor
8000B.C. – 4000B.C.

growing of food on a regular basis – instead of hunting and gathering, stop being nomads

Agricultural Revolution – there were changes that impacted human in a dramatic way

-Saved some grain gathered to plant crops in fields for food

-Tamed animals for food and eventually labor

-Produced constant food supply – allowed them to stay in one place

-Population grew more rapidly

Southwest Asia – wheat, barley, pigs, cows, goats, sheep – then moved to southeastern Europe by 4000B.C.

Egypt – Nile R. – by 6000BC – to central Africa – grew tubers (yams), bananas,

India – wheat by 5000BC

China – millet by 6000BC

Southeast Asia – rice by 5000BC

Americas – corn , squash, potatoes, chickens, dogs by 5000BC

Along rivers and other bodies of water

-in same areas as above

-Jericho one of oldest – Israeal/Jordan (today)

-Catalhuyuk – Turkey – probably doors in roof
-holy places – indicated that religion played role in Neolithic people
-Shelter – provided safety from weather and wild critters

-Stable food supply – helped health and population growth

-Trade developed as food supply became greater than demand

-Specialized jobs – since not all people were needed to grow food

artisans to make weapons, jewelry, tools, pottery, plant fiber

woven baskets and cloth

-Men’s jobs changed – field workers and herders, protection of village

-Women’s jobs changed – raised children, stayed in village, wove cloth

from sheep’s wool, made clothing from skins, managed food supply

-Better tools: hoes (digging), sickle (cut grain), millstone (grind grain)

-Copper – metal used for tools and weapons

-A metal alloy (mixture of metals) of copper and tin.

-It is stronger than copper
-Bronze Age – period of increased use of bronze – 3000BC to 1200 BC

-Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China

-They all developed in river valleys – for farming, fishing, drinking water, transportation for trade

Monarchies – establishing queen or king were first governments set up to:

-create armies for protection

-made laws to keep order

-appointed government officials to manage food supply

-government officials to build public buildings

Formed to help people make sense of themselves and their suroundings:

-forces of nature

-role of human beings in the world

-belief that gods were responsible for community survival – so needed to make them happy for survival

-rulers believed their power came from gods

-organization of people into groups – usually determined by type of jobs people do and/or their wealth:

-highest class (rulers): priests, rulers, government officials, warriors.

-middle class: free people including farmers, artisans, craftspeople

-lowest class: enslaved people, many captured enemies

-to pass on information – using symbols – to keep records and preserve stories.

-for enjoyment and practical purposes:

-paintings/sculptures of gods/nature

-buildings for worship and burial tombs

Student’s picture/symbol that make personal connection to concepts:

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