Topic: Causes of World War I



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Task 2: Show how nationalism led to conflicts among the powers
Europe after 1870

Fill in the name of the country with the information provided.




Country

Description

Britain

  • A strong industrial power

  • A strong navy

  • In keen competition with Germany in naval build-up

  • Trying to end her isolation




Germany




France

  • Being defeated in 1871 by Germany

  • Looking for allies in Europe in order to take revenge on Germany




Italy




Austria- Hungary

  • A multi-racial empire

  • Looking for expansion in the Balkans

  • In conflict with Serbia because of her expansion

  • Facing national minority problem




Balkan states

  • Being ruled by the Ottoman Empire

  • Having conflicts with one another because of racial and religious differences

  • Attracting the interests of European powers




Russia

  • Looking for warm water port

  • Supporting Pan-Slav movement

  • Looking for expansion in the Balkans



Write a topic sentence for the information in this table.

____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________



e.g. Nationalism was one of the underlying causes of WWI because each country looked for their own interests.

Language focus:

  1. Use of active/passive voice

Complete the sentence in column A with the correct choice from Column B.


Column A

Column B

1.

Britain _____ to end her isolation

a.

tried

b.

was tried

2.

France _____ by Germany in the Franco-Prussian War

a.

defeated

b.

was defeated

3.

Italy _____ overseas especially in Africa.

a.

expanded

b.

was expanded

4.

Austria-Hungary _____ for expansion in the Balkans.

a.

looked

b.

was looked

5.

The Balkan states _____ by the Ottoman Empire.

a.

ruled

b.

was ruled

6.

Russia _____ the Pan-Slav Movement.

a.

supported

b.

was supported

7.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand _____ in Sarajevo.

a.

assassinated

b.

was assassinated

8.

Two rival alliances _____ before WWI.

a.

formed

b.

were formed

9.

WWI _____ in 1914.

a.

broke out

b.

was broke out

10.

The Triple Entente _____ of Britain, France and Russia.

a.

made up

b.

was made up

Write two sentences, one using active voice and the other using passive voice, on one of the causes of the First World War.



e.g.

Bismarck started the Alliance System. (Active Voice) OR




The Alliance System was started by Bismarck. (Passive Voice)




The Alliance System was one of the causes of the First World War. (Topic Sentence)



    1. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    2. ______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

B. Use of signal words of purpose (in order to/to/so that)

Re-arrange the following words into a complete sentence.


1.

the colonies / European countries / fought / in order to control / among themselves

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


2.

with one another / themselves / European countries / allied / in order to protect

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


3.

resources / European countries / to get / raced / land and

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


4.

Austria / to fight against / Serbia / Russia / supported

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


5.

strengthened / so that / protect themselves / European countries / they could / their military force

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


6.

Germany / she could / looked for ally / take revenge on / France / so that

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


7.

The Balkan states / the Ottoman Empire / rule themselves / break away from / so that / tried to / they could

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________


8.

the Alliance System / isolate France / started / Germany / so that / she could

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

Write two sentences, one using ‘in order to / to’ and the other using ‘so that’, on one of the causes of the First World War. (With reference to P.7)



e.g.

Russia expanded in the Balkans in order to look for warm water port.




Nationalism was one of the causes of the First World War.




  1. ______________________________________________________________

  2. ______________________________________________________________

Task 3: Show how alliance system led to conflicts among the powers

  1. Map work

Use colour to show the opposing European countries at the outbreak of World War I. Write down the names of the countries.

Suggested answer

Write short sentences for each treaty signed to show how the 2 opposing camps were formed.

Instructions:

You may use active / passive voice and the signal words of purpose to write the sentences.





1879

Dual Alliance



The formation of Two Armed Camps

1894

Franco-Russian Alliance



1882

Triple Alliance



1904

Entente Cordiale






1907

Anglo-Russian Entente






1907

Triple Entente





1.

In 1879, Austria-Hungary and Germany made an alliance to protect themselves from Russia.

2.

In 1882, Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance with Italy to stop Italy from taking sides with Russia.

3.

In 1894, Russia formed an alliance with France to protect herself against Germany and Austria-Hungary.

4.

In 1904, France and Britain signed the Entente Cordiale between them.

5.

In 1907, the Anglo-Russian Entente was signed between Britain and Russia.

6.

In 1907, the Triple Entente was signed between Russia, France and Britain to counter the German threat.




  1. Cartoon (A chain of friendship)

Write short sentences to show how the allies supported each other, using the information from this cartoon, the table below and the above exercise.

Source: The cartoon 'A chain of friendship', published in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, July 1914.

Complete the table below

What did the powers do on the eve of the First World War?





Countries

The First World War

Germany

Hint:

1879 - Germany and Austria-Hungary;

(What did Germany do after the Sarajevo Assassination?)


Austria

Hint:

(What did Austria do after the Sarajevo Assassination?)



Russia

Hint:

(Russia being the leader of Slav race)



France

Hint:

1894 - Russia and France



Britain

Hint:

1907


Reaction to Germany in 1914

Suggested answers

Countries

The First World War

Germany

Unlimited support to Austria; declared war on Russia; attacked France through Belgium

Austria

Declared war on Serbia

Russia

Mobilized army to help Serbia

France

Mobilized army to support Russia

Britain

Joined the war to support its allies

Short writing exercise on the impact of Alliance System

Use the signal words ‘to / in order to’ and ‘so that’ to complete the exercise


e.g.

Russia mobilized her army to help Serbia.




1.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



2.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



3.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



4.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




Task 4: Show how colonial rivalry led to conflicts among the powers
Below is a table showing the conflicts among the powers before WWI.




Britain

France

Germany

Italy

Russia

Britain




Egypt, Sudan

East Africa




Persia, Afghanistan

France







Morocco

Tunisia




Germany
















Italy
















Russia
















The situation of Africa before 1914

Write short sentences about their struggle for colonies. Use the information provided in the table and map above. (cause and effect)

e.g. Britain and Germany had interests in East Africa, so/as a result they had conflict over the areas in East Africa.


1.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



2.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



3.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



4.

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________





Suggested answers

France and Italy had interests in North Africa, so / as a result they had conflict over Tunisia.


France and Germany had interests in North Africa, so / as a result they had conflict over Morocco.
Britain and France had interests in North Africa, so / as a result they had conflict over Egypt and Sudan.
Britain and Russia had interests in in Middle East and Far East, so / as a result they had conflict over Persia and Afghanistan.
France and Germany had conflict in Morocco so / as a result it led to Moroccan Crisis.
France and Germany nearly came to a war in order to / to control Morocco.

Task 5: Show how militarism led to conflicts among the powers

Study the Sources A and B below and find out how militarism led to conflicts among the powers.


Source A

A British cartoon published in the early 20th century, entitled “The Marine Painters of England and Germany”.

* Uncle Edward: King Edward VII of England

* William: Kaiser William (Wilhelm) II of Germany




Source B

Armaments race



In the early 20th century, most powers thought military action was the best way to safeguard national interests. The amount of army and navy showed how strong a country was. The powers increased their military expenditure. This intensified the armaments race. Britain and Germany built dreadnoughts to make themselves even stronger.
The armaments race did not give the powers a stronger sense of security. It made the international situation tenser and increased the possibility of the outbreak of war.



1.

According to Source A, what did William want to do?




___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



2.

According to Source A, what was Uncle Edward’s reaction? (Quote from the source and then rewrite in your own words)




___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



3.

Identify the underlying cause of WWI. Explain your answer with reference to the 2 Sources.




___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________



4.

How did the underlying cause you identified in question 3 lead to the outbreak of the First World War? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B?




___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________




Suggested Answers

1.

According to Source A, what did William want to do?




William wanted to build Dreadnought

2.

According to the Source A, what was Uncle Edward’s reaction? (Quote from the source and then rewrite in your own words)




Uncle Edward said, “Your little marine masterpiece is too ambitious; keep it as a study.” Edward VII was unhappy with William’s plan for this would challenge England’s naval supremacy.

3.

Identify the underlying cause of WWI. Explain your answer with reference to the 2 Sources.




The 2 Sources showed how militarism led to conflicts among the powers. Source A showed that Germany wanted to challenge England’s naval supremacy by building the dreadnoughts. Source B showed the results of armaments race.

4.

How did the underlying cause you identified in question 3 lead to the outbreak of the First World War? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B?




The building of dreadnoughts by Germany intensified the armaments race as shown in Source A. Source B explained that the armaments race did not give the powers a stronger sense of security. It made the international situation tenser and increased the possibility of the outbreak of war.

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