|UN Security Council
Cyberterrorism is the act of terrorism on the internet. This act of terrorism effects computers, networks, or the public internet. Terrorists act in this way to get the governments attention on an issue or because of any other ideological or political objective. Cyberterrorism can be small hacks in a computer to mass disruption in a system where it leaves it inoperable. Today the internet is a complicated web of technology and it is vulnerable to attack.
As cyberterrorism spreads throughout the world, there are many concerns that Argentina could be a target. Argentina is concerned by other countries like the U.S. hacking into our system because we have learned that the NSA spy program has been spying on most Latin American countries. In 2011, a group crashed a government website in Chile and after the attack Cristián Borghello, the director of an Argentine agency that promotes computer safety says "There is still a bit of incomprehension in Latin America regarding the security needed when handling information and computer resources." His comments state that not many know exactly how to protect themselves from cyberterrorism. As Agustin Rossi stated in 2013, "We have established that we will hold a meeting in Brasilia before the end of the year to intensify our complementarity in the matter of cyber defense.” This meeting would have made actions clear on what Argentina would do to protect itself from cyberterrorism.
Argentina would like to propose solutions for countries in order to protect themselves against cyberterrorism. We suggest using military actions. That is to provide cyber warfare training to officers. This training could be provided by other countries who have the expertise and knowledge of what to do when attacked. In Argentina, Brazil will be providing us with the training needed. This could protect countries from hackers and allowing everyone to fight back against whomever. These actions would provide your country with the protection needed to fight in the cyber warfare. Also our military has stated that including defensive measures to protect your own networks and offensive measures is a good idea. This would protect everyone's computer systems while fighting back to stop cyberterrorism.
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Submitted by: Commonwealth of Australia
“Attacking a growing cyber terrorism threat” was the headline of The Australian, which is a newspaper, on March 22 2014. As you may have guessed, Australia is firmly against Cyberterrorism. We in Australia have had a published policy on Cyber Security for 6 years. We have a computer emergency response team of Australia, also known as CERT Australia, devoted to Cyber Security. CERT Australia helps find and catch hackers and cyberterrorists. The Attorney General Robert McClelland started enforced Cyber Security and every Attorney General after him has done the same. Australian government has helped computer systems, locally and nationally with Cyber Security. Hackers and cyberterrorists can take down anything anywhere. For Example, one smart criminal can take down huge companies at a coffee shop. In Australia, there has been many bank hackings that disrupt stock exchange. Some big names are Virgin Blue, Australian Stock Exchange, Commonwealth Bank and National Australia Bank. We need to stop cyberterrorism before it gets out of hand.
The to a society without cyberterrorism and cybercrime is to stop it in its tracks. I mean I think the UNSC should sign a document that creates a team of cyber police force. It would keep international cyberterrorists at bay or in jail. We should also sign another document to make countries keep cybercrime against the law. It would prevent forming an alliance of cyber criminals. I think Attorney General George Brandis would be in support of the proposal along with Prime Minister Anthony Abbott. Once again, Australia is firmly against Cyberterrorism.
Submitted by: Chad
According to NATO (2008), cyber terrorism is “a cyber attack using or exploiting computer or communication networks to cause sufficient destruction to generate fear or intimidate a society into an ideological goal.” Cyber terrorism is a serious problem that affects many people in the world. Just a few stats about cyber terrorism. 4/5 of the major industries reported being a victim of a cyber attack. 300 billion dollars is put in just to fight of hackers. July 21, 2014, 200,000 computers had been hacked just to hack the White House website. Luckily the attempt was caught quick enough to terminate the attack. About 50 percent of all the users on the Internet are victims of cyber attacks.
Some quick facts about Chad. 54% of the people in Chad live in poverty. 80% rely on farming for money. Only 2.1% of Chad has access to computers and Internet. Cyber terrorism still impacts Chad though. Chad and many other African countries also are very vulnerable to these attacks. Chad also does not have a strong defense system against these attacks. The motive behind these attacks are either fame or for money. A year ago a student had hacked 100 government websites in Kenya. This comes to show that hackers don’t have to be a select few but can be anyone; it also shows us that anyone can learn to hack. This incident also tells us that Africa as a continent does not have good defenses against these attacks.
A defense system should be in place for countries having cyber attacks that do not have a good defense system. Government officials from countries all over Africa that are trained or are being trained can put a defense system for all men and women to help secure their computers or other electronics. Other countries might be willing to support these countries after the information given.
Submitted by: France
As of right now, in 2014, cyber terrorism has become a growing concern around the world and France would like to come to a resolution upon that. According to IBM Global Security Analysis Lab, about 90% of the time the hackers are amateurs or cyber joyriders, 9.9% of the time they are professional hackers for hire or corporate spies, and .1% of the time these evil hackers are world-class cyber criminals. Terrorist leaders in the Middle East such as ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) are taking advantage of one of the world’s greatest tools, the internet. While the internet is very useful, unfortunately groups, such as ISIS, or just regular people in general are using the internet as a threat or to uncover innocent people’s security rights. It could happen to anybody, and that is why we must not let cyber terrorism gain its power throughout the world.
France believes that people deserve their privacy, especially on the internet. It is a disruption to this belief when cyber terrorism occurs. Concerned, France would like to try to limit internet usage of anyone with a criminal background. Although, it may not seem simple, France believes it can be pulled off as long as other countries present try to do the same. Although, some cyber terrorists are normal people who have no criminal background whatsoever; we could monitor internet usage, also creating jobs in the process, so that any suspicious activity could be reported.
As for the countries who do not allow citizens to use the internet, such as North Korea, this action that prevents people from using the internet may be protecting people’s security but it is preventing people from using a greater tool. even though people are using it against us, people should have a right to use it, but also protect their security. It would be wonderful to grant internet peace to everyone, but it is just not possible. This will be a successful solution.
Machines would do the monitoring, and the people would work the machines. We would train people to be able to work the machines, so there would rarely be a malfunction. This project would be a huge endeavor to get funds needed, so we would need donations. If we do this, nobody will ever get away with suspicious activity that could lead to cyber terrorism or terrorism in general.
France is highly against terrorism, so we think the internet should be a safe place to use for everybody. The internet was never meant for cyber terrorism and hacking, it was meant for a group of people around the world to be able to talk to each other in peace, but sometimes when people take advantage of this, it can be a disruption to our daily lives, so that is why France believes that people should be able to use the internet without any further disruptions in the cyber world, therefore creating happy, simple, lives for people of all nations. The internet was once a happy place, but now we must restart, and recreate the happy, safe place it once was, without the worry of another hacking or starting cyber terrorism.
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Jordanian officials are committed to fighting cybercrime and cyberterrorism. We believe that fighting cybercrime will leave the country better equipped to battle cyberterrorism. Jordan is working with international organizations and private corporations to fight these crimes. We are building a new cybercrime/cyberterrorism center under the Ministry of Information and Communications Technology. In 2013 the number of cyber-crimes reached over 1,000, 75% of the victims were women. Many of the crimes include fraud and extortion. “The authorities’ need to prevent this type of crime,”said Lt. Col. Sahm al- Jamal, director of the cyber-crime unit of the Public Security Directorate’s criminal investigations department. A new cybercrime/cyberterrorism center will be built in Amman by the Jordanian Ministry of Information and Communications Technology. Minister Azzam Sleit spoke at a workshop on his hopes and beliefs this new center will fulfill. "We hope to assist response teams in cybercrime incidents across different sectors," Sleit said. The new center will brighten the future of internet safety and help create new cybercrime laws as well as reinforce the current ones.”
I believe as a country we need to have public relations, law enforcements, and international cooperation. We should provide advertisements warning people of the danger of these terrorists to help people avoid being victims of cybercrime. These advertisement would appear on social media, and broadcast on television and the radio. Jordan should work with international law enforcement organizations so we can create new laws and improve enforcement of existing laws. We can also work with the United Nations and International Telecommunications Union to help fight cybercrime and cyberterrorism out of the borders of our country. The resolution I propose must not include special exemptions for Israel. This resolution must be approved by the Parliament and King Abdullah II of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan before any action to take place. Jordan is committed to a strong, regional and international fight against cybercrime and cyberterrorism. We believe our new cybercrime center in Amman gives us strong defenses against internet based threats.
"Jordan to Open Cybercrime Centre in Amman." AlShorfa RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2014.
Submitted by: South Korea
Cyberterrorism is a growing problem in the world as more and more people depend upon modern technology for everyday activities. The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) defines cyberterrorism as, "the premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups and clandestine agents" (www.crime-research.org). Cyberterrorism can lead to the hacking of air control and causing planes to crash, and remotely launching nuclear weapons (www.mtholyoke.edu). Since 1999, South Korea, Japan, and the US have been the targets of cyber attacks from North Korea (dailycaller.com). On March 20, 2014 there was a major attack in South Korea that "led to the crippling of several South Korean financial and media company websites," says Cho Jong Ik. The South Korean government later deduced that North Korea was the cause of the attack, based on the realization that the attackers had the same IP address as past attacks from North Korea (en.nknet.org). In an effort to defend their government against North Korean hackers, South Korea has strongly admitted that they are making plans to build a cyber tool specifically made to destroy North Korea's nuclear capabilities (www.bbc.com). Although they do not condone cyberterrorism, South Korea does find it necessary to defend their government against attacks and threats from North Korea.
Along with North Korea, China has also been confirmed to have a cyber army of 180,000 spies, which has been used to attack the United States about 90,000 times a year (www.thedailybeast.com). Canada is also a reported victim of cyberterrorism in China, causing the government to eventually cut off their internet access in order to keep China from accessing and stealing any more of their classified information (Syed Balkhi). Though, a recent article written by Xinhua states that a Chinese envoy urged the UN and its Security Council to take "effective measures to tackle cyberterrorism." Liu Jieyi made this statement at a Security Council meeting in mid-late November 2014 (usa.chinadaily.com). Also, in June of 2013, United States president Barack Obama, Chinese leader Xi Jinpig, and Russian president Vladimir Putin discussed ways to fight cyberterrorism, and the Chinese leader stated that the Chinese government has been a target of cyberterrorism too (rbth.com). In 2007, Russia was accused of unleashing a cyber war on the country of Estonia, after a spat with Russia on the removal of a war memorial. This cyber war caused Estonia to "cut access to its sites from abroad" in order to stop the attacks from causing any more of their sites to crash and become inaccessible (The Economist Newspaper). In March of 2013, "South Korea's financial institutions as well as the Korean broadcaster YTN had their networks infected in an incident said to resemble past cyber efforts by North Korea" (www.nato.int).
IMPACT, International Multilateral Partnership Against Cyber Threats, is an alliance of 152 countries set to defend against cyber threats, including Ukraine, Brazil, India, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Sierra Leone, Guatemala, and many more. The alliance is also a "key partner of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a United Nations' (UN) specialized agency, in the effort to ensure the safety of cyberspace for everyone." IMPACT was formed in 2008 at the World Cyber Security Summit. In that same year, IMPACT signed a Memorandum of Understanding with ITU, stating that they would work together on creating ITU's Global Cyber security Agenda (GCA) (www.impact-alliance.org). ITU is an agency of the United Nations that is set on coordinating "telecommunication operations and services throughout the world." ITU was first founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union (what is.techtarget.com). The organization is currently working to make sure that cyberspace is once again safe for all. Through these two organizations, the UN is working hard to protect the world against cyber terrorists. In the next 3-4 years, South Korea along with the UN would like to guarantee that cyberspace is once again safe and that cyberterrorism is no longer a global issue by being diligent in their efforts.
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Peterson, Josh. “North Korea ready for cyberwar.” http://dailycaller.com/2013/04/05/north-korea-ready-for-cyberwar/. The Daily Caller 2014. Web. 15 December 2014.
Cho Jong Ik. “Ha Tae Kyoung Interview on the Growing Cyber-Terrorism Threat from North Korea and the South’s Response.” http://en.nknet.org/writings/nk-vision/no47/ha-tae-kyoung-north-korea-cyber-terrorism-threat/. NKnet 15 May 2013. 15 December 2014.
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Cyberterrorism is a problem that faces almost every major world government today. The position of Russia on this issue is that new laws are required to prevent the proliferation of cyberterrorism and warfare. We hope that these laws will be implemented quickly.
Cyberterrorism is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as ‘the politically motivated use of computers and information technology to cause severe disruption or widespread fear in society.’ The 2007 cyberattacks in Estonia have been attributed to Russian government actions in the past. However, no evidence has ever been found that links the Kremlin to these attacks, and the Kremlin denies any part in them. More recently, on October 7 JP Morgan announced a cyberattack that compromised the ‘user contact information-name, address, phone number and email address’ of up to 76 million households and 7 million small businesses, but nothing else had been compromised. Once again, Russian hackers were blamed, and once again, no evidence connects the attacks directly to the Kremlin, though it is likely that the attacks were Russian in origin.
It is clear that this problem is a large one. For instance, the United States Cyber Command received $447 million in funding earlier this year. However, no adequate international legislation exists on this matter. For instance, last year NATO introduced the Tallinn Manual, which outlines some basic regulations on cyberattacks, including the principle that they can be regarded as usage of force and allows victim nations to respond with “commensurate countermeasures.” However, many Russian officials have reservations about this manual. In the words of Russian Defense Ministry official Konstantin Peschanenko, “The issue of cybersecurity is a most topical one at present. It is particularly important to prevent the militarization of the virtual space; whereas the Tallinn Manual is a step in exactly that direction. Its approach to the issue at hand is far from perfect. And the assessments made in it appear one-sided."
In conclusion, cyberterrorism is a grave threat and must be stopped. We propose that new laws be implemented which strictly define cyberterrorism, outline the proper responses to cyberattacks, and introduce harsher punishments for cyberterrorism. Thank you.
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Submitted by: Ukraine
In recent years, cyberterrorism has been a major issue around the world. Cyberterrorism is the act of terrorizing people through computers and the Internet. It includes but is not limited to; cyber threats, network hacking, bomb threats distributed through social media, threats of hacking, etc. According to wmur.com, FBI director James Comey said that cyberterrorism is one of the top threats to Americans, besides extremism. Ukraine has currently been working to take down Russian Separtist websites according to ukraine.settimes.com, Glib Pakharenko, the membership director of the Kyiv chapter of the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA) told SETimes that co-operation between the civil sector and state agencies is "obligatory for cyber strategy."
Ukraine was recently the victim of a cyber-attack. The attack was sent from the Ukrtelecom Base in the Russian-controlled region of Crimea. Russian soldiers invaded the base and illegally installed equipment, according to reports from people at the base. The soldiers tampered with cables at the base and sent out a virus that attacked the cell phones of Ukranian politicians (channel4.com).
Ukraine would like the UN to pass a resolution to allow countries to put sanctions on Russia and other countries with governments convicted of cyberterrorism. This is definitely the best option because the UN is all about world peace. If countries are terrorizing each other, there is no peace.
Submitted by: United Kingdom
The predicament concerning cyber terrorism continues to revolve around society. Unfortunately, hackers worldwide have used computers to perform more harm than good. In 1990, for example, the National Academy of Science stated, “We are at risk. Increasingly. America depends on computers… Tomorrow’s terrorists may be able to make more damage with a keyboard than a bomb.” As well as the increased risk of hacking, ISIS has inflicted additional trauma by posting YouTube videos for everyone to see. These videos include executions, rigorous training videos, and moments of war. This exemplifies that you don’t only need to hack and physically change someone’s online profile, but you can spread fear through emotional states. The United Nations has reviewed and sought to pass multiple resolutions, and in one article (properly stated “Article 2”), it states that, “Any act intended to kill or inflict serious injury to any person, or anyone not involved in a hostile situation, when the nature of this act is towards frightening a population or manipulating a government to do or abstain from this activity.” Adding to the matter, there have been numerous “Denial of Service” attacks towards U.S. government, one aimed towards the CIA mainframe, and multiple attacks in foreign countries (Denial of Service attacks are attacks intended to cut off users’ connection from the service). The United Kingdom does not and will never tolerate these events, and/or any future events. The United Kingdom believes that international peace should be maintained in the real world as well as the cyber domain. While man should progress and continue to innovate with technology, so called “builders” should create a safe and peaceful environment. To this extent, the United Kingdom believes that peace can be reached by the means of jailing criminal offenders. As well as jail time, the United Kingdom believes that defense is as important as aggressiveness in prosecuting criminal offenders. The Secret Intelligence Service (M16) suggests that the United Kingdom should invest money in defensive technology, and the Government has already allocated funds and money into the Spending Rounds. Spending Rounds are the country’s budget. The United Kingdom strongly insists that these policies should be practiced internationally, to confirm international cyber security.
The United Kingdom only will seek measures for peace, and with the use of peaceful electronic technology, disciplining criminals, and jailing offenders and felons up to life sentences, we can internationally halt the actions of cyber terrorism, and maintain a healthy, intellectual, and peaceful cyber domain.
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Submitted by: United States of America
In the past couple decades, cyber terrorism has become a big threat for the USA. With the new technology in the 21st century cyber terrorism is a bigger threat than ever before. Cyber terrorism is the use of computers as weapons that causes widespread fear in society, economic problems, or physical problems. If a cyber-terrorist hacks into power plants they can control electricity and gas. Cyber terrorists can hack into government computer systems, or even into bank computer systems and wipe out bank accounts. If they hack bank accounts it could cause the economy to collapse. A major challenge for the USA in the next decade will be cyber security or protecting ourselves from cyber terrorism. As the world becomes more connected and reliant on computers, it is too much of a threat to overlook. An estimate of how much cyber terrorism has cost is hundreds of billions of dollars. In September of this year, China has been suspected of hacking into the United States Postal Service seeking private information. China will not admit the attack, but the US believes China was seeking sensitive information about government employees.
In a 2009 speech President Barack Obama said “In short, America’s economic prosperity in the 21st century will depend on cyber security. And this also a matter of public safety and national security.” The US Homeland Security Agency has proposed a plan called the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative. The initiatives includes reducing national network entry points, so traffic is more easily monitored, setting up an intrusion detection and prevention. This led to the idea of EINSTEIN 3. Which is technology that monitors everything the USA’s network and scans it for threats.
As the United States we believe the UN must develop laws against cyber terrorism. The issue is so global that the only way to solve it is if the UN steps in. USA believes to track the issue we have to have technology to monitor the things coming into the country and check for threats. The UN needs to make sure other countries have cyber security as well. If more people are protected the countries who allow cyber terrorism or cyber terrorists will face consequences more at a global level.
Cyber security is a big priority and the USA will do all they can to prevent cyber terrorism in the future. Although the US have begun, the US knows there is a lot of work that lies ahead to continuously be one step ahead of cyber terrorists. Eventually terrorists will turn to cyber terrorism and there has to be protection in place. Cyber terrorists are constantly changing threats making it difficult to keep protection up to date. The USA believes that cybersecurity is one of the most important things and will do all they can to help prevent it. In conclusion if the UN has laws and consequences in place about cyber terrorism it will globally make a difference to better the safety of all countries and individuals.
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UNSC Topic B