Top Essentials to Know About the Vietnam War Name



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Top Essentials to Know About the Vietnam War Name:


Examine Americans Ch. 22 (p. 728-765) & Alive! Ch. 51-53 (p. 654-693)
http://americanhistory.about.com/od/vietnam/tp/vietnam-war.htm

By Martin Kelly


The Vietnam War was a cause of much controversy in the United States. One of the first things to realize about the war is that it was a progressive thing. What began as a small group of 'advisors' under President Dwight Eisenhower ended up with over a total of 2.5 million American troops involved. Here are the top essentials to understanding the Vietnam War.
1. Beginning of American Involvement in Vietnam

America began sending aid to the French fighting in Vietnam and the rest of Indochina in the late 1940s. France was fighting Communist rebels led by Ho Chi Minh. It wasn't until Ho Chi Minh defeated the French in 1954 that America became officially involved in trying to defeat the Communists in Vietnam. This began with financial aid and military advisors sent to help the South Vietnamese as they fought Northern Communists fighting in the South. The U.S. worked with Ngo Dinh Diem and other leaders to set up a separate government in the South.


2. Domino Theory

With the fall of North Vietnam to the Communists in 1954, President Dwight Eisenhower explained America's stance in a press conference. As Eisenhower stated when asked about the strategic importance of Indochina: "...you have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the 'falling domino' principle. You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly...." In other words, the fear was that if Vietnam fell completely to communism, this would spread. This Domino Theory was the central reason for America's continued involvement in Vietnam over the years.


3. Gulf of Tonkin Incident

Over time, American involvement continued to increase. During the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson, an event occurred that resulted in an escalation in the war. In August 1964, it was reported that the North Vietnamese attacked the USS Maddox in international waters. Controversy still exists over the actual details of this event but the result is undeniable. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that allowed Johnson to increase America's military involvement. It allowed him to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack...and to prevent further aggression." Johnson and Nixon used this as a mandate to fight in Vietnam for years to come.


4. Operation Rolling Thunder

In early 1965, the Viet Cong staged an attack against a Marine barracks that killed eight and injured over a hundred. This was called the Pleiku Raid. President Johnson, using the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution as his authority, ordered the air force and navy forward in Operation Rolling Thunder to bomb. His hope was that the Viet Cong would realize America's resolve to win and stop it in its tracks. However, it seemed to have the opposite effect. This quickly led to further escalation as Johnson ordered more troops into the country. By 1968, there were more than 500,000 troops committed to fighting in Vietnam.


5. Tet Offensive

On January 31, 1968, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong launched a major attack on the South during Tet, or the Vietnamese New Year. This was called the Tet Offensive. American forces were able to repel and seriously injure the attackers. However, the effect of the Tet Offensive was severe at home. Critics of the war increased and demonstrations against the war began to occur across the country.


6. Opposition at Home

The Vietnam War caused a great division among the American population. Further, as news of the Tet Offensive became widespread, opposition to the war greatly increased. Many college students fought against the war through campus demonstrations. The most tragic of these demonstrations occurred on May 4, 1970 at Kent State University in Ohio. Four students staging a protest demonstration were killed by national guardsmen. Antiwar sentiment also arose in the media which further fed the demonstrations and protests. Many of the popular songs of the time were written in protest to the war such as "Where Have All the Flowers Gone," and "Blowing in the Wind."


7. Pentagon Papers

In June 1971, the New York Times published leaked top-secret Defense Department documents known as the Pentagon Papers. These documents showed that the government had lied in public statements about how the military involvement and progress of the war in Vietnam. This confirmed the worst fears of the anti-war movement. It also increased the amount of public outcry against the war. By 1971, over 2/3 of the American population wanted President Richard Nixon to order troop withdrawals from Vietnam.


8. Paris Peace Accords

During most of 1972, President Richard Nixon sent Henry Kissinger to negotiate a ceasefire with the North Vietnamese. A temporary ceasefire was completed in October 1972 which helped secure Nixon's reelection as president. By January 27, 1973, America and North Vietnam signed the Paris Peace Accords which ended the war. This included the immediate release of American prisoners and the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam within 60 days. The Accords were to include the end of hostilities in Vietnam. However, soon after America left the country, fighting broke out again eventually resulting in victory for the North Vietnamese in 1975. There were over 58,000 American deaths in Vietnam and more than 150,000 wounded.



Vietnam 101: A Short Introduction

http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/vietnamwar/p/VietnamBrief.htm

By Kennedy Hickman




"Home is where you dig" was the sign over the fighting bunker of Private First Class Edward, Private First Class Falls and Private First Class Morgan of the 1st Battalion, 7th Regiment, during Operation Worth. 1968

Photograph Courtesy of the National Archives & Records Administration
vietnam 101: a short introduction


Summary

The Vietnam War occurred in present-day Vietnam, Southeast Asia. It represented a successful attempt on the part of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam, DRV) and the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam (Viet Cong) to unite and impose a communist system over the entire nation. Opposing the DRV was the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam, RVN), backed by the United States. The war in Vietnam occurred during the Cold War, and is generally viewed as an indirect conflict between the United States and Soviet Union, with each nation and its allies supporting one side.



When was the Vietnam War?

The most commonly used dates for the conflict are 1959-1975. This period begins with North Vietnam's first guerilla attacks against the South and ends with the fall of Saigon. American ground forces were directly involved in the war between 1965 and 1973.



Causes

The Vietnam War first began in 1959, five years after the division of the country by the Geneva Accords. Vietnam had been split into two, with a communist government in the north under Ho Chi Minh and a democratic government in the south under Ngo Dinh Diem. Ho launched a guerilla campaign in South Vietnam, led by Viet Cong units, with the goal of uniting the country under communist rule. The United States, seeking to stop the spread of communism, trained the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and provided military advisors to help combat the guerillas.



Americanization of the War

In August 1964, a US warship was attacked by North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. Following this attack, Congress passed the Southeast Asia Resolution which allowed President Lyndon Johnson to conduct military operations in the region without a declaration of war. On March 2, 1965, US aircraft began bombing targets in Vietnam and the first troops arrived. Commanded by General William Westmoreland, US troops won victories over Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces around Chu Lai and in the Ia Drang Valley that summer.



The Tet Offensive

Following these defeats, the North Vietnamese avoided fighting conventional battles and focused on engaging US troops in small unit actions in the sweltering jungles of South Vietnam. In January 1968, the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong launched the massive Tet Offensive. Beginning with an assault on US Marines at Khe Sanh, the offensive included attacks by the Viet Cong on cities throughout South Vietnam. Though the North Vietnamese were beaten back with heavy casualties, Tet shook the confidence of the American people and media who had thought the war was going well.



Vietnamization

As a result of Tet, President Lyndon Johnson opted not to run for reelection and was succeeded by Richard Nixon. Nixon's plan for ending US involvement was to build up the ARVN so that they could fight the war themselves. As this process of “Vietnamization” began, US troops started to return home. The mistrust of the government that had begun after Tet worsened with the release of news about US soldiers massacring civilians at My Lai (1969), the invasion of Cambodia (1970), and the leaking of the Pentagon Papers (1971).



End of the War and the Fall of Saigon

The withdrawal of US troops continued and more responsibility was passed to the ARVN, which continued to prove ineffective in combat, often relying on American support to stave off defeat. On January 27, 1973, a peace accord was signed in Paris ending the conflict. By March of that year, American combat troops had left the country. After a brief period of peace, North Vietnam recommenced hostilities in late 1974. Pushing through ARVN forces with ease, they captured the Saigon on April 30, 1975, forcing South Vietnam’s surrender and reuniting the country.



Casualties

United States: 58,119 killed, 153,303 wounded, 1,948 missing in action

South Vietnam 230,000 killed and 1,169,763 wounded (estimated)

North Vietnam 1,100,000 killed in action (estimated) and an unknown number of wounded



Key Figures

  • Ho Chi Minh – Communist leader of North Vietnam until his death in 1969.

  • Vo Nguyen Giap – North Vietnamese general who planned the Tet and Easter Offensives.

  • Ngo Dinh Diem – unpopular leader of South Vietnam until assassination in 1963

  • General William Westmoreland – Commander of US forces in Vietnam, 1964-1968.

  • General Creighton Abrams – Commander of US forces in Vietnam, 1968-1973.

Top Essentials to Know About the Vietnam War Name:

http://americanhistory.about.com/od/vietnam/tp/vietnam-war.htm




Examine Americans Ch. 22 (p. 728-765) & Alive! Ch. 51-53 (p. 654-693)
By Martin Kelly
The Vietnam War was a cause of much controversy in the United States. One of the first things to realize about the war is that it was a progressive thing. What began as a small group of 'advisors' under President ended up with over a total of 2.5 million American involved. Here are the top essentials to understanding the Vietnam War.
1. Beginning of American Involvement in Vietnam

America began sending aid to the fighting in Vietnam and the rest of Indochina in the late 1940s. France was fighting Communist rebels led by Chi Minh. It wasn't until Chi Minh defeated the French in 195 that America became officially involved in trying to defeat the in Vietnam. This began with financial aid and military advisors sent to help the South Vietnamese as they fought Northern Communists fighting in the South. The U.S. worked with Dinh Diem and other leaders to set up a separate government in the South.


2. Domino Theory

With the fall of Vietnam to the Communists in 1954, President Dwight Eisenhower explained America's stance in a press conference. As Eisenhower stated when asked about the strategic importance of Indochina: "...you have broader considerations that might follow what you would call the ' domino' principle. You have a row of dominoes set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly...." In other words, the fear was that if Vietnam fell completely to communism, this would . This Domino Theory was the central reason for America's continued involvement in Vietnam over the years.


3. Gulf of Tonkin Incident

Over time, American involvement continued to . During the presidency of , an event occurred that resulted in an escalation in the war. In August 1964, it was reported that the North Vietnamese attacked the USS in international waters. Controversy still exists over the actual details of this event but the result is undeniable. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that allowed Johnson to increase America's military involvement. It allowed him to "take all necessary to repel any armed attack...and to prevent further aggression." Johnson and used this as a mandate to fight in Vietnam for years to come.


4. Operation Rolling Thunder

In early 1965, the staged an attack against a Marine barracks that killed eight and injured over a hundred. This was called the Pleiku Raid. President Johnson, using the Resolution as his authority, ordered the air force and navy forward in Operation Rolling Thunder to . His hope was that the Viet Cong would realize America's resolve to win and stop it in its tracks. However, it seemed to have the effect. This quickly led to further escalation as Johnson ordered more troops into the country. By 1968, there were more than ,000 troops committed to fighting in Vietnam.



5. Tet Offensive

On January 31, 19 , the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong launched a major attack on the South during Tet, or the Vietnamese . This was called the Tet Offensive. American forces were able to repel and seriously injure the attackers. However, the effect of the Tet Offensive was severe at . Critics of the war increased and



against the war began to occur across the country.
6. Opposition at Home

The Vietnam War caused a great among the American population. Further, as news of the became widespread, opposition to the war greatly increased. Many college students fought against the war through campus demonstrations. The most tragic of these demonstrations occurred on May 4, 1970 at University in Ohio. Four students staging a protest demonstration were killed by national guardsmen. Antiwar sentiment also arose in the which further fed the demonstrations and protests. Many of the popular of the time were written in protest to the war such as "Where Have All the Flowers Gone," and "Blowing in the Wind."


7. Pentagon Papers

In June 1971, the New York Times published leaked - Defense Department documents known as the Pentagon Papers. These documents showed that the government had in public statements about how the military involvement and progress of the war in Vietnam. This confirmed the worst fears of the anti-war movement. It also increased the amount of public outcry against the war. By 1971, over 2/3 of the American population wanted President to order troop withdrawals from Vietnam.


8. Paris Peace Accords

During most of 1972, President Richard Nixon sent Henry to negotiate a ceasefire with the North Vietnamese. A temporary ceasefire was completed in October 1972 which helped secure Nixon's reelection as president. By January 27, 1973, America and North Vietnam signed the Accords which ended the war. This included the immediate release of American prisoners and the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam within 60 days. The Accords were to include the end of hostilities in Vietnam. However, soon after America left the country, fighting broke out again eventually resulting in victory for the Vietnamese in 1975. There were over ,000 American deaths in Vietnam and more than 150,000 .



Vietnam 101: A Short Introduction


Examine Americans Ch. 22 (p. 728-765) & Alive! Ch. 51-53 (p. 654-693)
http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/vietnamwar/p/VietnamBrief.htm

By Kennedy Hickman




"Home is where you dig" was the sign over the fighting bunker of Private First Class Edward, Private First Class Falls and Private First Class Morgan of the 1st Battalion, 7th Regiment, during Operation Worth. 1968

Photograph Courtesy of the National Archives & Records Administration
vietnam 101: a short introduction
The Vietnam War occurred in present-day Vietnam, Southeast . It represented a successful attempt on the part of the (North Vietnam, DRV) and the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam ( ) to unite and impose a system over the entire nation. Opposing the DRV was the Republic of Vietnam ( Vietnam, RVN), backed by the United States. The war in Vietnam occurred during the War, and is generally viewed as an indirect between the United States and Soviet Union, with each nation and its allies supporting one side.
When was the Vietnam War?

The most commonly used dates for the conflict are 1959-1975. This period begins with North Vietnam's first attacks against the South and ends with the fall of . American ground forces were directly involved in the war between 196 and 197 .


Causes

The Vietnam War first began in 1959, five years after the division of the country by the Geneva Accords. Vietnam had been split into two, with a communist government in the north under and a democratic government in the south under . Ho launched a guerilla campaign in South Vietnam, led by Viet Cong units, with the goal of uniting the country under communist rule. The United States, seeking to stop the spread of communism, trained the Army of the (ARVN) and provided military advisors to help combat the guerillas.


Americanization of the War

In August 1964, a US was attacked by North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin. Following this attack, Congress passed the Southeast Asia Resolution which allowed President Lyndon Johnson to conduct military operations in the region a declaration of war. On March 2, 1965, US aircraft began bombing targets in Vietnam and the first troops arrived. Commanded by General , US troops won victories over Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces around Chu Lai and in the Ia Drang Valley that summer.



The Tet Offensive

Following these defeats, the North Vietnamese fighting conventional battles and focused on engaging US troops in small unit actions in the sweltering jungles of South Vietnam. In January 196 , the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong launched the massive Tet Offensive. Beginning with an assault on US Marines at , the offensive included attacks by the Viet Cong on cities throughout South Vietnam. Though the North Vietnamese were beaten back with heavy , Tet shook the confidence of the people and media who had thought the war was going well.


Vietnamization

As a result of Tet, President Lyndon Johnson opted not to run for and was succeeded by Richard Nixon. Nixon's plan for ending US involvement was to build up the so that they could fight the war themselves. As this process of “Vietnamization” began, US troops started to return home. The of the government that had begun after Tet worsened with the release of news about US soldiers massacring civilians at (1969), the invasion of (1970), and the leaking of the (1971).


End of the War and the Fall of Saigon

The withdrawal of US troops continued and more responsibility was passed to the ARVN, which continued to prove in combat, often relying on American support to stave off defeat. On January 27, 1973, a accord was signed in Paris ending the conflict. By March of that year, American combat troops had left the country. After a brief period of peace, North Vietnam recommenced hostilities in late 1974. Pushing through ARVN forces with ease, they captured the on April 30, 1975, forcing South Vietnam’s surrender and reuniting the country.


Casualties

United States: 5 ,119 killed, 1 ,303 wounded, 1,948 mia = in



Vietnam 230,000 killed and 1,169,763 wounded (estimated)

North Vietnam ,100,000 killed in action (estimated) and an unknown number of wounded


Key Figures

  • – Communist leader of North Vietnam until his death in 1969.

  • Vo Nguyen Giap – North Vietnamese general who planned the and Easter Offensives.

  • – unpopular leader of South Vietnam until assassination in 1963

  • General William – Commander of US forces in Vietnam, 1964-1968.

  • General Creighton Abrams – Commander of US forces in Vietnam, 1968-1973.


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